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CHAPTER 2
EARLY SOUTHWEST ASIA
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Complex
Urban
Specialists
Socio/cultural
Mesopotamia
CIVILIZATION
SUMERIANS
• Writing
CUNEIFORM
• Poems
• Heroism
• Good vs. Evil
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
BABYLONIANS
• 300 laws
• Adultery, slavery, prostitution
• Punishment
CODE OF HAMMURABI
• What protections did women have in Babylonian law?
Why is it clear that this was a patriarchal society?
• What kind of economy did Babylonia have? How were
economic disputes settled?
• Are these laws similar to laws in our modern societies?
• Math
• Astronomy
SCIENCES
• Not before 10,000 bce
• Widespread: 4,000 bce
• Wheat/barley
• Fermentation
• Flavors
• Trial and errors
BEER
• “They placed food in front of him, they placed beer in
front of him; Enkidu knew nothing about eating bread for
food, and of drinking beer he had not been taught. The
young woman spoke to Enkidu saying: Drink the beer, as
is the custom of the land. He drank the beer-seven jugs!and became expansive and sang with joy.”
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
• Religious
• Supernatural forces
• Today?
• Drink to: good health, happy marriage, etc.
• Healthy?
• Boiled water
• Protein, Vitamin B
BEER
• Settled, orderly life vs. pre-agricultural times
• Payment
• Laborers, officials, bride price
• Friendly, unpretentious social interaction
• Throughout history?
BEER
• 1800 bce to Palestine
• Religion
• Old Testament
• Yahweh
• Impact?
HEBREWS
• Hebrews
• Trade with Egypt, Mesopotamia
• Egypt:
• architecture, math, writing
• Mesopotamia:
• political traditions
The Mediterranean Region