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New Frontiers with LSST:
leveraging world facilities
Tony Tyson
Director, LSST Project
University of California, Davis
Science with the 8-10 m telescopes in the era of the ELTs and the JWST
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IAC, La Palma, July 25, 2009
Long history of discovery via sky surveys
2
Technology drives the New Sky
• Microelectronics
• Software
• Large Optics Fabrication
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Comprehensive understanding of new astrophysical
phenomena requires multi-wavelength and/or
temporal investigations using a variety of
instruments on multiple facilities.
Because of cost these large facilities or
instruments tend to be unique. Astronomy thus
must evolve to a coordinated collaboration of
world facilities.
GTC is perfect for co-observing with LSST to
leverage discovery. The shared sky overlap and
the joint science discovery space is more than
sufficient.
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LSST All Hands Meeting at NCSA,
May 19-23, 2008
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3200 megapixel camera
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The LSST site
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7.5 arcminutes
DSS: digitized photographic plates
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Sloan Digital Sky Survey
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LSST -- almost
2800
galaxies
i<25 mag
~100
alerts
per
night
GTC field of view
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10-year simulation:
limiting magnitude per band
Opsim1.29 Dec 2008
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The LSST surveys will overlap 11,500 deg2 with the GTC
AO observable sky.
In that overlap area there are:
 2.3 billion galaxies brighter than 25th i AB mag with
photometric redshifts in the LSST data,
 5000 to 50,000 variable or transient alerts per night
from LSST.
In other words, the overlap area is not a constraint on
GTC-LSST science.
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LSST Science Charts New Territory
Probing Dark Matter
And Dark Energy
Mapping the Milky Way
Finding Near Earth Asteroids
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Number of visits per field in Deep Wide Survey
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LSST survey
• 4 billion galaxies with redshifts
• Time domain:
1 million supernovae
1 million galaxy lenses
5 million asteroids
new phenomena
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Data Management is a distributed system that leverages
world-class facilities and cyber-infrastructure
Data Access Centers
U.S. (2) and Chile (1)
45 TFLOPS, 87 PB
Archive Center
NCSA, Champaign, IL
100 to 250 TFLOPS, 75 PB
Long-Haul Communications
Chile - U.S. & w/in U.S.
2.5 Gbps avg, 10 Gbps peak
Mountain Summit/Base Facility
Cerro Pachon, La Serena, Chile
25 TFLOPS, 150 TB
1 TFLOPS = 10^12 floating point operations/second
1 PB = 2^50 bytes or ~10^15 bytes
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LSST Survey
Begin operations in 2015, with 3-Gigapixel camera
One 6-Gigabyte image every 17 seconds
30 Terabytes every night for 10 years
200-Petabyte final image data archive anticipated
20-Petabyte final database catalog anticipated
Real-Time Event Mining: 10,000-100,000 events per
night, every night, for 10 yrs
 Repeat images of the entire night sky every 3 nights






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The Data Challenge
 ~3 Terabytes per hour
that must be mined in
real time.
 20 billion objects will be
monitored for important
variations in real time.
 A new approach must be
developed for knowledge
extraction in real time.
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DATA PRODUCTS
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Risk taking:
What is the role of 8-10m telescopes >2015?
 use of multiple facilities: planning, collaborations
 access to experimental observing modes and novel
instrumentation experiments
 in an ELT/JWST era the 8-10m telescopes can play a
critical enabling role for scientific discovery. The
sociology may be novel, but so too will the scientific
discoveries.
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www.lsst.org
We cannot guess what currently unknown types of
objects or phenomena will be discovered.
But we can rest assured that collaborations of world
facilities will be required for the full exploration of
the resulting science.
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Currently planned LSST surveys
Deep Wide Survey: 20,000 square degrees to a uniform depth of
u: 26.7 g: 27.4 r: 27.7 i: 26.9 z: 26.1 y: 24.9
Northern Ecliptic: 3300 square degrees
~2.1 pairs per lunation
Deep-Drilling:
500 square degrees
Continuous 15 sec exposures
Galactic Plane:
1700 square degrees to uniform depth of
u: 26.1 g: 26.5 r: 26.1 i: 25.6 z: 24.9 y: 23.5
South Pole:
1700 square degrees to a uniform depth of
u: 25.5 g: 26.4 r: 26.0 i: 25.3 z: 25.0 y:23.4
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Currently planned LSST surveys
Deep Wide Survey: 20,000 square degrees to a uniform depth of
u: 26.7 g: 27.4 r: 27.7 i: 26.9 z: 26.1 y: 24.9
Northern Ecliptic: 3300 square degrees
~2.1 pairs per lunation
Deep-Drilling:
500 square degrees
Continuous 15 sec exposures
Galactic Plane:
1700 square degrees to uniform depth of
u: 26.1 g: 26.5 r: 26.1 i: 25.6 z: 24.9 y: 23.5
South Pole:
1700 square degrees to a uniform depth of
u: 25.5 g: 26.4 r: 26.0 i: 25.3 z: 25.0 y:23.4
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Example time window function
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