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Knowledge and Learning
PG Diploma in Hospitality Management
Customer Service and Quality Systems
– Session 3
1
Objectives
• Understand the role of computer systems in the hospitality
industry
• Describe the main computer system functions in hospitality
• Understand different purposes for which stored data may be
used
• Explain the distinctions between data, information and
knowledge
• Understand the importance of knowledge management
• Explain some techniques of knowledge management
2
Review Questions
• How can you ensure that you present a
professional image at all times?
• What can you do to ensure that you
communicate effectively in face-to-face
situations?
• Give 6 examples of good telephone practice.
• What objectives did you specify for your
Customer Complaint Handling course?
3
Computer Systems
• Thinking of a large hospitality organisation
like a chain of hotels, list the main
computer systems and their purposes
4
Hotel Computer Systems
PMS
SCM –
E-Procurement
Accounts
Security System
HR
F&B - EPOS
Stock Control
Telephone
Beverage Control
Pay per View
CRM – Guest History
Property Reservation System
Switch
GDS
Online Distributors
5
Data and Technology
• Taking each of the different parts of the
hotel’s information technology system, list
some examples of types of data that is
captured and stored
• List the advantages of guests using a
swipe card rather than a key
6
Reservation System
7
GDS and CRS
• Global Distribution Systems
– Originally developed by airlines
– Made available to travel agents
– Hotels were added at a later date
– 4 major systems
• Central Reservation Systems
– Set up by hotel chains and as a service for
affiliated hotels
– Eg. http://www.hilton.co.uk
8
Online Distribution
•
•
•
•
http://www.expedia.com
http://www.travelocity.com
http://uk.hotels.com
http://www.theaa.com
9
CRM
• Customer Relationship Management
• Holistic system of customer information,
transaction information, target marketing,
market research and forecasting
• Purpose: to generate long-term customer
loyalty
– Eg. Customer loyalty programmes
10
Data Mining
• Associated with an organisation’s
need to identify trends
• Guest Histories analysed for patterns
– Individual guest preferences
– Guests categorised into groups and
sub-groups
11
Supply Chain Management
• Internet, Intranet and Extranet applications
• Automatically checks authorisation levels and
passes down authorisation chain
• Allows purchaser to check progress
• Typically saves 15-20% on a manual system
• Reduces maverick purchases – typically 15-30%
more expensive
• Usage rates and automatic reordering
• E-marketplaces eg. http://www.e-hospitality.com
• RFID systems for stock taking etc.
12
Enterprise Information Portal
• Search/discovery and navigation to information
from a knowledge map
• Knowledge network, user interface to
communities of interest/expert systems
• Personalisation and presentation of relevant
information to the desktop eg.via intelligent
agents
• Enterprise application integration
• Eg. Hilton has all HR manuals available on its
intranet
13
Enterprise Information Portal
14
Data Hierarchy
15
Databases
16
Database Design
• You are asked to advise on a reservations
system for a small owner run hotel:
• Suggest what database tables will be
required
• Suggest what fields each of these tables
should have
17
Data – Information - Knowledge
• Data – discrete facts that can be recorded in a
computer system eg. name or passport number
• Information – data with a context but it is only
information if it is useful to the receiver eg. At the
front desk during check-out, Mr Smith is entitled
to a 5% discount
• Knowledge – experience, values, contextual
information and expert insight that provides a
framework for evaluating and incorporating new
experiences and information
18
Data, Information & Knowledge
Increasing Context
Knowledge
Understanding
Patterns
Information
Understanding
Relationships
Data
Increasing Complexity
19
Information and Knowledge
• What kind of information do managers
need to be able to obtain from a PMS –
give as many specific examples as you
can?
• Give examples of knowledge used in a
hospitality organisation. Where is this
knowledge stored?
20
Management Information
•
•
•
•
Hotel - Night Audit
Sales analysis
Trends analysis
Occupancy projections
21
Organisational Knowledge
• Explicit Knowledge
– represented in documents, books, e-mail and
databases
• Tacit Knowledge
– organisational knowledge found in business
processes products and services
22
Characteristics of Knowledge
• Subjectivity – depends on point of view
• Transferability – may be transferred from
one context to another
• Embeddedness – not always easily
accessible
• Self-Reinforcement – increases in value
the more it is shared
• Perishability – diminishes in value over
time
• Sponteneity – cannot be generated on
demand
23
Organizational Learning and
Knowledge Management
•
Organizational Learning: creation of new
standard operating procedures and
business processes reflecting experience
– “The Learning Organisation”
•
Knowledge Management: set of
processes developed in an organization
to create, gather, store, disseminate, and
apply knowledge
24
The Knowledge Management
Value Chain
25
How Does Knowledge
Management Create Value?
Customer Intimacy
Cultivating relationships to
gain customer knowledge
Delivering what specific
stakeholders want
Operational Excellence
Product/Service Leadership
Delivering solid
products and
services at the best
price and with the
least inconvenience
Delivering the best
products and services --offerings that push
performance boundaries
Employee Capability
Leveraging human
intellectual capital in
service design and
delivery
26
Knowledge Management
• List ways that knowledge can be created
or introduced into a hospitality
organisation
• List ways that knowledge can be
disseminated in a hospitality organisation
• List measures that may be taken to retain
knowledge in a hospitality organisation
27