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Transcript
Judith E. Brown
www.cengage.com/nutrition/brown
Healthy Diets, Dietary Guidelines,
MyPyramid, and More
Unit 6
Prof. Albia Dugger • Miami-Dade College
Healthy Eating
• Achieving balance
between good taste
and good for you
Characteristics of Healthful Diets
• Healthful diets share three characteristics:
adequacy, variety, and balance
• Healthful diets can come in many forms
Healthful Diets
Key Terms
• Adequate diets
• Consist of foods that together supply sufficient
protein, vitamins, and minerals
• Have enough calories to meet a person’s need for
energy and maintain a healthy body weight
Key Terms
• Essential nutrients
• Substances the body requires for normal growth
and health but cannot manufacture in sufficient
amounts
• Must be obtained from the diet in amounts
corresponding to RDAs and AIs
Variety
• The essential nutrient and phytochemical
contents of foods differ
• Consuming a variety of foods from each basic
group increases the probability of obtaining
enough nutrients
Key Terms
• Balanced diet
• Provides neither too much nor too little of calories,
nutrients, and other components of food such as
fat, sugar, and fiber
Key Terms
• Macronutrients
• The group name for the energy-yielding nutrients
of carbohydrate, protein, and fat
• Needed in relatively large amounts in our daily
diet
AMDRs
• Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
(AMDRs)
• Guidelines for balanced intake of macronutrients
• % total caloric intake that should consist of
carbohydrate, protein, and fat
• % total caloric intake for added sugars and
essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids)
• Reduce saturated and trans fats as much as
possible
Key Terms
• Saturated fats
• Fats that tend to raise blood cholesterol levels
and risk for heart disease
• Solid at room temperature
• Found primarily in animal products such as meat,
butter, and cheese
Key Terms
• Trans fat
• A type of unsaturated fat present in hydrogenated
oils, shortening, margarine, pastries, and some
cooking oils that increases the risk of heart
disease
AMDRs and Average Adult Intake
How Balanced is the American Diet?
• Americans consume too much fat and added
sugars; and too little of essential fatty acids
• American diet is too high in calories and too
low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
Guides to Healthy Diets
• Many nations have free, science-based,
health guidelines with recommendations for
dietary intake and physical activity
• US guidelines: Dietary Guidelines for Americans
• How-to guide for consumers: MyPyramid
National Guidelines
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
• Science-based guidelines to promote health
and reduce risk for major chronic disease
• 9 “Focus Areas”
• 23 “Key Recommendations”
• Stresses consumption of nutrient-dense
foods, balancing caloric intake and output,
and increasing physical activity
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
• DGAs are updated every five years
Focus Areas
and Key Recommendations
• Guidelines on:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Adequate nutrients within calorie needs
Weight management
Physical activity
Food groups to encourage
Fats and carbohydrates
Sodium and potassium
Alcoholic beverages
Food safety
Implementing Dietary Guidelines
• MyPyramid Food Guide
• Food selection and physical activity
• DASH Eating Plan
• Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
• Dietary intake only
MyPyramid Food Guide
What’s in MyPyramid?
• Recommendations for daily food choices and
food amounts for healthy diets
•
•
•
•
•
5 specific food groups
Lean meats and fish prepared without fats
Vegetables prepared without butter/margarine
No added sugar
Low-fat dairy products and nonfat milk
MyPyramid.gov
• MyPyramid Menu Planner
• Based on your food preferences
• MyPyramid Plan
• Based on age, sex, weight, height, activity level
• MyPyramid for Kids
• Resources for elementary ages
MyPyramid Plan
MyPyramid Plan
MyPyramid For Professionals
MyPyramid.gov cont.
• Tips & Resources
• Food groups, physical activity, eating out
• Inside the Pyramid
• Explains food groups, measures, discretionary
calories, physical activity
MyPyramid.gov cont.
• MyPyramid for Pregnant and Breastfeeding
Mothers
• Track, evaluate, and plan dietary changes
• MyPyramid Tracker
• Dietary and physical activity assessments
MyPyramid Food Measurements
• MyPyramid
uses
measurements
in cups,
teaspoons, and
ounces
Limitations of MyPyramid
• Inaccessible to people who do not use the
internet
• Does not address infant, therapeutic, or
vegetarian diets
• May not correspond to food preferences
The DASH Diet
• Helps control mild/moderate hypertension
• Good for cancer, osteoporosis, heart disease
• Limits fats, red meats, sweets, sugary drinks
• Hypertension (high blood pressure)
• Blood pressure inside blood vessel walls that
typically exceeds 140/90 mm Hg
The DASH Eating Plan
The Mediterranean Diet
• Based on diets in Greece and southern Italy
• Restricts red meat, sweets, cholesterol
• Includes wine with meals
• Associated with lower risks of heart disease,
stroke, some cancers, and overall mortality
The Mediterranean Pyramid
Portion Distortion
• Food portion sizes are expanding
• Large portions served in homes, restaurants,
bakeries, and in packaged foods contribute to
the problem of estimating portion sizes
Portion Distortion
Supersized Americans
• Rising obesity rates are related to increasing
portion sizes
• Supersizing fast food can triple calories
• Supersized cheeseburger, fries and shake
provide more calories than most people need in a
day (~2,200 calories)
Should We Label Fast Food Calories?
Eating Right When Eating Out
• Foods eaten away from home generally have
lower nutrition, higher fat
Staying on Track
• When eating out:
• Avoid impulse ordering
• Decide what to eat
before going in
Fast Food: Fat and Calories
Fast Foods: Old and New
The Slow Food Movement
• “Slow Food USA”
• Movement away from fast and processed foods,
and toward sustainable, eco-friendly agriculture
and locally grown foods
• Connects healthy eating with a slower, more
harmonious rhythm of life
The Slow Food Movement
• The urban garden
Don’t Know How to Cook?
• Learn by:
• Using recipes on food
packages
• Take a community
education course
• Find recipes online or in
a basic cookbook
Bon Appétit!
• “Enjoy your meals”
• The best diets are those that keep us healthy and
enhance our sense of enjoyment