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SEE Grid Roadmap – Information viewpoint
Simon Cox
CSIRO
Outline

Models for geographic data

Interoperability through community languages

What’s ready and who’s signed on?

ISO/TC 211

Open GIS Consortium
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
2
1. Traditional GIS data models

Points, lines and polygons
Tenement

Geometry-centric abstraction relates to
the implementation, not the business object

One shape per feature does not allow
multiple spatial properties, scale-dependent versions …
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2. Conceptual object model: features
Basic feature model


to be extended for specific
applications

class name = feature-type


e.g. Borehole
attribute & association names =
properties of this feature-type
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2004-05-06
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3. Spatial function: coverage
For each position within a spatio-temporal domain, the value
from the (possibly complex) range can be determined

(x1,y1)
(x2,y2)

Suitable for fields, continuously varying properties

Discrete or continuous domain

Domain is often a grid
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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“Universe of discourse”: community schema
ISO 19109:

The rules in this standard will assist the users of applications
with similar data requirements in creating a common
application schema for the interface between their
systems and data. This includes an agreement about the
elements from the universe of discourse.

The creation of an application schema is a process. The
content of an application schema in aspects of the chosen
universe of discourse has to be settled. This is modelled in
terms of types of features and their properties.
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Model of interoperability
“Data interchange by transaction”
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Information view requirement


Interoperability requires use of a
shared information model
A community is defined by use of a
common language



Which community - Enterprise? Discipline? Industry?
The feature types are the primary component of a
language for a spatial community
Establishing and maintaining a common
feature-type catalogue is key to interoperability
within a spatial community
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Feature types
Borehole
 collar location
 shape
 collar diameter
Fault
 length

 operator

 logs
Basin?

 related observations

 …  formations

 shape – time dependent
 resource estimate
 …
shape
surface trace
displacement
age
…

Conceptual classification

Multiple geometries
Ore-body






Observation







location
subject/specimen/station
property/theme/measurand
method
operator
date/time
result (+ type/reference
system/scale/classification)
 …
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
commodity
deposit type
host formation
shape
resource estimate
…

“Natural” features

Constructed artefacts

Artefacts of investigation
2004-05-06
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GML serialisation of feature
(technology viewpoint)

The model is visible in instance


element name
== feature-type
sub-elements
== properties of this featuretype

Values held as element content

Uses links to out-of-band
information


external objects
vocabularies, referencesystems, authority-tables,
classifications
<xmml:Borehole gml:id="R456">
<gml:description>Exploration hole</gml:description>
<gml:name>north_r_679</gml:name>
<xmml:collarLocation>
<gml:Point srsName="urn:ga:localGrid68" gml:id="c679">
<gml:pos> ... </gml:pos>
</gml:Point>
</xmml:collarLocation>
<xmml:collarDiameter uom="m">0.15<xmml:collarDiameter>
<xmml:shape xlink:href="http://my.big.org/borehole_surveys/s679"/>
<xmml:logs>
<xmml:IntervalLog>
<gml:name>Lithology log</gml:name>
…
<xmml:categoryList property=“urn:ga:geology:properties:lith"
codeSpace=“urn:qld:coal:units“>
CANIS FH PL2 PL3 AQ AQL T1 T2 C1 C2 GCWS
</xmml:categoryList>
...
</xmml:IntervalLog>
</xmml:logs>
</xmml:Borehole>
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2004-05-06
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GML Languages in the geosciences

XMML - Exploration data


ADX – Assay data





This is our community!
Chronos
CGI International Model


Academic geophysics
XMML/GeoTime – stratigraphy


Mining companies, labs, data managers
GPML – plate tectonics


Mining and service companies, statutory agencies
International geological surveys, NADM
XML-based, non-proprietary
No ad-hoc file-formats!
Use of common high-level patterns, e.g. O&M
Re-usable, sustainable, scalable
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Feature Type Catalogue
developed through XMML


Borehole
Observation (SensorWeb)




Gravity measurement (GA)
Geochemistry/Assay result
(ADX)
Procedure , Instrument,
Project, Station, Specimen,
Tenement (GGIPAC, ADX, etc)
Mineral occurrence (GA)
Artefacts of data collection and
management process

Geological timescale (Chronos)

Geological material (NADM, WMC)
Tectonic plates (USyd, Caltech)


Map-features, some structural
geology elements (Fractal, pmd*CRC,
BGS, NADM)

Finite element model (FLAC, FastFlo)
Simulation/model state (pmd*CRC)

Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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XMML design method

Iterate between XML instances, XML Schema, UML model,
harmonising with current state of suite of schemas

Adapt existing standard


Private model from dominant data provider


e.g. Geoscience Australia
Sponsor requirements


e.g. GGIPAC, ASEG
e.g. Fractal Technologies, CSIRO/pmd*CRC, BGS,
Snowdens/WMC/Newmont
Consultation with stakeholders

TWiki
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Feature type catalogue

Names and descriptions

Properties:





Feature attributes with their types
Associations between the feature type and itself or other feature
types;
Generalization and specialization relationships to other feature
types;
Constraints & behaviours
- i.e. what processing services are applicable
Implemented as a Register - Multiple interfaces


XML Schema view
Search & discovery, ontology
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
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Summary

Interoperability within Information Communities



e.g. cadastre, hydrography, geoscience, mineral exploration
geography? geoscience sub-disciplines?
Common interchange language, based on features


Fine-grained, conceptually meaningful, geographic object types
Feature Type Catalogue


Governance arrangement required
Implemented as GML Application Language
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Application in data transfer

Wrap a DB or GIS
WFS
Client
WFS
Server


Published view should match
community requirements
Data-store normally
organised for custodian’s
requirements

esp. maintenance
N.B. Server has responsibility for preparing data
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Other feature-type concepts

feature associations between the feature type and itself or
other feature types;

generalization and specialization relationships to other feature
types;

constraints on the feature type (what processing services are
relevant).
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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What a standardised language means

Hold conversations with “strangers”

construct semantically coherent service-chains at run-time
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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“General feature model”
GFM provides structure for classifying objects in the real world

Features == spatial objects

Feature type == classification on the basis of properties

Spatial properties are “just another property”
“… a feature type is defined by
its properties such as:

feature attributes;

feature association roles characterizing
the feature type;

defined behaviour of the feature type.”
ISO 19109
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Interoperability
Message, public schema
WFS
Client
private  public
GIS, DBMS, etc
private schema
(data mining)
WFS
Client
(visualisation)
WFS
Client
(simulation)
WFS
WFS
Server
Server
Sensor
WFS
Client/
Server


new services added dynamically
private agreements not required
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Value-adding chain

Observation



estimate of value of a property for a single specimen/station/location
data-capture, with metadata concerning procedure, operator, etc
Coverage



compilation of values of a single property across the domain of interest
data prepared for analysis/pattern detection
Feature


object having geometry & values of several different properties
1. classified object, snapshot for transport


geological map elements
2. object created by human activity, artefact of investigation

borehole, mine, specimen
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Different views of information

Result/observation view:
Each Cell gives the result of
a single analysis

Database insertion and update
Specime
n
Au
(ppm)
Cu-a (%)
Cu-b (%)
As (ppm)
Sb (ppm)
ABC-123
1.23
3.45
4.23
0.5
0.34

Feature view:
Each Row gives all
properties of one specimen
or target



Coverage view:
Each Column = variation of a
single property across
locations


Object description
Assembled from multiple
getResult/getTarget
Pattern/anomaly detection
Assembled from multiple
getResult/getLocation
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint
2004-05-06
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Adding value to your data
WFS
Client
WFS
Server
(visualisation)
(features)
WFS
Client
WFS
Server
(visualisation)
(measurements)
WFS
Client
WFS
Server
(visualisation)
(coverages)
Cox - SEE Grid Information Viewpoint

2004-05-06
multiple views of
same data
24