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8 Characteristics
 Farmers settled in fertile river valleys
 Grew surplus (extra) food
 Led to an increase in population
 Settlements grew into cities
 Examples: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and
the Indus River Valley
Governments run by
councils or religious leaders
develop to safeguard (to
protect) food supply and
irrigation systems
Provide defense
 Religious leaders conducted elaborate
ceremonies (rituals) to appease the gods
(polytheism) and insure a good harvest.
 Drought and floods blamed on the
anger of the gods.
 In time, many civilizations adopted monotheistic
religious beliefs.
 As civilizations became more complex,
artisans and craftsmen were needed to
build and maintain specific items and tasks.
No longer could individuals do all the work
 Some concentrated on teaching, scribing,
stonecutting, etc.
 As jobs became more specialized so did the
status and needs of individuals.
 A social hierarchy was created:
 Kings, warriors, and religious leaders were on
the top rung.
 Herders and slaves were on the bottom rung.
 Records were needed to keep accounts on trade
goods and food storage.
 Writing necessary because the information was
too great.
 Ideas, such as belief and social order needed to
be expressed --- pictures and simple words
would not suffice.
Expressed the beliefs and values of a people
Different styles were developed and copied by
 Art used to impress visitors and people about the
beauty and power of a king or community
Government would order
these to be built
Very expensive, but would
benefit the community
 Wall to protect a city from
 Canal for irrigation