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Lesson 2a – Ancient History Areas we’ll cover • • • • • Mesopotamia Egypt Phoenicia Assyria Hebrews • • • • • Greeks Romans Persia Byzantium Islam The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization” Sumerians Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic Enki Innana Anthropomorphic Gods Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing Cuneiform Writing Deciphering Cuneiform Your Name Sumerian Scribes “Tablet House” Ziggurat at Ur Temple “Mountain of the Gods” The Babylonian Empires Babylonian Numbers On p. 36 there’s a Primary Source box on Hammurabi’s Code Answer #2 of the Skills question in this box. A View of The Nile by Satellite The Annual Flooding of the Nile Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf Ancient Egyptian History Periods Time Frame Nile Culture Begins Archaic Old Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Kingdom 3900 B. C. E. 3100 – 2650 B. C. E. 2650 – 2134 B. C. E. 2040 – 1640 B. C. E. 1550 – 1070 B. C. E. Late Period Greek Ptolemaic Era 750 – 332 B. C. E. 332 – 30 B. C. E. Roman Period 30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E. Making Ancient Egyptian Beer Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs Tutankhamon 1336-1327 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E. Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship 1 10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 What number is this? Hieroglyphic “Cartouche” Champollion & the Rosetta Stone Hieroglyphics “Alphabet” 24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols Your Name Egyptian Gods & Goddesses: “The Sacred ‘Trinity’” Osiris Isis Horus Egyptian Mummies Seti I 1291-1278 B. C. E. Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep II 1210-1200 B. C. E. Ramses II 1279-1212 B. C. E. Egyptian Book of the Dead The Final Judgement Anubis Horus Osiris Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara Giza Pyramid Complex The Valley of the Kings Ankhenaton: First Monotheist? 1352-1336 B. C. E. Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922) Entrance to King “Tut’s” Tomb King Tutankhamon’s Death Mask 1336-1327 B. C. E. King Tutankhamon The Valley of the Queens 1473-1458 B. C. E. Temple of Queen Hatshepsut The Ankh – The “Cross” of Life Abu Simbel: Monument to Ramses II 1279-1213 B. C. E. On p. 65 there’s an Interpreting Skills box Hammurabi’s Code Answer Draw Conclusions question. Phoenician Sea Routes Phoenician Alphabet On p. 43 there’s a map. Why would it be handy for Phoenicians To be experts at different languages? The Assyrian Empire Assyrian Military Power Assyrian soldiers carrying away the enemy’s gods. Babylon under the Chaldeans Ishtar Gate On p. 41 there’s a quote. What does this say about the Assyrians? Abraham’s Journey from Ur Canaan The “Promised Land” Abraham’s Journeys Moses “Prince of Egypt” “Shepherd of His People” The Exodus Route of the Exodus King David’s Empire Solomon’s Kingdom Alexander the Great & the Hellenization of the Near East Herod the Great’s Kingdom On p. 46, read the last paragraph. What do the Ten Commandments say About Jewish society? Roman Palestine The Spread of Christianity On p. 186, read the first paragraph. How was is that the Christians convinced Others to become Christians? The Jewish Diaspora The Persian Empire Cyrus the Great A tolerant ruler he allowed different cultures within his empire to keep their own institutions. The Greeks called him a “Law-Giver.” 580 – 529 B. C. E. The Jews called him “the anointed of the Lord.” (In 537, he allowed over 40,000 to return to Palestine). Darius the Great (526 – 485 B. C. E.) Built Persepolis. He extended the Persian Empire to the Indus River in northern India. (2 mil. s.q. mi.) Built a canal in Egypt. Persian “Royal Road” Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE: Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words “Tree of Life” Dualistic Battle of Good vs. Evil Ahura Mazda “Holy Spirit” Ahriman “Destructive Spirit” On p. 54-55, read the paragraph that starts On p. 54 and finishes on 55. What does this system say about the Persians? The Roman Empire Divided in 294 Constantine’s City--Constantinopolis Year 335 AD Barbarian Invasions of the Roman Empire Constantinople: A Greek City (Istanbul Today) Emperor Justinian [r. 527-564] Justinian’s Empire at its Peak Church of Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom] Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia On p. 353. Look around the page, and then Describe the Hagia Sophia in 3 words. Expansion of the Muslims 622-632 Under Muhammad 632-661 Under Patriarchal Caliphate 661-750 Under Umayyad Caliphate The Golden Age of the Ottomans The Ottoman Capital -- Constantinople “Golden Horn” from space “Golden Horn” Sunset on the “Golden Horn” Europeans vs. Turks CRUSADES 1095-1295 Series of wars Nine major and 12+ minor crusades Was a push back by Christians to retake land from Muslims The Fall of Constantinople: 1453 (Muslims push back) The End of the Byzantine Empire Battle of Lepanto (1571) (Spanish Christians push back) The Ottoman Empire During the 16c On p. 263 Expansion of Territory. How was it that the Muslims got areas To be Islam, as comparison to how the Christians did it?