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Early Societies of
Southwest
Asia
The Ancient Fertile Crescent
Area
I. Mesopotamia
 Land between the
____________.
 Fertile crescent
 John Green's crash course
Sumerians
Akkadians
Babylonians
Kassites
Hittites
Assyrians
Medes
Chaldeans
Persia
Akkadians
2340-2125 BC
Amorites
1800-1530 BC
Sumeria
3500-1800 BC
Mesopotamian
Civilization
Hittites
1600-717 BC
Chaldeans
612-539 BC
Assyrians
1170-612 BC
Kassites
1530-1170 BC
Sumerian Religion Polytheistic
Enki
Innana
Anthropomorphic
Gods
Ziggurat at Ur
 Temple
 “Mountain
of
the Gods”
The Mesopotamian City
•
• Towns gradually
outgrew themselves
and became walled
cities.
City states, large population
groups ruled by all powerful
kings grew in the place of the
town. Famous sites such as Ur,
Uruk, and Eridu are examples.
Deciphering Cuneiform
The Great LawgiverHammurabi
• Complex societies
required codified legal
systems
• Examples:
• “An Eye For An Eye”
Hammurabi’s Code
 If a man has stolen goods from a temple, or house, he shall
be put to death; and he that has received the stolen
property from him shall be put to death.
 If a patrician has stolen ox, sheep, ass, pig, or ship,
whether from a temple, or a house, he shall pay thirtyfold.
If he be a plebeian, he shall return tenfold. If the thief
cannot pay, he shall be put to death.
 if a man has induced either a male or a female slave from
the house of a patrician, or plebeian, to leave the city, he
shall be put to death.
 If a man's wife be caught lying with another, they shall be
strangled and cast into the water. If the wife's husband
would save his wife, the king can save his servant.
Cuneiform Writing
Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped”
Writing
Babylonian Math
Gilgamesh
II. Lydians, Phoenicians, and
Hebrews, Oh My!
Lydians
1st to have coined money
Phoenicians •Developed a simple alphabet that had 22 letters
•Powerful naval state , built a trading empire
Hebrews
Monotheistic people started the Jewish faith
Phoenician Sea Routes
Phoenician City of Byblos:
“Home of the Alphabet”
Phoenician Alphabet
Carthage: Phoenicia’s
Mightiest Colony
Moses
“Prince of Egypt”
“Shepherd of His
Moses and the 10
Commandments
A new “covenant”
with Yahweh
Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His
People
 The first 5
books
of the Hebrew
Bible.
The Torah
 The most
sacred
text in the
Jewish
religious
tradition.
Abraham’s Geneaology
HAGAR
ABRAHAM
Ishmael
12 Arabian
Tribes
SARAH
Isaac
Jacob
12 Tribes of
Israel
Esau
Ancient Palestine
The Exodus
The Exodus
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem
Today
Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall
King David’s Empire
What forms of writing developed in
ancient civilizations?
 Cuneiform developed in Mesopotamia
 Egypt had its famous hieroglyphs
 The Phoenician alphabet originated on the eastern shores of
the Mediterranean
Where did the earliest civilizations
develop, and why did they develop in
those locations?
 They developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt, modern day
Pakistan, and China. They were all located near rivers that
flooded somewhat regularly. This allowed for easier farming
as people did not have to work as much for food, and decided
to settle down and lead sedentary lives.
What are the characteristics and core
teachings of Judaism?
 Through a covenant with God, followers of Judaism who
abided by “the Law”, were promised deliverance