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Transcript
UNIT NINE: Matter and Motion
in the Universe
 Chapter 26 The Solar System
 Chapter 27 Stars
 Chapter 28 Exploring the Universe
Chapter Twenty-Seven: Stars
 27.1 The Sun
 27.2 Stars
 27.3 The Life Cycle of Stars
Chapter 27.2 Learning Goals
 Compare the Sun to other stars.
 Interpret an H-R diagram.
 Explain how stars are classified.
Investigation 27A
Stars and Spectroscopy
 Key Question:
What are stars
made of?
27.2 Classifying Stars
 Astronomers classify
stars according to:




size/mass,
temperature,
color, and
brightness.
27.2 The size of stars

Stars come in a range
of sizes and masses.

Our Sun is a mediumsized star.

The largest stars,
giant stars have a
mass of about 60
times the mass of the
Sun.
27.2 The size of stars

There are two types of
giant stars.

Red giants are cooler
than white stars.

Blue giant stars are hot
and much more
massive than our sun.
27.2 The size of stars
 Stars that are smaller
than the sun come in
two main categories,
dwarfs and neutron
stars.
 Sirius, the Dog Star, is
the largest known
white dwarf.
27.2 Temperature and color
 If you look closely at the stars on a clear night,
you might see a slight reddish or bluish tint to
some stars.
 This is because their surface temperatures are
different.
27.2 Temperature and color
 The color of light is related to its
energy.
 White light is a mixture of all colors at
equal brightness.
27.2 Brightness and luminosity
 Brightness, also
called intensity,
describes the
amount of light
energy per second
falling on a surface.
27.2 Brightness and luminosity
 For a distant source of light like a star,
the brightness decreases as the
inverse square of the distance.
27.2 Brightness and luminosity
 Luminosity is the total
amount of light given off
by a star in all directions.
 Luminosity is a
fundamental property of a
star whereas brightness
depends on both
luminosity and distance.
27.2 Temperature and luminosity
 In the early 1900s, Danish astronomer
Ejnar Hertzsprung and American
astronomer Henry Russell developed
an important tool for studying stars.
 Their graph showed luminosity on the
y axis…
 …and surface temperature on the
x axis
27.2 Temperature and luminosity
 H-R diagrams are useful because they help
astronomers categorize stars into groups:
 Main sequence stars, like the Sun, are in a very
stable part of their life cycle.
 White dwarfs are hot and dim and cannot be seen
without a telescope.
 Red giants are cool and bright and some can be
seen without a telescope.
Can you locate blue giants on the H-R diagram?