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8 Characteristics
 Farmers settled in fertile river valleys
 Grew surplus (extra) food
 Led to an increase in population
 Settlements grew into cities
 Examples: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and
the Indus River Valley
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Reconstruction_of_Ancient_Jerusalem.jpg
http://www.awesomestories.com/assets/athens
http://www.penfall.com/architecture/back-by-popular-demand-googlegap-but-with-cooler-graphics

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Governments run by
councils or religious leaders
develop to safeguard (to
protect) food supply and
irrigation systems
Provide defense
HTTP://WWW.DREGATE.COM/CLIPART/CLIPART3/PAGES/MEDIEVAL%20C
OUNCIL.HTM
 Religious leaders conducted elaborate
ceremonies (rituals) to appease the gods
(polytheism) and insure a good harvest.
 Drought and floods blamed on the
anger of the gods.
http://www.carnaval.com/greece/festivals
http://meynu.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/gods-of-ancient-egypt.jpg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_-Qnopyq_sDE/TMNO8FlAgLI/AAAAAAAAAMo/WoNsSrROH5g/s1600/image84532543.jpg
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 In time, many civilizations adopted monotheistic
religious beliefs.
 As civilizations became more complex,
artisans and craftsmen were needed to
build and maintain specific items and tasks.
No longer could individuals do all the work
 Some concentrated on teaching, scribing,
stonecutting, etc.
 As jobs became more specialized so did the
status and needs of individuals.
 A social hierarchy was created:
 Kings, warriors, and religious leaders were on
the top rung.
 Herders and slaves were on the bottom rung.
http://library.thinkquest.org/C004203/social/social01.htm
 Records were needed to keep accounts on trade
goods and food storage.
 Writing necessary because the information was
too great.
 Ideas, such as belief and social order needed to
be expressed --- pictures and simple words
would not suffice.
http://www.truton.com/2BIOLOGY/ChineseMind.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cuneiform
http://thomas09.wordpress.com/2008/05/12/travel-journal/hieroglypics
Expressed the beliefs and values of a people
Different styles were developed and copied by
societies
 Art used to impress visitors and people about the
beauty and power of a king or community


http://www.fanpop.com/spots/ancient-greece

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Government would order
these to be built
Very expensive, but would
benefit the community
Examples:
 Wall to protect a city from
attack
 Canal for irrigation
http://www.authorama.com/ancient-china-simplified-22.html
http://www.the-world-heritage-sites.com/ping-yao-worldheritage-site_china.htm