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Lesson 2a – Ancient History
Areas we’ll cover
The Ancient Fertile Crescent Area
The Middle East: “The Cradle of Civilization”
Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic
Anthropomorphic Gods
Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing
Cuneiform Writing
Deciphering Cuneiform
Your Name
Sumerian Scribes
“Tablet House”
Ziggurat at Ur
 Temple
 “Mountain of
the Gods”
The Babylonian Empires
Babylonian Numbers
On p. 36 there’s a Primary Source box on
Hammurabi’s Code
Answer #2 of the Skills question in this box.
A View of The Nile by Satellite
The Annual Flooding of the Nile
Nile Irrigation-the Shaduf
Ancient Egyptian History
Time Frame
Nile Culture Begins
Old Kingdom
Middle Kingdom
New Kingdom
3900 B. C. E.
3100 – 2650 B. C. E.
2650 – 2134 B. C. E.
2040 – 1640 B. C. E.
1550 – 1070 B. C. E.
Late Period
Greek Ptolemaic Era
750 – 332 B. C. E.
332 – 30 B. C. E.
Roman Period
30 B. C. E. – 395 C. E.
Making Ancient Egyptian Beer
Some Famous Egyptian Pharaohs
1336-1327 B. C. E.
Ramses II
1279-1212 B. C. E.
Egyptian Math & Draftsmenship
10 100 1000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000
What number is this?
Champollion & the Rosetta Stone
Hieroglyphics “Alphabet”
24 “letters” + 700 phonetic symbols
Your Name
Egyptian Gods & Goddesses:
“The Sacred ‘Trinity’”
Egyptian Mummies
Seti I
1291-1278 B. C. E.
Queen Tiye, wife of
Amenhotep II
1210-1200 B. C. E.
Ramses II
1279-1212 B. C. E.
Egyptian Book of the Dead
The Final Judgement
Stepped Pyramid at Saqqara
Giza Pyramid Complex
The Valley of the Kings
Ankhenaton: First Monotheist?
1352-1336 B. C. E.
Archaeologist, Howard Carter (1922)
Entrance to King “Tut’s” Tomb
King Tutankhamon’s Death Mask
1336-1327 B. C. E.
King Tutankhamon
The Valley of the Queens
1473-1458 B. C. E.
Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
The Ankh – The “Cross” of Life
Abu Simbel:
Monument to Ramses II
1279-1213 B. C. E.
On p. 65 there’s an Interpreting Skills box
Hammurabi’s Code
Answer Draw Conclusions question.
Phoenician Sea Routes
Phoenician Alphabet
On p. 43 there’s a map.
Why would it be handy for Phoenicians
To be experts at different languages?
The Assyrian Empire
Assyrian Military Power
Assyrian soldiers
carrying away the
enemy’s gods.
Babylon under the Chaldeans
On p. 41 there’s a quote.
What does this say about the Assyrians?
Abraham’s Journey from Ur
Canaan  The “Promised Land”
Abraham’s Journeys
“Prince of Egypt”
“Shepherd of His People”
The Exodus
Route of the Exodus
King David’s Empire
Alexander the Great & the
Hellenization of the Near East
Herod the Great’s Kingdom
On p. 46, read the last paragraph.
What do the Ten Commandments say
About Jewish society?
Roman Palestine
The Spread of Christianity
On p. 186, read the first paragraph.
How was is that the Christians convinced
Others to become Christians?
The Jewish
The Persian Empire
Cyrus the Great
 A tolerant ruler  he allowed
different cultures within his
empire to keep their own
 The Greeks called him a
580 – 529 B. C. E.
 The Jews called him “the
anointed of the Lord.” (In 537,
he allowed over 40,000 to
return to Palestine).
Darius the Great
(526 – 485 B. C. E.)
 Built Persepolis.
 He extended the
Persian Empire to the
Indus River in northern
India. (2 mil. s.q. mi.)
 Built a canal in Egypt.
Persian “Royal Road”
Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 6c BCE:
Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words
“Tree of Life”
Dualistic Battle of
Good vs. Evil
Ahura Mazda
“Holy Spirit”
“Destructive Spirit”
On p. 54-55, read the paragraph that starts
On p. 54 and finishes on 55.
What does this system say about the
The Roman Empire Divided in 294
Constantine’s City--Constantinopolis
Year 335 AD
Barbarian Invasions of the Roman Empire
Constantinople: A Greek City
(Istanbul Today)
Emperor Justinian [r. 527-564]
Justinian’s Empire at its Peak
Church of Hagia Sophia [Holy Wisdom]
Interior of the Church of Hagia Sophia
On p. 353. Look around the page, and then
Describe the Hagia Sophia in 3 words.
Expansion of the Muslims
622-632 Under Muhammad
632-661 Under Patriarchal Caliphate
661-750 Under Umayyad Caliphate
The Golden Age of the Ottomans
The Ottoman Capital -- Constantinople
“Golden Horn” from
“Golden Horn”
Sunset on the “Golden Horn”
Europeans vs. Turks
CRUSADES 1095-1295
Series of wars
Nine major and 12+ minor crusades
Was a push back by Christians to retake land from Muslims
The Fall of Constantinople: 1453
(Muslims push back)
The End of the Byzantine Empire
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
(Spanish Christians push back)
The Ottoman Empire During the 16c
On p. 263 Expansion of Territory.
How was it that the Muslims got areas
To be Islam, as comparison to how the
Christians did it?