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Transcript
Chapter Four
Questions for the Day

What needed to be added/rejected from the
models?

What was the Copernican Revolution?
The Dark Times
The Ptolemaic Model was accepted through
out 100 B.C. to 1500 A.D. in the western
world.
 His book the Almagest was the most widely
read astronomy text.
 Many leaders created tables of the stars and
planets based on the Ptolemaic models.

What needed to be
added/rejected to the models?

Added
– The uneven motion of the planets along the
ecliptic including retrograde motion.
– An simple explanation for stellar parallax.

Rejected
– Harmony and symmetry in the heavens.
– The size of the sun, moon system.
What was the Copernican
Revolution?

Nicholas Copernicus
– Heliocentric Universe
– Motions of Earth and Planets

Tycho Brahe
– Observations of Planets
– Observation of stars, astrometry

Johannes Kepler
– Modeling Brahe’s observations
– Brings physics into astronomical models.
Nicholaus Copernicus

1473 – 1543 A.D.

Born in Poland.

Studied medicine in
Krakow,
Bologna,
Rome, Padua, and
Ferrar.
http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Copernicus.html
Development of the Copernican
Model

1541
– He wrote a summary to Georg Rheticus about his ideas
of the universe.
– Based on a book he was writing for 20 years.

Georg Rheticus
– Encouraged Copernicus to publish his results
– De Relutionibus Orbium Caelestium (On the
Revolutions of the Heavenly Orbits) which was similar
to Ptolemy’s Almagest.

Suffered a stroke in 1543, book published on his
deathbed.
The Copernican Model





All heavenly bodies orbit the Sun.
The stars are much further than the Sun.
The diurnal motion is explained by Earth’s
rotation.
The Earth revolves around the sun along with the
other heavenly bodies.
Retrograde motion is explained by the relative
motion of the bodies around the sun.
Results of the Copernican Model


Earth passes other planets at opposition.
Introduced the ideas synodic period (geocentric)
versus sidereal period (heliocentric)
P  siderial period
S  synodic period
1
1
1


; superior planets
P
PEarth
S
1
1
1


; inferior
P
PEarth
S
planets
Sidereal Period of Venus
1
1
1


P
PEar t h
S
PEar t h  1 year
S  1.60 years
1
1 
1

 1 

P
1.6  years

1
1.63

P
years
1 year  P1.63
P  0.62 years
Planetary Configurations
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/configurations.gif
Results of the Copernican Model

The distance from the Earth to Sun, the
Astronomical Unit (A.U.)

Relative distances of the planets
– Found by elongation for inferior planets
– Found by intersection of opposition for superior
planets.
Method of Greatest Elongation
http://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/ExploringtheCosmos/assign2a.html
Method of Intersection of
Oppositions
http://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/ExploringtheCosmos/assign2a.html
Problems of the Copernican
Model
Did not predict any better positional results
than Ptolemaic.
 Also, the model did not include any
physical force that moved Earth and the
planets, just merely a new geometrical
model.
 Violated Aristotelian physics, therefore not
widely accepted, even censored in Italy.

Tycho Brahe





1546 – 1601 A.D.
Born in Skane, Denmark
Raised by his uncle in
Denmark
Traveled Germany and
learned about the law
Served
as
court
astronomer to Fredrick II
in Germany
http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/People/tycho_brahe.html
Tycho’s Observations

1576 to 1591 A.D.

Made in Unniborg, The Castle of the
Heavens.

The science of astrometry was born by the
observation of position of planets and stars.
The Discovery of a Nova
A nova, a star’s death, was witnessed in the
constellation of Cassiopeia in 1572.
 Tycho observed the star from different
locales on Earth.
 Discovered that the stars did not change
position depending the location on Earth.
 Result: Stars too far away for stellar
parallax

Tycho in Prague

Moved to the university in Prague when
Fredrick II died.

Embraced the geocentric model in his later
years due to his observations

Took on a young Johannes Kepler as an
assistant.
Johannes Kepler

1571 – 1630 A.D.

Born in Wielder Stadt,
Germany

Father was executed
for being a mercenary;
mother accused of
witchcraft.
http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/timeline/people/antiqueimages/kepler.jpg
Jupiter and Saturn


Conjunctions seemed to occur at regular intervals.
Kepler noted at 1 to 2 ratio of their radii using the
Copernican method.
– Compared to the 1 to 1.8 ratio Copernicus received


Led to a idea that different basic shapes could
explain the different planetary distances
Published Mysterium Cosmographicum in 1594 to
explain his results.
Tycho & Kepler

Met in Prague in February 4, 1600

Incompatible in life because of Kepler’s
religious devotion and Tycho’s courtly
adventures.

But Tycho softened in death and gave
Kepler his observations on Mars.
Kepler’s First Law
Kepler’s Second Law
Kepler’s Third Law
P  period (in Earth years )
a  semimajor axis (in A.U .)
P a
2
3
Kepler’s Third Law
Keplers Third Law Interactive
Period of Venus
a  0.7233 A.U .
P
2
 a
P
2
 (0.7233)
3
3
P 2  0.3784
P

0.3784
P  0.62 years
2
Homework 4
The synodic period of Mars is 2.14 years,
what is its sidereal period? The synodic
period of Mercury is 0.32, what is its
sidereal period?
 Post to “Baby Steps” one the blog with a
three paragraph post that explains the
differences between the ideas of the
Geocentrists and Heliocentrists.
 Page 76, Problems 11, 14, 16
