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Transcript
World History 1500 to
Present
Unit 1 Vocabulary: World Empires and
Religions circa 1500 AD; Renaissance,
Reformation and Scientific Revolution Intro
SOLs: 1 a-e; 2 a-d; 3 a-c; 6 a-c; 14 a,b
How do we LEARN terms?
• RECALL
– “Know it:
• ANALYZE
– “Understand it”
• APPLY
– “DO something
with that
demonstrates that
you really get it!”
Civilization
• This is a complex culture in which large
numbers of human beings share a
number of common elements.
Key Features of Civilization
• Cities
• Well organized
government
• Complex Religion
• Job Specialization
• Social Classes
• Arts &
Architecture
• Public Works
• Writing
Locate the earliest human civilizations….
1.Know the Rivers/regions
2.Identify Main Religion
Theology
• This is the study of religion and God
which was the most highly regarded
subject of the medieval university.
•Name the 5
major world
religions
•Founders,
books, tenets,
and geographic
distribution
from CivPresent
http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/Religion.swf
Four Noble Truths
• This is the basic beliefs of Buddhism
that most of life’s suffering is caused
by our desires for self-satisfaction.
*All life is suffering *Suffering stops when
greed stops
*Suffering from
Greed
* Stop greed by following 8
fold path
Caste System
• This is a rigid set of social categories
that determined a person’s occupation
and position in society.
Ten Commandments
• This was the set of guidelines revealed
to Moses by God on Mount Sinai as
part of the covenant between God and
the Hebrews.
Hammurabi
• This person was ruler of a
Mesopotamian kingdom who built
many temples and encouraged trade,
but is best remembered for his superstrict law code.
Tikal
• This was a large Mayan City in
present day Guatemala that may have
had a hundred thousand inhabitants.
Chichen Itza
• Ancient city of the Mayan Indians
located in the northern center of the
Yucatán Peninsula of present-day
Mexico.
12-23-2012!!
El Castillo
Tenochtitlan
• Island city that was the Aztec capital
where present day Mexico City is
located.
CORTES
Black Death
• The most devastating natural disaster
in European history which killed about
1/3 of the population.
SEE a DR.
ASAP!!!!!
Great Schism
• This was a conflict within the Catholic
Church when two popes, one French
and one Italian, were elected at the
same time and the disputes that
followed weakened the political and
spiritual authority of the Catholic
Church.
This “schism” was the
Western Roman
Church…not the
Eastern/Western Schism”
Leonardo da Vinci
• This multi-talented Italian artist,
painter, inventor, sculptor, architect
and mathematician was the ultimate
Renaissance man and even cut up dead
bodies to better illustrate the human
form in his art.
Medici Family
• This was a powerful banking family
from Florence that financed much of
the Renaissance through their
patronage of artists and inspiration to
writers.
Giovanni Di Bicci
Cosimo
I
Cosimo
il
Vecchio
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Niccolo Machiavelli
• This writer of the Renaissance believed
that the key to gaining and maintaining
power was to not let oneself be
restricted by moral principles. He was
one of the first political writers to
abandon morality as a basis for
analyzing political power.
It is better to be
feared than
loved
The end
justifies the
Means
Never take
advice from a
subordinate
The Prince
• One of the most influential books on
political power in the Western world,
this work has stood the test of time as a
handbook on how to achieve political
power at any cost.
Cesare Borgia,
son of Pope
Alexander VI
Renaissance
• This was an intellectual and artistic
movement based on the renewed
interest in the classical heritage of
Greeks and Romans. It began in Italy
and spread throughout Europe.
3.
1.
2.
4.
Protestant Reformation
• This was the religious movement that
divided the Western Catholic Church in
the early 1500s and created numerous
Christian sects that are still in existence
today.
“THE CHURCH”
=Roman Catholic
1054 AD
1st E/W Schism =
Roman Catholicism
1378 -1417 AD =
“The Great Schism
Eastern Orthodox
based in
Constantinople
Martin Luther
95 Theses
starts the
Protestant
Reformation
John Calvin
Theocracy
predestination
King Henry VIII
England
Under Elizabeth I,
Anglican
In America,
Episcopal
Huguenots = French
Presbyterians = Scotland
Pilgrims = Protestant
Separatists in America
Catholic Counter-Reformation
• This was the official Church response
to the divisive Christian reform
movement that included the founding
of the Jesuits, the reform of the
papacy, the decrees of the Council of
Trent,… and the establishment of
courts of the Inquisition.
1560 -1648 (After conclusion of
Thirty Years War in Europe)
• Society of Jesus,
Jesuits
• More
missionaries sent
• Strengthened
Inquisition
• 1545 @ Council of
Trent….clarified
doctrines
• Made several changes
based on complaints of
Protestants
Johann Tetzel
• This monk sold indulgences to German
Christians, telling them they could buy
forgiveness for their sins and for the
sins of family members already dead.
• German Dominican
friar
• Disgusted Martin
Luther to write his
95 theses (reasons
the Catholic Church
needed to shape up)
Martin Luther
• This German monk and Bible
professor believed that Christians
could achieve salvation through faith
alone and launched a religious reform
movement to break with the Catholic
Church.
“Did he or
didn’t he????”
John Calvin
• This Protestant leader set up a
theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland and
believed in predestination.
ORIGINAL
SIN
PREDESTINATION
Educate Both
Sexes
Pray, Work,
Learn, Die
Henry VIII
• This ruler of England broke with the
Catholic Church for mostly political
reasons. He wanted a divorce from his first
wife and when the Pope said, “No,” he
turned to his own church courts and
eventually made himself head of the
Protestant Church of England.
• Handsome and
Athletic in his youth
• Married to a Spanish
Catholic, had one
child that survived,
Mary I aka, “Bloody
Mary”
• Married 5 more
times, only notable
child: Elizabeth I
with wife #2, Anne
Boleyn
vernacular
• This term refers to works of
literature that are published in regional
languages rather than classical
languages like Latin or Greek.
EGO
• Latin represented
the glory that was
ROME
• Latin was the
language of
learning, business,
law, medicine, and
most importantly,
THE CHURCH
LATINAM
• Romans “spoke”
Italian
• Spaniards spoke
Spanish
• People in Gaul
spoke French
• German, English,
Dutch, Finnish,
etc….
secular
• This term refers to nonreligious or
“worldly” things.
SECULAR is “NOT RELIGIOUS”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Secular Music?
Secular TV shows?
Secular law?
Secular government?
Secular education?
Secular business?
Secular literature?
Secular attitudes?
Humanism
• This was an intellectual movement
that was based on the study of the
classic literary works and the culture
Greece and Rome. It focused on the
glorification of the worldly
achievements of men.
Petrarch
• One of the earliest leaders of the
Renaissance, this man led the initial
search for ancient Latin manuscripts
and revived the use of pure, classical
Latin. He is famous for works such as
Sonnets to Laura.
What is
Love?
Love is Agony and
Sorrow
Characteristics of Petrarch’s
Sonnets
• Self- Centered
• Combines secular love with religious
passion. The Baroque poets, esp. the
metaphysical poets are influenced by this.
Different from Shakespeare's sonnets.
• Love as sorrow. Different from Dante (Love
as an enlightening or transcendent power).
Dante
• This famous author of the Divine
Comedy (in Italian) takes readers on a
journey through Hell, Purgatory, and
Paradise
Michelangelo
• This artist, most famous for painting
the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, was
also a magnificent sculptor and
architect
Erasmus
• Best known for his 1509 writing, In
Praise of Folly, this leading Christian
humanist believed that society cannot
be improved until the people in society
improved themselves from within. It
was said, “He laid the egg that the
other guy hatched.”
Dutch humanist AND theologian
Middle of the road reformer,
FREE Will, not predestination
Wrote In
Praise of Folly
Peace of Augsburg
• This was a 1555 agreement to formally
accept the division of Christianity in
Germany between Catholicism and
Lutheranism. It did not allow religious
choice for individuals, only for German
rulers to choose for their subjects.
"Cuius regio eius religio".
On a regular QUIZ: You must answer
my questions ABOUT the terms we
have covered in HW or class
FIB = fill in the blank, no word bank
– I give you the definition and you write the
vocabulary term from your comps sheet
• Spelling must be phonetically close
• Writing must be PRINTED Legibly
• +10 pts if you get 100% on the Vocab
Quiz / +5 pts if you get all 30 on the
Unit TEST