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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Databases and…
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Databases and their uses
Database components
Types of databases
Database management systems
Relational databases
Data warehouses and data marts
Information systems
Data mining
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Databases
• Electronic collections of related data
• Help us organize data
• Turn data into information
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Advantages of Using Databases
• Store and retrieve large quantities of
Recording grades
information
Financial Aid
• Data centralization
• Data integrity
Student Registration
• Flexibility
Student
Information
Student housing Database
Parents
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Database Terminology
• Field:
– Category of
information displayed
in columns
Field Name
• Data types:
– Text
– Numeric
– Date
– Memo
– Object
One Field
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Database Terminology
• Record:
– A group of related
fields
• Table:
– A group of related
records
Record
Table
Primary Key
• Primary key:
– A field value unique to
a record
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Database Types
• Relational databases:
– Organize data in a table
– Link tables to each other through their
primary keys
• Object-oriented databases:
– Stores data in objects
– Handles unstructured data
• Object-relational databases:
– A hybrid of a relational and object-oriented
database
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Database Management
Systems (DBMS)
• Application software designed to acquire
and analyze data
• Four main operations of a DBMS are:
– Creating databases and entering data
– Viewing and sorting data
– Extracting data
– Outputting data
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Relational Database Operations
• Relational databases organize data into
tables based on logical groupings
• Relationships are links between tables with
related data
• Common fields between tables need to
exist
• Normalization of data (recording data
once) reduces data redundancy
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Data Storage
• Data warehouses:
– A large scale
repository of data
– Organizes all the data
related to an
organization
– Data is organized by
subject
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Populating Data Warehouses
Source data
• Internal
• External
• Customers
Data marts
• Small slices of data
• Data of a single
department
Data staging
• Extract data from
source
• Reformat the data
• Store the data
Data warehouse
illustration
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Managing Data:
Information Systems
• Information systems:
– Software-based solutions used to gather and
analyze information
• Functions performed by information
systems include:
– Acquiring data
– Processing data into information
– Storing data
– Providing output options
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Information Systems Categories
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Office support
Transaction processing
Management
Decision support
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Data Mining
• Process by which data are analyzed and
investigated
• Objective is to spot patterns or trends
within the data
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Technology In Action Chapter 11
Data Mining Methods
• Classification:
– Define data classes
• Estimation:
– Assign a value to data
• Affinity grouping or association rules:
– Determine which data goes together
• Clustering:
– Organize data into subgroups
• Description and visualization:
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– Provides a clear picture of what is happening
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