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Transcript
2014 NMEA
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NATIONAL MARINE ELECTRONICS ASSOCIATION
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DRAFT 0400 Installation
Standard
8 Thank you for volunteering to review the latest draft of the NMEA 0400 Installation
Standard version 4.00. You are being provided this copy for technical comments
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For
Marine
Electronic
Equipment
on Vessels
only. All
of your
comments
will be considered
and responded
to by the 0400
10
Installation Standard Committee.
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Proprietary Document – Property of National Marine Electronics Association
and shall
notProhibited
be used for any installation of marine
13 This draft is a work in progress
Unauthorized
Copying
14 electronics on any vessel. This standard is copyrighted and is the property of NMEA
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and shall notWORKING
be re-distributed
or copied in any form.
DRAFT
Version 4.00N
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DRAFT Version 4.00 N April 2014
Copyright NMEA 2014
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National Marine Electronics Association
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International Marine Electronics Association
Effective Date August 1, 2012
END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR THE NMEA 0400®
INSTALLATION STANDARD
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PLEASE READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE
DOWNLOADING, INSTALLING OR USING THE NMEA 0400® INTERFACE STANDARD FILES
(INCLUDING THE APPENDICES), SOFTWARE AND ANY ACCOMPANYING DOCUMENTATION
(ANY AND ALL OF THE FOREGOING, THE “NMEA 0400® STANDARD”). THE TERMS AND
CONDITIONS OF THIS END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD
(“AGREEMENT”) GOVERN USE OFTHE NMEA 0400® STANDARD.
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1.
Grant of License. Upon acceptance of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, NMEA grants a nonexclusive, non-transferable limited license (i) to make, develop or sell Marine Industry Products, utilizing the
NMEA 0400® Standard (a) to develop NMEA 0400® Product; or (b) to develop an NMEA 0400® Approved
Application; or (ii) if not engaged in the activities in (i) to use the NMEA 0400® Standard for internal business
purposes. As stated herein “Marine Industry Product” means a product designed, marketed, advertised or sold for
use in the marine industry; “NMEA 0400® Approved Application” means a software application which has received
NMEA approval in accordance with the NMEA’s current approval guidelines; “NMEA 0400® and “NMEA Marks”
means NMEA’s 0400® trademark or logos, including without limitation those that NMEA may, from time to time,
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Licensees may make one copy of the NMEA 0400® Standard or any portion for backup purposes, providing that
any copy retains the original NMEA 0400® Standard proprietary notices. NMEA reserves all rights of the NMEA
0400® Standard not expressly granted to licensee in this Agreement.
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Without limiting other remedies, the NMEA may take actions it deems appropriate if NMEA determines that
licensee has failed to comply with any provision of this Agreement, including, without limitation, using the NMEA
0400® Standard in violation of the license granted to licensee by the NMEA.
National Marine Electronic Association (NMEA) / International Marine Electronic Association (IMEA) agree to
license the NMEA 0400® Standard and portions thereof on the condition that licensee accepts the terms contained
in this Agreement. For the purposes of this standard, NMEA will be used as the brand name for this standard with
the understanding that NMEA and IMEA currently co-own this standard .For the purposes of this license agreement
NMEA and IMEA are defined as NMEA. By clicking on the “I accept” button below or by downloading, installing
or using the NMEA 0400® Standard, licensee is bound to this Agreement and accepts all of the terms. If this
Agreement is accepted on behalf of a company or other legal entity, licensee represents and warrants they have the
authority to bind the company or legal entity to the terms of this Agreement, and in such event, the “licensee” will
be the company or other responsible legal entity. If licensee does not accept the terms of this Agreement, a license
for the NMEA 0400® Standard will not be provided, and the Standard must be returned to NMEA for a full refund
of relevant fees paid or, if NMEA has made the NMEA 0400® Standard available to licensee for evaluation,
licensee must destroy all copies of the NMEA 0400® Standard in licensee’s possession and not transfer it to a third
party or location.
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Restrictions. Except as expressly specified in this Agreement, licensee may not: (a) copy (except in the
course of loading or installing) or modify the NMEA 0400® Standard, including but not limited to adding new
features or otherwise making adaptations that alter the functioning of the NMEA 0400® Standard; (b) transfer,
sublicense, lease, lend, rent or otherwise distribute the NMEA 0400® Standard to any third party; or (c) make the
functionality of the NMEA 0400® Standard available to third parties through any means, including but not limited
to uploading the NMEA 0400® Standard to a file-sharing service or through any hosting, application services
provider, service bureau, software-as-a-service (SaaS) or any other type of services. Licensee acknowledges and
agrees that portions of the NMEA 0400® Standard, including but not limited to the source code and the specific
design and structure of individual modules or programs, constitute or contain trade secrets of NMEA and its
licensors. Accordingly, licensee agrees to not disassemble, decompile or reverse engineer the NMEA 0400®
Standard, in whole or in part, or permit or authorize a third party to do so, except to the extent such activities are
expressly permitted by law notwithstanding this prohibition.
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Ownership. The copy of the NMEA 0400® Standard is licensed, not sold. Licensee owns the media on
which the NMEA 0400® Standard is recorded, but NMEA retains ownership of the copy of the NMEA 0400®
Standard itself, including all intellectual property rights therein. The NMEA 0400® Standard is protected by United
States copyright law and international treaties. Licensee will not delete or in any manner alter the copyright,
trademark, and other proprietary rights notices or markings appearing on the NMEA 0400® Standard as delivered to
licensee.
4.
Term. The license granted under this Agreement remains in effect until terminated in accordance with this
Agreement. Licensee may terminate the license at any time by destroying all copies of the NMEA 0400® Standard
in licensee’s possession or control. The license granted under this Agreement will automatically terminate, with or
without notice from NMEA, if licensee breaches any term of this Agreement. Upon termination, at NMEA’s option
licensee must either promptly destroy or return to NMEA all copies of the NMEA 0400® Standard in licensee’s
possession or control.
5.
Hazardous Activities. Licensee acknowledges that the NMEA 0400® Standard is not designed, intended
or authorized for use in hazardous circumstances or for uses requiring fail-safe performance such as the operation of
nuclear facilities, air traffic or weapons control systems, or where failure could lead to death, personal injury or
environmental damage. Licensee shall not use the NMEA 0400® Standard for such purposes or circumstances.
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Trademarks.
6.1
Use of the NMEA Marks. l As an NMEA 0400® Approved Application or NMEA 0400® Product, and in
consideration of the rights granted under this Agreement, licensee agrees to use NMEA Marks in connection with
licensee’s marketing, promotion, sale and distribution of NMEA Approved Applications and NMEA 0400®
Products.
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Grant of License. Following acceptance of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, NMEA hereby
grants to licensee a non-exclusive, non-transferable limited license to use the NMEA Marks during the term of this
Agreement solely to identify, market, and sell NMEA 0400® Approved Applications and NMEA 0400® Products.
Products include those which use any portions of the NMEA 0400 Standard, All NMEA 0400 products must
implement ANSI/TIA/EIA 422-B (RS 422), circuitry Licensee is granted no other right, title or license in or to the
NMEA Marks. Licensee may not use the NMEA Marks except in accordance with the license granted herein. All
trademarks, service marks, logos, trade names and any other proprietary designations of NMEA used herein are
trademarks or registered trademarks of NMEA.
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Electrical Interface. As of this Version 4.10 of the NMEA 0400 Standard, the electrical interface for any
product development using this version shall incorporate ANSI/TIA/EIA 422-B (RS 422). Marine Products that use
a serial interface, excluding USB shall incorporate ANSI/TIA/EIA 422-B (RS 422). The use of RS422 began with
Version 2.00 published in 1994.
6.4
Trademark Guidelines and Related Restrictions. Licensee agrees to use and display the NMEA Marks only
in accordance with NMEA’s trademark usage guidelines, as provided by NMEA from time to time. Licensee may
not combine the NMEA Marks with any other marks, names or logos. Without limiting the foregoing, licensee shall
display the NMEA Marks separately from licensee’s own trademarks. Licensee agrees that if a mark, logo or other
designation is used in addition to the NMEA Marks (an “Additional Mark”) on NMEA 0400® Approved
Applications or NMEA 0400® Products, or in any marketing or advertising materials related thereto, licensee will
ensure that each such Additional Mark does not create confusion with the NMEA 0400® Standard.
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Compliance with Quality Standards. Licensee may use the NMEA Marks hereunder so long as licensee
remains in compliance with obligations under this Agreement. Licensee expressly acknowledges and agrees that the
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NMEA 0400® Approved Application or NMEA 0400® Products must at all times remain compliant with the
NMEA 0400® Standard. In the event that NMEA determines that licensee is using NMEA Marks in a manner not in
compliance with the provisions of this Agreement, NMEA will notify licensee to immediately correct or cease such
use of the NMEA Marks. Upon NMEA’s request, licensee will make available to an NMEA representative samples
of printed materials bearing the NMEA Mark, and provide NMEA access to the NMEA 0400® Approved
Application or NMEA 0400® Product to enable NMEA to confirm that licensee is in compliance with the terms and
conditions of this Agreement. If conditions of this agreement are breached, NMEA reserves the right to rescind
NMEA 0400® certification from the offender’s products.
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Proprietary Rights. Licensee acknowledges that NMEA owns the NMEA Marks and agrees that licensee
will do nothing inconsistent with such ownership and that use of any NMEA Marks by licensee, and goodwill
arising out of such use, inures solely to NMEA’s benefit. Licensee will give prompt notice to NMEA of any known
or potential infringement of the NMEA Marks. Licensee will cooperate with reasonable requests by NMEA for the
execution of any documents required to register the NMEA Marks or to record this Agreement with the appropriate
authorities. Licensee agrees that nothing in this Agreement will give licensee any right, title, or interest in the
NMEA Marks other than the right to use the NMEA Marks in accordance with this Agreement. Licensee will not
challenge or aid in challenging the validity of the NMEA Marks or NMEA’s ownership of the NMEA Marks, or
take any action in derogation of NMEA’s rights therein, including without limitation applying to register any
trademarks, service marks, logos, trade names, or other designation that is confusingly similar to any NMEA Mark.
If licensee acquires any rights in the NMEA Marks by operation of law or otherwise, licensees do hereby assign, and
agree to assign, such rights to NMEA, at no expense to NMEA.
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No Warranty. THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND. NMEA DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT, AND ANY
WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS ARISING OUT OF COURSE OF DEALING OR USAGE OF TRADE. NO
ADVICE OR INFORMATION, WHETHER ORAL OR WRITTEN, OBTAINED FROM NMEA OR
ELSEWHERE WILL CREATE ANY WARRANTY OR CONDITION NOT EXPRESSLY STATED IN THIS
AGREEMENT. NMEA is not obligated to provide licensee with upgrades, updates, fixes, or services related to or
for the NMEA 0400® Standard.
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Limitation of Liability. NMEA’S TOTAL LIABILITY TO LICENSEE FROM ALL CAUSES OF
ACTION AND UNDER ALL THEORIES OF LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO THE AMOUNTS PAID TO
NMEA BY LICENSEE FOR THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD OR, IN THE EVENT THAT NMEA HAS MADE
THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD AVAILABLE TO LICENSEE WITHOUT CHARGE, NMEA’S TOTAL
LIABILITY WILL BE LIMITED TO $100. IN NO EVENT WILL NMEA BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE FOR ANY
SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, EXEMPLARY, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING LOSS
OF DATA, BUSINESS, PROFITS OR ABILITY TO EXECUTE) OR FOR THE COST OF PROCURING
SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THIS AGREEMENT OR THE
EXECUTION OR PERFORMANCE OF THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD, WHETHER SUCH LIABILITY
ARISES FROM ANY CLAIM BASED UPON CONTRACT, WARRANTY, TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE), STRICT LIABILITY OR OTHERWISE, AND WHETHER OR NOT NMEA HAS BEEN
ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH LOSS OR DAMAGE. THE FOREGOING LIMITATIONS WILL
SURVIVE AND APPLY EVEN IF ANY LIMITED REMEDY SPECIFIED IN THIS AGREEMENT IS FOUND
TO HAVE FAILED OF ITS ESSENTIAL PURPOSE. Some jurisdictions do not allow the limitation or exclusion
of liability for incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitation or exclusion may not apply to licensee.
No action, whether in contract or tort including but not limited to negligence, arising out of or in connection with
this Agreement may be brought by either party more than eighteen (18) months after the cause of action has accrued.
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Indemnity. Licensee agrees to defend, indemnify and hold the NMEA and its officers, directors, and
employees harmless from and against any loss, liability, costs or expenses (including but not limited to reasonable
attorneys’ fees) arising from or incurred as a result of any third party claims, to the extent that such claims relate to
or are based on licensee’s breach of this Agreement or use of the NMEA 0400® Standard.
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Export Regulations. Licensee agrees to comply fully with all U.S. export laws and regulations to ensure
that neither the NMEA 0400® Standard nor any technical data related thereto nor any direct product thereof are
exported or re-exported directly or indirectly in violation of, or used for any purposes prohibited by, such laws and
regulations.
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U.S. Government End Users. The NMEA 0400® Standard is a “commercial item” as that term is defined
in FAR 2.101, consisting of “commercial computer software” and “commercial computer software documentation,”
respectively, as such terms are used in FAR 12.212 and DFARS 227.7202. If the NMEA 0400® Standard is being
acquired by or on behalf of the U.S. Government, then, as provided in FAR 12.212 and DFARS 227.7202-1 through
227.7202-4, as applicable, the U.S. Government’s rights in the NMEA 0400® Standard will be only those specified
in this Agreement.
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Governing Law. Any action related to this Agreement will be governed by Maryland law and controlling
U.S. federal law. No conflict of laws rules or principles of any jurisdiction will apply.
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Severability. If any provision of this Agreement is held to be unenforceable or invalid, that provision will
be enforced to the maximum extent possible, and the other provisions will remain in full force and effect.
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General. This Agreement is the parties’ entire agreement relating to its subject matter. It supersedes all
prior or contemporaneous oral or written communications, proposals, conditions, representations and warranties and
prevails over any conflicting or additional terms of any quote, order, acknowledgment, or other communication
between the parties relating to its subject matter during the term of this Agreement. No modification to this
Agreement will be binding, unless in writing and signed by an authorized representative of each party. Licensee may
not assign or transfer this Agreement or any rights granted hereunder, by operation of law or otherwise, without
NMEA’s prior written consent, and any attempt by licensee to do so, without such consent, will be void. Except as
expressly set forth in this Agreement, the exercise by either party of any of its remedies under this Agreement will
be without prejudice to its other remedies under this Agreement or otherwise. All notices or approvals required or
permitted under this Agreement will be in writing and delivered by confirmed facsimile transmission, by overnight
delivery service, or by certified mail, and in each instance will be deemed given upon receipt. All notices or
approvals will be sent to the addresses set forth in the applicable ordering document or invoice or to such other
address as may be specified by either party to the other in accordance with this section. The failure by either party
to enforce any provision of this Agreement will not constitute a waiver of future enforcement of that or any other
provision. This Agreement is the complete and exclusive understanding and agreement between the parties
regarding its subject matter, and supersedes all proposals, understandings or communications between the parties,
oral or written, regarding its subject matter, unless licensee and NMEA have executed a separate agreement. Any
terms or conditions contained in licensee’s purchase order or other ordering document that are inconsistent with or
in addition to the terms and conditions of this Agreement are hereby rejected by NMEA and will be deemed null.
The International Marine Electronics Association (IMEA) is a sister company of the National Marine Electronics
Association. IMEA is a U.S. non-profit organization organized under the U.S. tax codes of a 501 (c) (3). This
permits IMEA to pursue alternative sources of revenue and to establish a Non-Profit Foundation. The National
Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) / International Marine Electronics Association Interface Standards are
intended to serve the public interest by facilitating interconnection and interchangeability of equipment, minimizing
misunderstanding and confusion between manufacturers, and assisting purchasers in selecting compatible
equipment.
The National Marine Electronics Association, Inc. has registered the trademarks: NMEA® IMEA®; Sale of this
product by the Association does not include a license to use its trademarks. Reference to an NMEA trademark and
IMEA trademark requires inclusion of the ®symbol to acknowledge NMEA’s ownership. The National Marine
Electronics Association and International Marine Electronics Association own the copyright © to NMEA 0400 and
to NMEA 0400 HS. Multiple licenses may be available at [email protected]
15.
Contact Information. If licensee has any questions regarding this Agreement, please contact NMEA at
[email protected]
IF LICENSEE AGREES TO THE FOREGOING TERMS AND CONDITIONS AND DESIRES TO COMPLETE
THE DOWNLOAD OR INSTALLATION OF THE NMEA 0400® STANDARD, PLEASE CLICK THE “I
ACCEPT” BUTTON BELOW. OTHERWISE, PLEASE CLICK THE “I DO NOT ACCEPT” BUTTON AND
THE DOWNLOAD OR INSTALLATION PROCESS WILL STOP.
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Contributors to the 0400 Revision 4.00
The National Marine Electronics Association would like to thank the following individuals who
assisted the NMEA 0400 Technical Standards Committee for their remarkable efforts and
dedication in promoting the NMEA mission.
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Name
Company
Name
Company
Steve Wallace
Lunde Marine
Actisense
Aaron Smith
Yacht Systems NW
Airmar
Rich Beattie
Uniden
Kevin Boughton
ICOM
Jim Murphy
Voyager Marine
Standard Horizon
Greg Pohl
George Irish
Digital Yacht
Humminbird
Furuno
Bart Stein
Lumishore
Greg Whittle
Raymarine
Mike Spyros
Electronics Unlimited
Navico
John Barry
Technical Marine
Humminbird
Ralph Sponar
United Radio
Garmin
Brian Kane
GOST
Maretron
Peter Lund
KVH
KVH
Matt Wood
Furuno USA
Flir
Juilo De Valle
Ron Ramasaran
Hemisphere GPS
Steve Spitzer
Mark Reedenauer
Johnny Lindstrom
Need to finalize list
and add
contributors after
60 day public
comment period
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Forward to Version 4.0
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The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) is proud to publish NMEA 0400,
Installation Standards for Marine Electronic Equipment Used on Vessels, Version 4.0, which are
also referred in this document as Installation Standards. The Installation Standards are produced
by the NMEA 0400 Technical Standard Committee under the guidance of the NMEA Standard
Development Program and promote the universality of marine electronic installation as closely
as possible.
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The primary objectives of the Installation Standards are to provide guidance and direction for the
proper installation and safe operation of marine electronics worldwide, as well as to provide a
methodology to yield consistent and professional results in the installation of marine electronics
on vessels in the worldwide market. Furthermore, the Installation Standards reflect the NMEA
mission to:
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Advance the technical marine electronics dealer through education, communication, training
and certification.
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Strengthen the industry’s reputation in the marketplace through industry standards and
recognition of excellence.
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Foster good business management and fair business practices among its members.
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Encourage the industry to hire highly-skilled and qualified technical service personnel.
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With the ever-changing complexity of electronic systems, the convergence of electrical and
electronics, and the evolution of systems integration, NMEA recognized the need for a
comprehensive review of the Installation Standards. Version 4.0 of the Installation Standards is a
global collaborative effort of the NMEA 0400 Technical Standards Committee, an enthusiastic
and dedicated international group of industry-skilled professionals who volunteered many hours
of their technical and editorial expertise. In this version, special consideration was given to
emerging trends, including the increasing implementation of CPU-based and multitasking
equipment and system orientation which demands a thorough understanding of proper
installation, but not forgetting the basic foundations. As it recognizes the importance of emerging
trends, the NMEA 0400 Technical Standards Committee will conduct a periodic review of the
Installation Standards to ensure that they are in keeping with today’s technological
advancements.
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NMEA always welcomes your feedback. If you have comments or questions, you may reach us
at www.standards.nmea.org or at [email protected] If you would like to join the Technical
Standards Committee, contact Steve Spitzer, Technical Director at [email protected]
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In closing, The National Marine Electronics Association would like to thank the NMEA 0400
Technical Standards Committee for their remarkable efforts and dedication in promoting the
NMEA mission.
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1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 13
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AC and DC Wiring installation......................................................................................... 19
270
3
Grounding, Bonding, and Lightning Protection ............................................................... 26
271
4
Battery installation ............................................................................................................ 32
272
5
Charging System installation ............................................................................................ 37
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Power Inverter installation ................................................................................................ 42
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7
COAXIAL CABLE installation........................................................................................ 44
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8
Data Interfacing- nmea 0183, nmea 2000, Ethernet ......................................................... 62
276
9
Antenna installation ........................................................................................................ 114
277
10
Display installations ........................................................................................................ 118
278
11
Black box installations .................................................................................................... 123
279
12
Transducer INSTALLATION ........................................................................................ 126
280
13
Compass INSTALLATION ............................................................................................ 142
281
14
RADAR INSTALLATION ............................................................................................ 152
282
15
Autopilots........................................................................................................................ 157
283
16
Electromagnetic Interference .......................................................................................... 164
284
17
VHF & SSB Radio Installation ....................................................................................... 168
285
18
Computer System Installation ......................................................................................... 183
286
19
Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Installation..................................................... 191
287
20
Satellite TV & Communications System installation ..................................................... 200
288
21
Security, Tracking, and Video / Camera Installation ...................................................... 206
289
22
Test Criteria .................................................................................................................... 216
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Appendix A. Glossary................................................................................................................ 242
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Appendix B. Vessel Commissioning Checklist ......................................................................... 253
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Appendix C: Vessel inspection information ............................................................................... 255
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Appendix D. Wire GAUGE and Voltage Drop Reference Tables ............................................ 256
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Appendix E. Battery Capacity Calculation .................................................................................... 1
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Appendix F NMEA 0183 V 4.10 Sentence Descriptions ............................................................ 3
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Appendix G: NMEA 0183 Version 4.10 Sentence talker Identifiers ............................................. 8
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Appendix H: NMEA 2000 PGN Numbers & descriptions ........................................................... 10
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Appendix I VHF / GPS/ DSC NMEA 0183 wiring information ................................................ 27
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Appendix J: INDEX ..................................................................................................................... 31
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Appendix K Revision History..................................................................................................... 48
Table of Contents
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List of Figures
Figure 1: General use Battery with One Distribution Panel ........................................................ 24
Figure 2: Separate Sub-panel for Electronics .............................................................................. 25
Figure 3: Grounding System Interconnection .............................................................................. 28
Figure 4: DC Common Grounding System (ABYC-E-11).......................................................... 30
Figure 5: Battery Overcurrent Protection .................................................................................... 35
Figure 6: Echo Charger Connection ............................................................................................ 39
Figure 7: Battery Combiner Connection ...................................................................................... 40
Figure 8: Battery Isolator Connection.......................................................................................... 40
Figure 9: Coaxial Cable Cutaway ................................................................................................ 44
Figure 10: Protecting a Cable Junction ........................................................................................ 49
Figure 11: Coaxial Cable Minimum Bend Radius ....................................................................... 50
Figure 12: Cable Stripping ........................................................................................................... 55
Figure 13: Installation of PL-259 Connector on RG8U and RG213 ........................................... 56
Figure 14: Installation of PL-259 Connector on RG58 and RG8X ............................................. 57
Figure 15: Installation of BNC Connectors ................................................................................. 58
Figure 16: Installation of TNC Connectors ................................................................................. 59
Figure 17: Installation of F Connectors ....................................................................................... 60
Figure 18: NMEA 0183-HS Wiring ............................................................................................ 64
Figure 19: RS-232 and RS-422 Circuit Differences .................................................................... 66
Figure 20: Basic NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit .......................................................................... 67
Figure 21: NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit-example 1 .................................................................. 67
Figure 22: NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit example 2 .................................................................. 68
Figure 23: Combining Talkers for One Listener.......................................................................... 69
Figure 24: Combining Talkers for One Listener.......................................................................... 69
Figure 25: NMEA 2000® Network Topology example 1 ........................................................... 72
Figure 26: NMEA 2000® Network Topology example 2 ............................................................ 72
Figure 27: NMEA 2000® high power device with separate power connection ........................... 73
Figure 28: NMEA 2000® Power Tee ........................................................................................... 74
Figure 29: NMEA 2000 Cable examples ..................................................................................... 76
Figure 30: NMEA 2000 Connector pin outs ................................................................................ 77
Figure 31: Barrier Strip Wiring & Terminations ......................................................................... 78
Figure 32: NMEA 2000 Cable Cutaway...................................................................................... 78
Figure 33: Cable Installation Considerations............................................................................... 79
Figure 34: Redundant Power Supplies ......................................................................................... 82
Figure 35: End-Powered Network example ................................................................................. 84
Figure 36: Mid-Powered Network example ................................................................................ 85
Figure 37: Backbone Segment Lengths ....................................................................................... 89
Figure 38: Dedicated Power Leads for Large Loads ................................................................... 90
Figure 39: Single Power Leg Using Battery ................................................................................ 94
Figure 40: Single Leg Using Isolated Supply .............................................................................. 95
Figure 41: Multiple Power Legs Using Isolated Supplies ........................................................... 96
Figure 42: Collocated Power Insertion Points Using Battery ...................................................... 97
Figure 43: Ethernet Topology ...................................................................................................... 99
Figure 44: Maximum Operational Length When Two Hubs Are Used..................................... 101
Figure 45: EIA/TIA Color Codes for Straight and Crossover Cable Wiring ............................. 102
Figure 46: EIA/TIA Color Codes for Straight and Crossover Cable Pin-outs ........................... 103
Figure 47: Installation of RJ45 Connector ................................................................................. 104
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Figure 48: Hub vs. Switch .......................................................................................................... 106
Figure 49: Typical Antenna Installation ..................................................................................... 117
Figure 50: Flush-Mount Display Installation Steps .................................................................... 120
Figure 51: Bracket-Mount Display Installation Steps ................................................................ 121
Figure 52: Black box cable routing when mounted vertically ................................................... 124
Figure 53: Transom-Mount Transducer Installation .................................................................. 127
Figure 54: Low-Profile, Tilted Element Installation.................................................................. 128
Figure 55: Thru-Hull Transducer Installation ............................................................................ 128
Figure 56: In-Hull Transducer Installation ................................................................................ 129
Figure 57: Tank-Mount Transducer Installation ........................................................................ 129
Figure 58: Isolating a Transducer .............................................................................................. 131
Figure 59: Transom Mount Transducer Locations .................................................................... 132
Figure 60: In-hull Transducer Mounting ................................................................................... 133
Figure 61: Through-hull Transducer Mounting ......................................................................... 135
Figure 62: Through-hull Transducer / Fairing Block Cross-section .......................................... 137
Figure 63: Preparing a cored fiberglass hull .............................................................................. 138
Figure 64: GNSS Compass Horizontal Separation & Field of View......................................... 147
Figure 65: Radar Vertical Beam Widths .................................................................................... 152
Figure 66: Calculating Radar Range .......................................................................................... 156
Figure 67: Typical Autopilot block diagram .............................................................................. 157
Figure 68: Typical Rotary Rudder Reference diagram ............................................................... 159
Figure 69: Typical Linear Rudder Reference diagram ............................................................... 159
Figure 70: Effect of Antenna Radiation Pattern on Range When Heeling ................................ 172
Figure 71: Basic SSB Components ............................................................................................ 174
Figure 72: Typical Standoff Construction ................................................................................. 176
Figure 73: Typical Ketch or Powerboat Antenna ...................................................................... 177
Figure 74: Typical Backstay Installation ................................................................................... 178
Figure 75: Typical Split Backstay.............................................................................................. 178
Figure 76: SSB Ground System Example 1 ............................................................................... 181
Figure 77: SSB Ground System Example 2 ............................................................................... 181
Figure 78: USB System Diagram .............................................................................................. 187
Figure 79: USB Layout Considerations ..................................................................................... 188
Figure 80: AIS Antenna mounting and spacing considerations................................................. 194
Figure 81: AIS Interfacing Options ........................................................................................... 196
Figure 82: Determining Reference Electronic Position Fixing Antenna Location .................... 199
Figure 83: Typical Satellite System Block Diagram ................................................................. 200
Figure 84: Line-of-Sight Interference ........................................................................................ 202
Figure 85: Satellite System Installation Photograph.................................................................. 203
Figure 86: Radar Vertical Beam width ...................................................................................... 204
Figure 87: Tracking Antenna mounting locations ..................................................................... 211
Figure 88: Typical Serial camera Control connection diagram ................................................. 214
Figure 89: Typical Ethernet camera Control connection diagram ............................................. 215
Figure 90: NMEA 2000 Application software & USB Interfaces ............................................. 220
Figure 91: Examples of NMEA 2000 USB Interfaces............................................................... 221
Figure 92: Example of NMEA 2000 Application / Design Software ........................................ 221
Figure 93: SSB Power test Setup ............................................................................................... 232
Figure 94: SSB Antenna Power test Setup ................................................................................ 233
Figure 95: VHF Radio Test Setup ............................................................................................. 237
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List of Tables
Table 1: Vessel Grounding Systems ........................................................................................................ 26
Table 2: Emergency Communications 12 Volt Battery Loads ............................................................... 33
Table 3: Maximum Allowed Signal Loss by Application ...................................................................... 47
Table 4: 50 Ohm Marine Coaxial Cable Characteristics ........................................................................ 47
Table 5: 75 Ohm Marine Coaxial Cable Characteristics ........................................................................ 48
Table 6: Connector Types, Frequency, and Usage Chart ....................................................................... 48
Table 7: Coaxial Cable Loss Characteristics (50 Ohm).......................................................................... 52
Table 8: Coaxial Cable Loss Characteristics (75 Ohm).......................................................................... 52
Table 9: Transmission Line Loss Calculation ........................................................................................ 53
Table 10: Example 1 Loss Calculation ................................................................................................... 54
Table 11: Example 2 Loss Calculation ................................................................................................... 54
Table 12: Example 3 Loss Calculation ................................................................................................... 55
Table 13: PL-259 Cable Stripping Dimensions ...................................................................................... 57
Table 14: BNC Cable Stripping Dimensions .......................................................................................... 58
Table 15: TNC Connector Detail & Cable Stripping Dimensions (RG-58) ........................................... 59
Table 16: NMEA 0183 and NMEA 0183-HS Data Transmission Characteristics ................................. 64
Table 17: NMEA 0183 Signal Color Codes ........................................................................................... 70
Table 18: NMEA 2000® Cable Types & Specifications......................................................................... 75
Table 19: NMEA 2000® Signal Color Codes ......................................................................................... 78
Table 20: Maximum Network Voltage Drop .......................................................................................... 83
Table 21: Voltage Drop Range vs. Power and Topology Options ......................................................... 86
Table 22: Detailed Voltage Drop Calculations ....................................................................................... 87
Table 23: End-Powered Network Initial Estimate .................................................................................. 91
Table 24: Mid-Powered Network Initial Estimate for Entire Backbone ................................................ 92
Table 25: Mid-Powered Network Estimate for Each Leg ...................................................................... 92
Table 26: Mid-Powered Network Detailed Analysis .............................................................................. 93
Table 27: Test Characteristics ................................................................................................................. 98
Table 28: Pre-defined Instance Assignments .......................................................................................... 98
Table 29: Characteristics of Hubs vs. Switches .................................................................................... 107
Table 30: Internet Protocol Configuration Parameters ......................................................................... 109
Table 31: IP Address Assignment sheet ............................................................................................... 111
Table 32: Antenna Types ...................................................................................................................... 114
Table 33: Minimum Antenna Horizontal Spacing in Feet .................................................................... 115
Table 34: Minimum Antenna Horizontal Spacing in Meters................................................................ 116
Table 35: Transducer Materials ............................................................................................................ 130
Table 36: Suitable Transducer Selection Combinations ....................................................................... 130
Table 37: Minimum Environmental Protection .................................................................................... 184
Table 38: Computer Application Matrix............................................................................................... 185
Table 39: Common Computer Interfaces .............................................................................................. 186
Table 40: USB Length Considerations by Version............................................................................... 187
Table 41: Vessel Navigation Parameters for AIS Class A and Class B ............................................... 192
Table 42: AIS Pilot Plug Input/output Port Pin Out ............................................................................. 195
Table 43: AIS Navigation Data Formats .............................................................................................. 197
Table 44: Vessel Type Identifiers ......................................................................................................... 198
Table 45: Equipment Tests and Requirements ..................................................................................... 217
Table 46: Typical SSB Transmission Test Measurements ................................................................... 232
Table 47: SSB Transmission Measurements ........................................................................................ 234
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Table 48: VHF Test Measurements ...................................................................................................... 238
Table 49: Satellite System Voltage Test ............................................................................................... 240
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INTRODUCTION
These standards have been published to clarify and define appropriate and consistent
installation practices onboard vessels for marine electronics installers, technicians,
electricians, surveyors, owners, and/or others who may have occasion to install, service,
or modify the installation of electronics, electrical systems, or other associated
peripherals.
1.1
Purpose and Scope
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The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) has developed these Installation
Standards to promote practices that will yield consistent and professional results in the
installation of marine electronics on vessels worldwide. The NMEA membership is
made up of national and international technical experts, many of whom generously
contributed their experience, expertise, and vision to the development of this document.
The Installation Standards are created and edited by the NMEA Installation Standards
Committee and is one of NMEA’s Technical Standards Committees under the guidance
of the NMEA Standards Development Program Committee.
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The Installation Standards are intended for all vessels that use marine electronics
systems for communication, navigation, and electronic electrical distribution purposes.
The focus of the Installation Standards is operational safety – safety that comes from
reliable equipment operation at the highest performance level achievable. High
performance is only achievable when every component is installed in a manner that
maximizes the available signal or data while minimizing unwanted influences. These
Installation Standards provide the necessary guidance to identify and avoid practices
that compromise operational performance in a marine environment.
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The Installation Standards also address emerging trends for the use of more
sophisticated CPU-based and multitasking equipment and systems on vessels. These
latest trends have introduced a world of more complex marine electronics products and
have increased the capabilities of communication, navigation, and related systems.
Along with increased capabilities has come a higher degree of network integration that
requires a higher degree of installation knowledge and expertise than at any previous
time in the history of boating. The practices in these standards address these changing
conditions as well as prepare a foundation for future requirements.
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1.1.1
Disclaimer
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These Installation Standards represent a guide to achieving specific levels of
performance and are promulgated by the NMEA for voluntary conformance. NMEA
believes that implementing these commonly accepted practices will enhance boating
safety and bring continuity and uniformity to marine electronics installation activities
which, in turn, improves customer satisfaction industry-wide.
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Prospective users of these Installation Standards are responsible for determining the
appropriateness of the information contained herein for a specific vessel and its
intended use. NMEA assumes no responsibility whatsoever for the use, or non-use, of
these Installation Standards; the adaptation of processes and information contained
herein; or any resulting consequences of such use, non-use, or adaptation. Additional
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limitations on use technical information contained in these Installation Standards may
apply; see End User License Agreement.
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Prospective users of these Installation Standards are responsible for protecting
themselves against liability for infringement of patents.
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1.1.2
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These Installation Standards do not substitute for installation and design requirements
that may be imposed by local regulatory agencies pertaining to physical safety of
electrical and electronic equipment. Such regulatory requirements establish minimum
standards for wiring and associated equipment sufficient to protect equipment and
personnel from over-current, fire, shock, or other environmental hazards intrinsic to the
marine environment such equipment is installed and operated in. Professionals
following these Installation Standards should understand and meet all standards
applicable to the locality they are working within. Domestically and internationally,
this standard defers to the proper and appropriate standards for power circuitry
protection as promulgated by each respective country’s regulatory agency. Refer to
Section 1.2.2 for other potentially applicable standards.
1.2
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Local Regulations
References
The following Normative references form a part of these Installation Standards to the
extent they are referenced herein. Where conflicts exist between this document and the
normative references listed below, the normative reference shall take precedence.
Informative references provide essential background requirements that may or may not
have applicability, depending on the geographic locale.
1.2.1
Normative References
ABYC E-11, AC and DC Electrical Systems on Boats, American Boat & Yacht
Council, Inc., July 2003.
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EIA/TIA-568, Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard,
Electronics Industry Alliance: Telecommunications Industry Association, April 2001.
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IEC 60529, Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code), International
Electrotechnical Commission, Edition 2.1, 2001.
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IEEE 802.3-2005, Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems;
Local and Metropolitan Area Networks; Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Inc., December, 2005.
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NEMA 250, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum), National
Electrical Manufacturers Association, January 1, 2003.
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NMEA 0183, Standard for Interfacing Marine Electronic Devices.
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NMEA 0183-HS, 38.4 K Baud Serial Data Standard for Interfacing Marine Electronic
Devices.
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NMEA 2000®, Standard for Serial-data Networking of Marine Electronic Devices,
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TT-S-00230C(2), Sealing Compound, Elastomeric Type, Single Component, U.S.
General Services Administration, Federal Acquisition Service, October 1970.
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TT-S-227B(1), Sealer Compound; Rubber Base, Two Component, U.S. General
Services Administration, Federal Acquisition Service, June 1965.
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1.2.2
Informative References
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ABYC A-31, Battery Chargers and Inverters, American Boat & Yacht Council, Inc.,
2005.
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ABYC E-2, Cathodic Protection, American Boat & Yacht Council, Inc., July 2001.
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ABYC TE-4, Lightning Protection, American Boat & Yacht Council, Inc., 2006.
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ABYC E-10, Storage Batteries, American Boat & Yacht Council, Inc., 2006.
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ABYC C-1500: Ignition Protection Test for Marine Products (Formerly UL1500)
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Code of Practice for Electrical and Electronic Installations in Small Craft, Fifth
Edition, British Marine Electrical & Electronics Association, 2001, updated to April
2013.
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ISO 10133, Small craft – Electrical systems – Extra-low-voltage D.C. Installations,
International Organization for Standardization, 2012.
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ISO 13297, Small craft – Electrical systems – Alternating Current Installations,
International Organization for Standardization, 2012.
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference T2/2.07
SN/Circular 217 11 July 2001: INTERIM GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESENTATION
AND DISPLAY OF AIS TARGET INFORMATION
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference T2-OSS/2.7.1
SN.1/Circular 243/Add.1 10 December 2008: CORRIGENDA TO SN/CIRC.227 ON
GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTALLATION OF A SHIPBORNE AUTOMATIC
IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM (AIS)
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference T2-OSS/2.7.1
SN.1/Circular 243/Add.1 10 December 2008 AMENDMENT TO GUIDELINES FOR
THE PRESENTATION OF NAVIGATION-RELATED SYMBOLS, TERMS AND
ABBREVIATIONS
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference T2-OSS/2.7.1
SN/Circular 243 15 December 2004 GUIDELINES FOR THE PRESENTATION OF
NAVIGATION-RELATED SYMBOLS, TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference T2-OSS/2.7.1
SN/Circular 244 15 December 2004 GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF THE
UN/LOCODE IN THE DESTINATION FIELD IN AIS MESSAGES
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference
T2-OSS/2.7.1 SN.1/Circular 289 2 June 2010: GUIDANCE ON THE USE OF AIS
APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES
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IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION Reference
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T2-OSS/2.7.1 SN.1/Circular 290 2 June 2010 GUIDANCE FOR THE
PRESENTATION AND DISPLAY OF AIS APPLICATION-SPECIFIC MESSAGES
INFORMATION
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Title 46 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter I, Subpart T, Part 183, Small
Passenger Vessels (Under 100 Gross Tons), United States Coast Guard (USCG),
Department of Homeland Security.
IMO INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION SN.1/Circular 322
24 June 2013 INFORMATION ON THE DISPLAY OF AIS-SART, AIS MAN
OVERBOARD AND EPIRB-AIS DEVICES
Title 33 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 183, Boats and Associated
Equipment, United States Coast Guard (USCG), Department of Homeland Security.
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1.3
Comments and Corrections
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NMEA places a high priority on ensuring that its specifications and standards are up to
date and sponsors a working committee that continually monitors technological
changes in marine electronics in order to periodically update and revise these standards
as deemed necessary. If you have comments, corrections, or topics you would like
addressed by the working committee, contact the NMEA.
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Requests may be submitted electronically via e-mail to [email protected] or may be
mailed or faxed to:
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NMEA
7 Riggs Avenue
Severna Park, MD 21146-3819 USA
Phone: 001 (410) 975-9425
Fax: 001 (410) 975-9450
Web: www.nmea.org
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Please be sure to include the following information in your request:
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Comments and Corrections Form
Date:
Name:
Company:
Address:
City:
State:
Zip:
E-mail Address:
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Phone Number:
Document Title:
Document
Version/Revision:
Document
Publication Date:
Short Description:
NMEA 0400 Installation Standards
Version 4.000
2014
Page:
Section:
Figure Number:
Table Number:
Item Number:
Detailed
Description:
Include any
additional
information you
think is required
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This section identifies recommended standards and practices for providing power to
onboard electronic systems. This information is intended to ensure an adequate power
distribution system that supports all installed electronics and is easy for the owner to
monitor and operate.
2.1
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AC AND DC WIRING INSTALLATION
General Considerations
Power supply connections for onboard electronics installed in accordance with these
standards shall meet the requirements identified in the following paragraphs. When
requirements cannot be met with existing power distribution systems, additional power
distribution components are to be installed in accordance with the remaining provisions
of Section 2.
2.1.1
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Existing Capacity
Prior to installation of electronic devices, the onboard power distribution system wiring
and panels shall be evaluated to determine if existing capacity will adequately supply
the new devices that will be installed. Criteria for determining the power capability of
the existing system installation include the following factors:
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•
New electronic device load requirements
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•
Existing power capacity of the main distribution panel and/or sub-panel
determined by evaluating:
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o Feed wire size and length
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o Existing load requirements
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o Available spare breakers or fuses
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A separate evaluation is required for each distribution panel area and/or input voltage
available. If both 24VDC and 12VDC are available and used to provide power to
electronic equipment, separate evaluations shall be performed for each voltage.
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Evaluation results will determine if the new equipment can be directly connected to an
existing distribution panel, or if new feed cables and over-current protection need to be
installed. For new construction, the electrical requirements of vessel service equipment
and electronic devices need to be considered to determine the total load requirements.
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2.1.2
New Electronic Device Load Requirements
Load requirements for new electronic devices to be installed shall be determined from
the manufacturer’s specifications. If input power is specified in watts, then calculate
the input current in amps by dividing the input power in watts by the minimum usable
voltage from the following list:
•
•
•
For 12-volt systems: use 11 V
For 24-volt systems: use 22 V
For 32-volt systems: use 30 V
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Consider the example of an electronic device that operates on a nominal 12-volt system
and consumes 48 watts. Compute the input amps as follows and round to the nearest
10th of an amp:
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Input current = 48 watts / 11volts = 4.4 amps
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2.1.3
Existing Distribution Panel Capacity
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The following method, incorporating methods from ABYC E-11 for determining wire
size and type, should be used to determine if existing distribution panels or sub-panels
have sufficient capacity for the new equipment. Methods identified by the local
regulatory agency may be substituted. All methods should include the following basic
steps:
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1. Determine the total load of existing equipment and new equipment to be
added.
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2. Verify that the existing panel feed wire and breakers have sufficient current
carrying capacity for the determined load.
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3. Verify that the existing panel feed wire has a 3% or less voltage drop for the
determined load, considering the round-trip distance from the battery to the
panel and back to the battery.
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4. If either of the last two verifications fails, the feed to the existing panel must
be upgraded or a new distribution panel is required.
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2.1.4
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Sub-panels
A separate sub-panel is recommended to consolidate and identify electronics loads
separately from other loads or from other electronics at a different helm location. A
separate sub-panel should be considered when either of the following conditions exists:
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1. Electronics are to be installed at a helm location at a distance greater than 10
feet (3.04 m) from an existing distribution panel.
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2. Electronics are to be installed in multiple helm locations.
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2.1.5
Wiring and Panel Marking
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Each breaker shall be clearly and consistently marked or labeled as to the equipment
powered from that breaker. The same label should be used at each item of equipment
where ambiguity may exist due to multiple equipment of the same function.
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Panels shall be marked according to their source and shall be consistent with marking
required in Section 4.2.3, Battery System Marking.
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For example:
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•
•
•
•
•
Ships Service Battery #1
Ships Service Battery #2
Electronics Battery #1
Emergency Battery #1
Main Deck Distribution Panel
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Wires shall be color coded with a table provided to the vessel owner, or shall be clearly
identified within 12 inches (30 cm) of each termination point with a clear marking to
identify either the wire number or the wire function.
2.1.6
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Wiring System Documentation
A diagram and/or table shall be prepared, noting for each installed item of equipment
the distribution panel and breaker location for the power source, the wire designation
and color, the breaker size, and the location and rating of any in-line fuse at the
equipment. The diagram, table, or accompanying description shall note the locations of
all connections and terminations and how to gain access to them for routine inspection.
2.1.7
AC and DC Conductor Designations
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AC and DC power distribution consists of two current-carrying conductors, one to
provide power to a device, and the other to provide a return path for the power back to
the power source. Generally, one of the two current-carrying conductors is
intentionally connected to ground. In addition, each distribution system also has a third
non-current carrying conductor that is also connected to ground in order to protect
personnel and equipment from becoming part of the current path.
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The following conductor nomenclature has been established for AC and DC systems
and is in alignment with other designations and standards within both the marine
industry and other industries.
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AC Ungrounded Conductor – Also referred to as the hot (live) conductor, this
conductor is maintained at a different potential from ground in order to cause current to
flow through attached equipment; typically black or brown.
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AC Grounded Conductor – Also referred to as the neutral conductor, this conductor is
intentionally maintained at ground potential and conducts current from the attached
equipment to ground; typically white or light blue.
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AC Grounding Conductor – This conductor normally conducts no current, but acts as
a safety ground for AC equipment by conducting current directly to ground in the event
that the AC Ungrounded Conductor comes in contact with a conductive equipment
case; typically green or green with yellow tracer. Grounding provides an alternate path
back to the source of power ensuring that a circuit breaker will trip.
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DC Ungrounded Conductor – Also referred to as the positive conductor, this
conductor is maintained at a different potential from ground in order to cause current to
flow through attached equipment ; typically red.
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DC Grounded Conductor – Also referred to as the negative conductor, this conductor
is intentionally maintained at ground potential and conducts current from the attached
equipment to ground or to the negative grounded terminal of a battery or charging
source; typically black or yellow
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
DC Grounding Conductor – This conductor normally conducts no current, and its
purpose is similar to the AC Grounding Conductor; typically green or green with
yellow tracer. The main benefit in marine applications is to protect metal enclosures
that may be in contact with seawater from exposure to energized conditions that could
lead to stray current corrosion. Unlike the AC Grounding Conductor, the DC
Grounding Conductor is normally routed separately from the current carrying
conductors, and is frequently used for bonding metal fixtures.
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728
729
730
731
732
733
734
Connection of the vessel ground to the earth ground is accomplished through contact
with the water. Several grounding systems, in addition to those identified here, are
used onboard vessels to increase safety or to improve onboard electronic device
performance. The nature and purpose of each grounding system and their
interconnection is described in more detail in Section 3, Grounding, Bonding, and
Lightning Protection.
2.2
Equipment Wiring Requirements
735
736
737
Electronic equipment shall be connected to the vessel power distribution system in
accordance with all standards applicable to the locality where they are installed (see
Section 1.1.3) and the provisions contained in the following paragraphs.
738
739
Data wire and cable selection are addressed separately in Section 7, Coaxial Cables,
and Section 8, Data Interfacing.
740
2.2.1
Wire Gauge
741
742
Wire used to provide power to electronic equipment shall have a gauge that is the
greatest cross-sectional area of:
743
744
745
1. The gauge determined in accordance with all standards applicable to the locality
where the equipment is installed to provide the current carrying capacity
requirements of the connected equipment (see Section 1.1.3).
746
747
2. For AC circuits, the gauge determined by the methods described in Appendix C to
limit the voltage drop to 10% or less.
748
749
3. For DC circuits, the gauge determined by the methods described in Appendix C to
limit the voltage drop to 3% or less.
750
Tinned copper wire is recommended in all installations.
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
NOTE: When DC electronic equipment is connected to the power source via one or more
distribution panels or sub-panels, the round-trip distance used to compute the
voltage drop for the purpose of determining wire size shall be the total round-trip
distance from the power source to the equipment, including the round-trip
distance(s) of each distribution panel or sub-panel from its respective distribution
point, unless the voltage drop is less than 1% at the distribution panel or subpanel from which the equipment is distributed.
758
2.2.2
Connections and Terminations
759
760
761
762
Power supply connections and terminations shall be made using termination types
identified in ABYC E-11, provided that the connection remains secure, without parting
or disconnecting, when subjected to the Tensile Test Forces for Connections identified
therein. Termination methods that satisfy these requirements include:
763
764
1. Insulated ring or captive spade lugs connected to barrier strips, breakers, buss bars,
or other devices
765
2. Pressure type terminal strips, such as Wago-strips or Euro-strips
766
3. Manufacturer-provided connectors
767
768
All connections and terminations shall be located where they may be routinely
inspected, and their location shall be documented in accordance with Section 2.1.6.
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2.3
770
771
772
773
774
Electrical distribution panels installed or upgraded to satisfy the requirements of
Section 2.1 shall be installed or upgraded in accordance with all standards applicable to
the locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.3) and the provisions contained in
the following paragraphs.
2.3.1
775
776
777
778
779
780
Distribution Panels
Capacity
Distribution panels or sub-panels shall be designed to accommodate all electronic
equipment at a specific helm location and should include at least two spare breaker
locations for expansion. The sub-panel load capacity, feed cable size, and feeder overcurrent protection shall be determined in accordance with all standards applicable to the
locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.3).
2.3.2
Voltmeters
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
Each distribution panel and sub-panel supplying power to electronic equipment and
having a total load capacity of greater than 10 amps shall provide a means of displaying
the actual, available voltage supplied to the panel. Such means may include a voltmeter
or other voltage monitoring equipment. The voltage display shall be mounted within
visibility of the panel or within the normal operation of the equipment at the helm and
shall be labeled to identify the panel source it is monitoring. If the voltmeter is
mounted separately from the panel, over-current protection shall be provided to protect
the leads from the panel to the voltmeter.
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
If a voltmeter is used, a digital voltmeter is recommended. An analog voltmeter with
an expanded range or a maximum voltage scale of not more than 150% of the rated
operating voltage is acceptable. Voltmeters may be connected directly to the input
source or may be connected by momentary contact switch for monitoring more than
one source, if multiple sources of the same operating voltage are supplying a panel.
Meter switch positions shall be clearly labeled in accordance with the identification
requirements of Section 2.1.3.
796
2.3.3
Multiple Voltages
797
798
799
800
If a panel contains more than one system voltage, the different system voltages shall be
identified clearly on both the front and rear of the panel. Sections of a distribution
panel will be electrically and physically isolated if more than one system voltage is
included in the design of the panel.
801
802
803
If a panel contains more than one system voltage, there will be separate and
independent meters to identify the different system voltages, and identification of the
voltage connections at the rear of the panel.
804
805
806
807
NOTE: Voltage monitoring systems that measure and display multiple voltages may be
used provided that voltage measurement is performed using independent
elements, and there is no possibility of cross connecting the voltages within, or
external to, the voltage monitoring system.
808
2.4
809
810
Ignition Protection
Potential electrical sources of ignition located in enclosed spaces containing explosive
materials, or containing machinery, equipment, or fittings that may contain explosive
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811
812
813
814
materials, shall be ignition protected. Explosive materials include, but are not limited to
gasoline, propane, and compressed natural gas (CNG). Refer to CFR-33 and ABYC E11 Standards for more information on enclosed spaces.
2.5
815
816
817
Example Wiring Diagrams
The wiring diagrams shown herein illustrate accepted practices for connecting installed
electronics and distribution panels to provide power to onboard electronics.
2.5.1
Electronics Power from Main Distribution
818
819
820
Electronics powered from a single main or electronics distribution panel are illustrated
in Figure 1. The distribution panel is powered from a battery separate from the main
engine cranking battery. This example should be followed when:
821
822
823
1. No battery other than the main cranking battery was available at the start of
installation, and the installation includes a new battery and distribution panel to
support the installed electronics, or
824
825
2. An existing general use battery and main distribution panel with sufficient capacity
for the new electronics.
826
827
Figure 1: General use Battery with One Distribution Panel
828
829
830
831
2.5.2
Electronics Power from Sub-panel
Electronics powered from a separate sub-panel devoted to electronic loads are shown in
Figure 2. The sub-panel may be powered from the same battery as the main
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832
833
834
835
distribution panel if there is sufficient capacity for the vessel’s intended use. A separate
sub-panel is required if an existing distribution panel cannot provide the required
current carrying capacity or has insufficient spares for the electronics to be installed.
836
837
Figure 2: Separate Sub-panel for Electronics
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
2.5.3
DC Load Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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848
3
849
850
851
852
GROUNDING, BONDING, AND LIGHTNING PROTECTION
This section identifies recommended standards for the installation of various grounding
systems employed on a vessel. The information provided is intended to explain the
purpose of each grounding system and illustrate acceptable interconnection methods.
3.1
General Considerations
853
854
855
856
Onboard electronics installed in accordance with this specification are to be
interconnected by appropriately configured ground systems as specified in the
following paragraphs. Where identified ground systems are not available, they shall be
installed in accordance with the remaining provisions of Section 3.
857
858
859
860
NOTE: Older and restored vessels may use a “Positive Ground” DC distribution system
where the Battery Positive connection is grounded. Proper operation of electronic
equipment may require additional power conversions not addressed by these
standards.
861
3.1.1
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
Grounding Systems
The purpose of grounding systems is to establish a common electrical reference at the
electrical potential of the earth’s surface, known as Ground Potential, and extend that
reference throughout the vessel. Ground Potential is established by connecting the
vessel ground to the earth ground through contact with the water, except for floating
ground systems. There are several grounding systems onboard a vessel, each intended
to perform different but similar functions. Table 1 lists the various ground systems that
may be required and identifies where further information may be found.
869
870
Table 1: Vessel Grounding Systems
System
DC Ground or Negative
AC Ground or Neutral
AC Grounding (Safety)
RF Ground
Type
Reference
Reference
Safety
Performance
Single Side Band (SSB)
Ground
DC Grounding
Lightning Ground
Performance
When Required
All vessels with DC Systems
Vessels with AC Shore Power,
Generator, or Inverter Installed
Vessels with electronics
equipment installed
Vessels with SSB transceiver
installed
Reference
Safety
Further Information
Section 2
Section 2
Section 3.2
Section 17.5
Section 3.3
Section 3.4
871
872
873
Ground systems can be classified by function and also by whether they carry current or
not. Ground functions include:
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
Safety Grounds – Safety grounds are generally non-current carrying grounds intended
to short dangerous potentials away from personnel, equipment, and the vessel in order
to prevent injury or damage. Safety grounds include the AC Grounding system and the
Lightning Ground system. Although current is not normally being carried in these
systems, they must have the capacity to carry the currents they are expected to protect
against for short periods of time. In the case of the Lightning Ground system, this
current can reach very high levels for a short period of time.
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881
882
883
884
885
886
Performance Grounds – Performance grounds are used to reduce noise in electronic
equipment and improve signal transmission and reception. Non-current carrying
connections are typically made to Loran C receivers, differential radio beacon
receivers, and Low Frequency (LF)/ Medium Frequency (MF)/ High Frequency (HF)
transceivers for reducing noise. A current-carrying example is the MF/HF SSB antenna
system, which does not carry DC current but will carry RF current.
887
888
889
890
891
892
Reference Grounds – Reference grounds are used to establish a potential in order to
induce current flow in a desired direction. Obvious uses of reference grounds are the
AC and DC distribution systems that use reference grounds to establish the necessary
voltage and polarity. Another reference ground is the DC Grounding system that is
frequently employed for bonding through-hull fixtures, although the currents in that
system are so low that it is usually considered a non-current carrying system.
893
894
895
896
897
898
NOTE: Some vessels, particularly those with multiple DC voltage distribution systems
(e.g., 12-volt and 24-volt systems) or a metal hull, may have one or more DC
distribution systems floating, meaning that neither positive nor negative
conductors are connected to the vessel ground systems. Special care must be
taken not to ground floating distribution systems through improperly isolated
equipment.
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
An ideal situation would be a single point where all grounding systems come together
at Ground Potential and through which there is no current flowing. For practical
reasons, a single point is rarely achievable, and each ground system has its own bus that
must be connected together with the other busses. A Common Ground, which is part of
the DC Common Grounding system as shown in Figure 3, may serve as the single point
Ground Potential where all ground plates are connected directly to it. In some vessels
with minimal electronics and no ground plates, the engine serves as Ground Potential
by virtue of its large mass and contact with water though the shaft and propeller.
907
908
909
The remaining ground system connections in Figure 3 are arranged so that there is no
current between any ground system and the Common Ground. No current flow means
that there is no voltage differential generated because of conductor resistance.
910
911
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912
913
Figure 3: Grounding System Interconnection
914
915
916
917
The three ground systems related to AC and DC power distribution are addressed in
Section 2, AC and DC Wiring and are not discussed further here. The four remaining
ground systems are discussed in more detail below.
3.1.2
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
All electronic devices with metallic display cases shall have the equipment display case
connected to the RF Ground system identified in Section 3.2. The conductor size
between the display case and the RF Ground system bus may be chosen to be
compatible with the size of the grounding lug provided on the case, but shall be bonded
to a conductor that is a minimum of #10 AWG within 18 inches (45 cm) of the display
case. A conductor of #8 AWG is preferred if the distance between the display case and
the RF Ground system bus is greater than 3 feet (1 m).
3.1.3
926
927
928
929
930
931
935
936
937
Electrical Equipment Grounding
All electrical equipment with metallic cases, including motors, windlasses, pumps, and
radar antenna motor base units, shall be connected to the DC Common Grounding
system. Conductor type and size shall be as specified in ABYC E-2, Cathodic
Protection. Connection may be made to a metallic structure meeting the requirements
of Section 3.1.5.
3.1.4
932
933
934
Electronic Equipment and Display Grounding
MF/HF SSB
SSB transceivers and SSB antenna tuners shall be interconnected with the SSB Ground
system in accordance with the provisions in Section 17.3.5, SSB Grounding.
3.1.5
Metal Structures
All metallic structures mounted to the vessel, including metallic half towers, metallic
radar arches, T-tops, tuna towers, outriggers, davits, etc., shall be connected to the DC
Common Grounding system. Conductor type and size shall be as specified in ABYC
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938
939
940
E-2, Cathodic Protection. Structures that straddle the vessel shall have at least two
conductors, one run each on the port and starboard sides. The connections shall be
clearly labeled as “Ground Connection. Do not disconnect.”
941
942
943
Where other means of lightning protection are not provided and the structure forms a
part of the Lightning Ground system, conductor type and size shall be as specified in
ABYC TE-4, Lightning Protection.
944
3.1.6
945
946
947
Marking and Color
All ground system wiring not subject to other marking requirements shall be insulated
with a green or green-with-colored-stripe jacket. Each end of each ground system wire
shall be labeled with the name of the ground system of which it is a part.
948
949
NOTE: MF/HF SSB antenna grounding systems may employ copper strap or tubing that
is exempt from this requirement.
950
3.2
RF Ground System
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
The primary purpose of the RF Ground system is to enhance or improve the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the received radio signals by reducing stray EMI. It is typically
used for receivers in the Very low Frequency (VLF) to HF bands, such as Omega,
Loran C, differential beacon, and MF/HF. The RF Ground system is separate from the
DC Ground and AC Ground systems and sets electronic equipment cases and cable
system shields at a common ground potential, free from noise sources that may be
introduced by the DC or AC distribution system.
958
959
960
961
The RF Ground system is not intended to be a current-carrying ground system. The RF
ground bus shall be interconnected with the DC Ground system in such a manner that
DC ground currents are not carried on any part of the RF Ground system path to
Ground Potential.
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
The point of interconnection will depend on where the Ground Potential is defined. On
small vessels without any other ground plates, the engine is considered Ground
Potential, and the RF Ground system is connected directly to the engine negative
terminal. On larger vessels with one or more ground plates, the ground plates or
Common Ground bus directly connected to them is considered Ground Potential, and
the RF Ground system is connected directly to the ground plate or Common Ground
bus.
969
RF Ground system buss conductors shall be a minimum of #8 AWG.
970
971
972
973
NOTE: For vessels with metallic hulls (steel or aluminum), where the DC Ground system
is connected to the hull and not floating, the hull shall be considered part of the
RF Ground system and may be connected to directly as a means of connecting to
the RF Ground system.
974
3.3
975
976
977
978
979
980
DC Common Grounding System
The DC Common Grounding system interconnects the other vessel ground systems and
may form a part of other systems through shared conductors. Cathodic Protection, if
installed, forms a part of the DC Common Grounding system. Cathodic Protection is
intended to reduce galvanic corrosion of metal through-hull fittings and metal
enclosures for DC powered equipment on the vessel. By virtue of the number of
through-hull fittings normally connected to the DC Grounding system, and the DC
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981
982
983
Grounding system’s proximity to the hull and therefore the water, the DC Grounding
system is often the main connection between the vessel and earth ground.
3.3.1
DC Common Grounding Connections
984
985
986
987
988
989
Connections with and extensions to the DC Common Grounding system shall be made
in accordance with Section 2, AC and DC Wiring. Where elements of the DC Common
Grounding system are shared with other ground systems, they shall meet the
requirements of whichever system imposes the greater requirement. If Cathodic
Protection is used aboard the vessel, it shall be connected with the DC Common
Grounding system in accordance with ABYC E-11.
990
991
992
A grid-like connection layout, as shown in Figure 4, is recommended to improve the
reliability and performance of the DC Common Grounding system, particularly when
additional ground plates for SSB, Lightning, or other grounds are not installed.
993
994
995
996
Figure 4: DC Common Grounding System (ABYC-E-11)
3.3.2
Types of Corrosion
997
998
999
1000
1001
The following descriptions identify different corrosion problems that are encountered
on vessels. The first three items are the most common problems the installer will face.
The last three are typically the result of a vessel’s berthing location, the type of
materials used underwater, or the fabrication of the vessel. Sometimes it is difficult to
identify the source(s) of the problem, since many of the results appear to be identical.
1002
1003
1004
Electrolysis – A chemical and/or electrochemical change in a solution due to the
passage of electric current. This term is sometimes used incorrectly to mean galvanic
or stray current corrosion, or any of the other types of corrosion.
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1005
1006
1007
1008
Galvanic Corrosion – Corrosion resulting from electric current flow between
dissimilar metals in contact with the same electrolyte. Galvanic Corrosion may also
result from dissimilar variations in the composition of a single alloy (sometimes called
selective corrosion) in contact with the same electrolyte.
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
Stray Current Corrosion – Similar to galvanic corrosion in that the more positive
areas lose material to the less positive areas in an electrolyte, but it is caused by an
outside source rather than spontaneously. The boat’s DC or AC system, the dock /
marina A/C system, or other boats at the dock/marina could be the source of stray
currents.
1014
1015
1016
1017
Velocity Corrosion or Ion Concentration – Most common if the vessel is berthed in a
channel where the tide is very strong (water moves at several knots). Tidal flow can
cause electrical currents that severely erode props, shafts, and other exposed metal
surfaces.
1018
1019
1020
Selective Corrosion – A type of galvanic corrosion where the alloy is not properly
made and pieces of different metals are in an electrolyte. The metal has a pitted
appearance much like that of stray current corrosion.
1021
1022
1023
Oxygen Starvation – When metal surfaces overlap, the water between surfaces lacks
oxygen, making this surface more positive (anodic) to the rest of the same metal and
resulting in galvanic corrosion.
1024
3.4
Lightning Ground System
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
The probability of a lightning strike varies with geographic location and the time of the
year, but when the conditions that create an electrical charge between clouds and the
earth exist, nothing can be done to prevent the lightning discharge. A boat can be
struck in open water or while tied to the dock/marina. There are three basic ways that
lightning can cause damage aboard a vessel.
1030
1031
1032
1033
Direct Strike – The lightning discharge hits a part of the vessel, such as an antenna,
and travels down the cable into the radio or antenna coupler. It may exit into the power
or ground lines and be conducted through other equipment before exiting into the
water.
1034
1035
1036
Conductive Strike – Lightning strikes a utility line and then is conducted aboard
through the main AC power cord. This kind of strike may also be called a power surge
and may be either a positive or negative surge.
1037
1038
1039
Inductive Strike – Lightning hits a nearby object such as a tree or flagpole and causes
a large magnetic field, which in turn induces a voltage in the vessel’s wiring. The
voltage can be either a positive or negative pulse or surge.
1040
3.4.1
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
Conductive and Inductive Strike Protection
Several products are available commercially for protection against surges from
conductive and inductive strikes. Individual manufacturer specifications should be
consulted to determine their best application.
3.4.2
Direct Strike Protection
An air terminal connected to the Lightning Ground system is recommended for
protection against direct lightning strikes. Air terminals and the Lightning Ground
system shall be installed in accordance with ABYC TE-4, Lightning Protection.
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1048
4
BATTERY INSTALLATION
1049
1050
1051
1052
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for batteries used to
provide power for onboard electronic systems. The information provided is intended to
result in a battery of adequate capacity that is easy for the owner/operator to use and
maintain in top condition.
1053
1054
1055
NOTE: In these standards, the term "battery" is used to refer to either a single battery or
a bank of batteries that are connected in series or parallel so as to provide a
desired voltage or capacity.
1056
4.1
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
General Considerations
Onboard electronics installed in accordance with these standards shall be provided with
power from a battery that meets the requirements identified in the following
paragraphs. When requirements cannot be met with existing equipment, additional
batteries are to be installed in accordance with the remaining provisions of Section 4.
4.1.1
Power Source for Electronics
1062
1063
1064
Installed electronics shall be provided power from a battery source functionally
independent from engine or generator starting batteries. A separate General use battery
used for other DC loads, if available, may be used as a source for electronics.
1065
1066
1067
1068
The battery used as the electronics power source may be wired using a selectable
battery switch so that it may be paralleled with one or more engine or generator starting
batteries or an emergency battery. Parallel connections may be made using any of the
following means:
1069
1070
1071
•
A multiple-selection OFF-1-BOTH-2 battery switch to disconnect electronic loads,
with the 1 terminal connected to the electronic battery source and the 2 terminal
connected to a terminal in the cranking conductor path.
1072
1073
1074
•
A separate ON-OFF battery switch from the battery switch used to disconnect
electronic loads, which connects the positive ungrounded battery terminal to a
terminal in the cranking conductor path.
1075
1076
•
An electrically operated battery switch that connects the positive ungrounded
battery terminal to a terminal in the cranking conductor path.
1077
Parallel connections shall be made as short as possible.
1078
1079
1080
NOTE: When the main power system onboard is a voltage other than 12 volts DC,
installed electronics shall not be powered from a tap in between batteries, unless a
suitable battery charge/voltage equalizer is installed.
1081
4.1.2
Emergency Communications Battery
1082
1083
1084
1085
An emergency communications battery is used to power the main Very High Frequency
(VHF) band radio, navigation lights, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver,
if installed on the vessel. A separate battery to power emergency communications is
recommended in installations where either of the following conditions exists:
1086
1087
1. The capacity of the battery sourcing electronics loads is insufficient to provide
continued operation for at least 6 hours, or
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1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
2. The battery sourcing electronics loads is located in a space subject to flooding.
When installed, an emergency communications battery shall be located where it
will remain above water level if the machinery spaces are flooded, and shall have
sufficient capacity to provide power to connected loads for a minimum of 6 hours.
4.1.2.1
Emergency Communications Battery Capacity
1093
1094
1095
The capacity for the emergency communications battery shall be calculated from the
combined load of all connected equipment, taking into account the equipment duty
cycle as follows:
1096
1097
•
Each unit containing a radio transmitter will use a duty cycle of 50% rated transmit
current and 50% rated receive current.
1098
•
All other loads will use a duty cycle of 100% rated current.
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
Table 2 shows how the rated equipment loads are tabulated and summed for typical
equipment attached to the emergency communications battery. The battery capacity is
computed with the following equation using the total current in each column to derive
the average discharge rate required from the battery. See Appendix D, Battery
Capacity Calculations, to determine the required Battery Reserve Capacity that meets
this requirement.
1105
Discharge rate
1106
= ((0.5 x 10.0 A) + (0.5 x 3.0 A) + 6.5 A)
= 13.0 Amp
1107
1108
Table 2: Emergency Communications 12 Volt Battery Loads
Item
Manufacturer
& Model
VHF
GPS
Navigation Lights
AIS
Totals
1109
4.1.3
Transmit
Power
6.0 A
Receive
Power
1.0 A
Other Power
0.5 A
6.0 A
4.0 A
10.0 A
2.0 A
3.0 A
6.5 A
Battery Construction
1110
1111
1112
1113
Lead-acid batteries are used in most marine applications and consist of lead and lead
dioxide plates immersed in a sulfuric acid solution. The following battery construction
types are acceptable as power sources for electronics installations and differ primarily
in the way the sulfuric acid solution is maintained:
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
•
Wet Cell Batteries. Liquid sulfuric acid is used to immerse the plates in Wet Cell
(also known as Flooded) batteries. Hydrogen gas generated by the charging cycle is
allowed to vent from the battery, reducing the level of acid available to cover the
plates. As a result, Wet Cell Lead-Acid batteries require periodic maintenance to
ensure that the plates remain submerged.
1119
1120
1121
1122
•
Gel Cell Batteries. The sulfuric acid is mixed with other materials to form a
viscous substance that completely encases the plates in Gel Cell batteries. Gel Cell
batteries are sealed; as a result, hydrogen and oxygen created during charging is
recombined internally, forming water that remains inside the case.
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1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
•
Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Batteries. The sulfuric acid is absorbed in dense
fiberglass mats compressed between the plates in AGM batteries. AGM batteries
are also sealed, allowing hydrogen and oxygen to recombine internally. In addition,
the fiberglass mats tend to reinforce the AGM battery plate structure, making them
more shock and vibration resistant.
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
•
Lithium Ion Batteries. Lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the
positive electrode during discharge and back when charging. Lithium Ion batteries
use an intercalated lithium compound as the electrode material. Saves up to 70% in
space and weight, can have up to three times the lifespan of traditional batteries
(2000 cycles), and have Ultra-fast charging and discharging. See manufacturer’s
recommendations for storage, charging, installation, and operation.
1134
1135
NOTE: Batteries shall be charged and maintained using a charging source designed
appropriately for their construction.
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
NOTE: Batteries of different construction or age or in different ambient conditions will
exhibit different charge and discharge rates. Batteries in the same bank intended
to be charged or discharged as a unit shall be of the same construction (Wet Cell,
Gel Cell, or AGM) and relative age. In addition, batteries in the same bank shall
be located so that they are exposed to the same ambient conditions at all times.
1141
4.1.4
Battery Capacity
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
Batteries used as a power source for onboard electronics shall be of adequate capacity
for their intended use. Battery capacities shall be determined in accordance with
Appendix D, Battery Capacity Calculations. If using a General use battery, load
calculations shall include both electronic and non-electronic loads. Acceptable
methods of ensuring adequate capacity include increasing the General use battery
capacity or installing a separate electronics battery.
1148
1149
1150
As new electronics are added to a vessel, the available battery power, charging
capabilities, distribution panels, and wire sizes need to be re-evaluated and upgraded as
demand for power is increased.
1151
4.2
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
Battery System Requirements
Battery systems installed or upgraded in order to satisfy the requirements of Section 4.1
shall incorporate the features identified in the following paragraphs.
4.2.1
Voltage Monitoring
At least one external voltmeter shall be provided to monitor the battery voltage of each
battery bank installed in the vessel and used for engine cranking, generator cranking,
general use loads, electronic loads, or emergency communications. Voltmeter leads
shall be properly fused, and shall be connected at the battery terminals in order to
present the voltage at the battery without variations due to voltage drop in current
carrying leads. If a meter select switch is installed to enable a single meter to monitor
multiple batteries, the meter switch positions shall be clearly labeled in accordance with
the identification requirements of Section 4.2.4
NOTE: A digital voltmeter, or an analog voltmeter with an expanded range, is
recommended.
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1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
4.2.2
Overcurrent Protection
Overcurrent protection for batteries shall be within 7” of power source with the
following 2 exceptions (See Figure 5).
1. 72” MAX Exception: If the conductor is enclosed in a conduit for its entire length
when the connection is directly to the battery terminal.
2. 40” MAX Exception:-If the conductor is enclosed in a junction box, console, or
sheath, when the connection is to other than the battery terminal
1175
1176
1177
1178
Figure 5: Battery Overcurrent Protection
4.2.3
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
Access for Inspection and Maintenance
If the installation includes the use of Wet Cell Lead-Acid batteries, the installation
location shall provide the ability for the batteries to be visually inspected for internal
fluid level without the use of special visual aids. Sufficient space shall be provided
above the batteries to allow for periodic addition of water to Wet Cell Lead-Acid
batteries.
4.2.4
Battery System Marking
1185
1186
1187
1188
Each battery, or its enclosure, shall be clearly labeled with an identification label
describing the battery’s intended function. If connected to a battery selection switch,
the identification label shall include the connection number, and the battery switch label
shall use the same description to identify the corresponding switch position.
1189
For example:
1190
1191
1192
1193
•
•
•
•
Port Main Engine Start Battery
Starboard Main Engine Start Battery
Ships Service Battery #1
Ships Service Battery #2
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•
•
•
•
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
4.3
Electronics Battery #1
Emergency Battery #
General Use Battery #1
General Use Battery #2
Battery Installation and Connection
Batteries shall be installed and connected in accordance with all standards applicable to
the locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.2).
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1203
5
1204
1205
1206
1207
CHARGING SYSTEM INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for onboard charging
systems. The information provided is intended to produce a charging system of
adequate capacity that is easy for the owner/operator to use and maintain in top
condition.
1208
1209
1210
NOTE: In these standards, the term "battery" is used to refer to either a single battery or
a bank of batteries that are connected in series or parallel so as to provide a
desired voltage or capacity.
1211
5.1
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
General Considerations
Charging Systems installed in accordance with these standards shall be provided with
the capability to simultaneously charge all batteries while maintaining functional
isolation. When requirements cannot be met with existing equipment, additional
charging systems are to be installed in accordance with the remaining provisions of
Section 5.
5.1.1
Charging Capacity
1218
1219
1220
Sufficient charging capacity shall be provided to maintain the vessel in operational and
habitable condition under expected operating conditions, with excess capacity to recharge
the battery. Expected operating conditions may include, and are not limited to:
1221
1222
Underway – under either sail or power; includes loads such as navigation electronics,
navigation lights, and any other equipment the crew is expected to use while underway.
1223
1224
1225
1226
At Anchor – includes equipment the crew is expected to use while the vessel is at
anchor; may be characterized by discharge/charge cycles where a generator or
propulsion engine is run on a periodic basis to replenish power drawn over a longer
time period from the battery.
1227
1228
Docked – includes equipment the crew is expected to use while the vessel is tied up at
the docked / marina, and should be provided on a continuous basis.
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
The vessel owners should be consulted to determine what operating conditions are
appropriate for their vessel, and what equipment is to be provided under each operating
condition. As new electronics are added to a vessel, the available battery power and
charging capacities need to be re-evaluated and upgraded as demand for power is
increased.
1234
1235
In addition, if the vessel is wired for AC power, a means of charging from an AC power
source shall be provided.
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
5.1.1.1
Underway Charging
The charge rate of the charging device(s) connected to the electronics and/or General
use battery shall be of sufficient capacity to meet electrical demands while the vessel is
underway. Where isolators are used to charge multiple batteries from a single source,
the battery voltage will be less than the voltage measured at the charge source. Unless
the charge source is equipped to remotely measure battery voltage, the overall result
will be a longer time to charge the battery.
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1243
1244
Underway charging requirements may be satisfied by any combination of the following
methods:
1245
1246
•
Alternator Charging – Propulsion system mounted alternator charging
capacity may be used to meet underway charging capacity requirements.
1247
1248
1249
•
AC Charging - Charging capacity installed to meet the requirements of Section
5.1.1.2 may be used to meet the underway charging capacity requirements if an
onboard AC generator is operated at all times when the vessel is underway.
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
NOTE: Alternators are rated by their alternator rotor RPM, not propulsion engine RPM.
Alternators usually turn at 2 to 2½ times the engine RPM.
5.1.1.2
AC powered charging device connected to the electronics and/or General use battery
shall be of sufficient capacity for the equipment onboard and the manner in which the
vessel is used. Charger rated output shall be appropriate for the nominal DC system
voltage as follows:
•
•
•
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
5.2
1262
1263
1264
AC Charging
For 12-volt systems: use 11 V
For 24-volt systems: use 22 V
For 32-volt systems: use 30 V
Charging System Requirements
Battery charging systems installed to satisfy the requirements of Section 5.1 shall
incorporate the features identified in the following paragraphs.
5.2.1
Ambient Conditions
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
Battery charging and discharging rates are dependent on ambient conditions in the
enclosure or compartment a battery is installed in. In particular, temperature affects the
resistance of the battery, decreasing resistance as the battery temperature increases. As
a battery is charged or discharged, heat is generated and may increase battery
temperature, depending on how well the compartment or enclosure it is in is ventilated.
Batteries paralleled together in a bank and enclosed in the same compartment will
usually have the same state of charge, and little or no current will flow between them.
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
In extreme situations, where two batteries are paralleled but one battery is located in a
compartment with a higher ambient temperature, one battery’s temperature may rise
more rapidly than the other. As its temperature rises, a differential develops between
the charge states and internal resistance of each battery so that the higher temperature
battery begins to draw a significant current from the other battery paralleled with it.
The increase in available current, often without any current limiting device between the
batteries, further increases temperature and can lead potentially to a thermal runaway.
1279
1280
Accordingly, batteries paralleled in a single bank, intended to be charged or discharged
as a unit, shall be located so that they are exposed to the same ambient conditions.
1281
1282
1283
1284
5.2.2
Functional Isolation
Where multiple batteries are installed as separate functional power sources in a vessel,
functional isolation of battery charging systems is recommended to ensure the ability to
charge each battery independently without regard to load connections. Recommended
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1285
1286
1287
methods of charging multiple batteries from a single charging source include series
voltage regulators, battery combiners, battery isolators, and similar devices that parallel
charging circuits without paralleling load circuits.
1288
1289
1290
Devices used to charge multiple batteries from the same charging source may be
installed in parallel with manual or remotely controlled paralleling switches intended to
provide alternative power sources to loads under certain operational conditions.
1291
5.2.2.1
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
Series voltage regulators, also known as echo chargers, provide the ability to charge a
second battery bank from a charging source used primarily for another battery bank.
The series voltage regulator monitors and regulates the voltage to the second battery
bank to match the voltage of the source battery bank in accordance with its charging
cycle. Series voltage regulators only work in one direction; which charging system is
supplying power and which battery bank is being charged is determined by which
battery is connected to the input connection and which battery is connected to the
output connection. In the example shown in Figure 6, an AC General use battery
charger (not shown) will provide power so that the cranking battery charge can be
maintained when the AC charger is operational.
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
Series Voltage Regulators
Figure 6: Echo Charger Connection
5.2.2.2
Battery Combiners
Battery combiners act as an automatic paralleling switch, usually connecting the two
batteries when the voltage of either battery rises above approximately 13.3 volts,
indicating that a battery charger is operational on that battery. In the example shown in
Figure 7, the General use battery will receive power when the alternator is operational
and the cranking battery will receive power when the AC charger is operational.
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1310
1311
Figure 7: Battery Combiner Connection
1312
1313
1314
1315
NOTE: When the battery combiner is operational, the cranking battery and the General
use battery are being charged as a single bank. Batteries charged as a single bank
shall be of the same construction (Wet Cell, Gel Cell, or AGM) and relative age
and shall be located so that they are exposed to the same ambient conditions.
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
5.2.2.3
Battery Isolators
Battery isolators use diodes to direct charging current to more than one battery without
allowing current to flow between the two batteries. Since isolators usually exhibit a
voltage drop across the diodes, they are only recommended for alternator installations
where voltage regulation circuitry can be connected to regulate the voltage on the
battery side of the isolator. In the example shown in Figure 8, both the cranking battery
and the General use battery will receive power when the alternator is operational.
Figure 8: Battery Isolator Connection
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1325
5.2.3
1326
1327
1328
AC Chargers
Charging connections from the AC battery charging equipment shall remain functional
regardless of the position of battery load disconnect switches.
5.2.4
Documentation
1329
1330
The following documentation shall be provided to the vessel owner for each battery
charging system installed or upgraded.
1331
1332
1333
1. Interface diagram – showing each charging system and battery-paralleling device
used to connect batteries for the purpose of charging. This diagram shall indicate
the operating conditions under which each charge source is online.
1334
1335
2. Charge settings – for each charging source with user-selectable settings, a
summary of charge settings at the time of installation.
1336
5.3
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
Charging systems shall be installed in accordance with all standards applicable to the
locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.3), and in accordance with the
applicable provisions in Section 2, AC and DC Wiring. The following paragraphs
identify additional requirements that must be met when installing and connecting
battery paralleling devices used to support charging systems.
5.3.1
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
Charging System Installation and Wiring
Location
Battery paralleling devices shall be installed in a location that is free from exposure to
water, and shall either be in a protective enclosure, or the exposed terminals shall be
protected by an insulating device.
5.3.2
Ratings
Unless current limited, automatic battery paralleling devices shall be rated at no less
than the maximum current capability of the charging source. Where a charging source
exists on both sides of a battery-paralleling device, the combiner-paralleling device
shall be rated at no less than the maximum current capability of the larger of the two
charging sources.
1352
1353
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1354
6
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for power conversion
equipment that electronically converts power from DC to AC. The information
provided is intended to produce an inverting system of adequate capacity that is easy
for the owner/operator to use and maintain in top condition.
6.1
1360
1361
1362
1363
POWER INVERTER INSTALLATION
General Considerations
AC inverters installed in accordance with these standards shall be selected and sized as
described in the following paragraphs. Installation shall be performed in accordance
with the provisions in Section 6.2.
6.1.1
Power Inverter Types
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
Power inverters convert DC power to AC power electronically through power
switching and transformer technology. During the conversion process, some of the DC
energy is lost as heat, and a small amount of energy is used to control the conversion
process. Inverters are characterized by their output wave shape and by the available
methods of interconnecting them to the DC and AC power supply systems.
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
Basic inverters provide AC power as a modified sine wave. A modified sine wave is
closer in appearance to a square wave, but the square wave amplitude and duty cycle
have been adjusted so that the power integral under the square wave is equal to the
power integral of a true sine wave. Modified sine wave inverters typically generate
more EMI, due to the harmonic content of the square wave produced. In addition,
some loads, such as slow-turning AC motors and other inductive loads, do not work
well from a modified sine wave. In some cases, the heat generated from inefficient use
of a modified sine wave may cause motor windings to overheat.
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
More capable inverters using a true sine wave provide AC power that is comparable to
utility power. A wider variety of equipment and tools can be used with a true sine
wave inverter without concern for inefficient operation or equipment damage. Some
AC inverters with sine wave outputs also meet FCC Class B emissions requirements,
providing a level of interference protection for onboard electronics such as SSB
transceivers.
1383
1384
1385
AC inverters may be manufactured with either integral AC receptacles or hardwired
connections that may also incorporate automatic switching between the inverter and
some other AC power source.
1386
1387
1388
1389
On the DC input side, inverters may be manufactured either with cable sets designed
for mating with accessory plugs or cigarette lighter plugs, or with hardwired
connections to a battery or DC distribution system.
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1390
6.1.2
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
Selection and Sizing
AC inverters shall have fixed DC connections, wired in accordance with Section 2, AC
and DC Wiring. AC output connections may use either integral AC receptacles/sockets
or fixed wiring to an AC distribution panel board, depending on the load and number of
connections required.
NOTE: Inverter cable set and cigarette lighter plug wiring is usually inadequate for
reliable and consistent operation due to the poor contact arrangement and
inadequate wire sizes to carry the DC current required.
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
AC inverters shall be of sufficient capacity for the equipment to be powered from it.
DC average load shall be determined in accordance with manufacturer’s
recommendations to account for conversion inefficiencies. Where no manufacturer
recommendations have been provided, the DC load can be calculated by converting the
total equipment wattage into current for the appropriate system voltage in accordance
with Section 2.1.2, New Electronic Device Load Requirements, and then multiplying
that value by 1.1.
1405
1406
1407
Consider the example of an inverter that operates on a nominal 12-volt system and
provides power to AC devices totaling 500 watts. Compute the DC input amps as
follows, and round to the nearest 10th of an amp:
1408
DC input current = (500 watts / 11 volts) X 1.1 = 50 amps
1409
1410
NOTE: Inverter supply wire and over-current protection shall be determined based on
manufacturer-provided maximum current ratings.
1411
6.2
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
Power Inverter Installation
Power inverters shall be installed in accordance with all standards applicable to the
locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.3), and in accordance with the
applicable provisions in Section 2, AC and DC Wiring. When an inverter also serves as
a battery charger, it shall also meet the applicable provisions of Section 5, Charging
Systems.
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7
COAXIAL CABLE INSTALLATION
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of coaxial
cables used to connect radio equipment to their respective antennas. The information
provided is intended to produce an installation with minimum practicable losses
between the RF source and/or receiver and its antenna. For information regarding
digital data cables, refer to Section 8, Data Interfacing.
1424
Figure 9 below illustrates the basic components of a coaxial cable.
1425
1426
1427
Figure 9: Coaxial Cable Cutaway
1428
1429
7.1
General Considerations
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
Onboard electronics installed in accordance with this specification that are primarily
designed for transmission of RF signals for communication and navigation use shall be
interconnected with coaxial cables that meet the following requirements. Where
additional cable or connectors not provided by the equipment manufacturer are to be
installed, installation and connection shall be in accordance with the remaining
provisions of this section.
1436
Applications and equipment that use or generate RF signals include:
1437
•
AIS Receivers
1438
•
AM/FM Stereos
1439
•
Cellular Telephones
1440
•
Differential Receivers
1441
•
GPS Receivers
1442
•
Navtex / Weatherfax
1443
•
Satellite Communications
1444
•
Satellite TV Antennas
1445
•
SSB & VHF Radios
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1446
7.1.1
Background
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
Coaxial cable is used in marine vessel installations to connect a communication or
broadcast device to an appropriate antenna, or to distribute RF signals to various
devices on the vessel. Signal attenuation (loss) affects both transmitted and received
signals and is expressed in dB. As signal loss is increased, equipment performance will
decrease. The result of increased signal loss is an effective decrease in the operating
range of a device.
1453
1454
1455
For example, a VHF radio installed with minimal signal losses on a vessel may provide
a usable range of 25 miles. The same radio installed with excessive signal losses may
provide a useable range of only 10 miles.
1456
1457
As RF signals are transmitted through coaxial cable, the RF signals are attenuated as a
result of the following:
1458
1459
1460
1. Transmission Cable Losses – Expressed in dB per unit of cable length; the longer
the cable, the greater the cable loss. Typically the cable losses increase as the
operating frequency increases.
1461
1462
1463
1464
2. Connector Losses – Expressed in dB per connection; the more connectors between
the RF source and/or receiver and its antenna, the greater the connector loss. Also
poorly installed connectors may adversely affect the performance by increasing the
loss through the connector.
1465
1466
1467
1468
3. Impedance Mismatch Losses – This results from joining cable segments with
different impedances, or cable that does not match the equipment impedance. Avoid
this by using cables and connectors with the same impedance throughout a
transmission path.
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
The goal is to provide an installation with minimal transmission losses. For
installations with a short distance between the antenna and communications transceiver,
a cable with greater loss characteristics may be used without exceeding the maximum
loss specified. On installations where there is a greater cable length distance between
the antenna and the communications transceiver, a cable with lower loss unit length
characteristics will improve the overall performance of the equipment.
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
4. Crosstalk is a form of EMI and is the undesired effect of a signal from one
conductor getting coupled onto another conductor. Crosstalk is more prevalent if
two conductors are run in parallel and increases as the distance of the parallel run
increases. For this reason it is desirable to avoid long parallel runs of any cables
containing transmitted signals and/or signals containing RF power and switching
voltages. Transducer cables and Single Sideband transmitter cables are two of the
biggest offenders.
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
7.1.2
Length of Cables
Coaxial cables shall be installed in a unidirectional path from the antenna to the
equipment, without excess coils or looping of the cable back on itself. The cable shall
be kept to the minimum length necessary to route the cable while observing the proper
bend radius as specified in the cable specifications, and providing appropriate drip and
service loops, unless modification of the cable is prohibited by the manufacturer of an
antenna or electronic device. The service loop at the equipment shall be not less than
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1489
1490
1491
12 inches (300mm), to allow for replacement of coaxial connectors in the future and to
allow for removal of equipment from the installation for service.
7.1.3
1492
1493
1494
1495
Equipment Connections
Coaxial connections to equipment shall be made using coaxial connectors designed for
the specific type of cable in use. Gender changers or adapters may be used where
necessary to mate the cable connector to the connector used on the equipment.
7.1.4
1496
1497
1498
1499
Extension of Cables
Where the coaxial cable provided with an antenna or electronic device is of insufficient
length, a junction may be made utilizing compatible cable and connectors, and
additional coaxial cable may be installed as required, provided that all the provisions of
Section 7.2 are met.
1500
1501
1502
NOTE: Cable junctions shall not be created by solder splicing of cable center conductor
and shield within a dielectric wrap or enclosure. Under no circumstances are
splicing techniques used in the splicing of power/data conductors to be utilized
1503
7.2
Coaxial Cable Installation
1504
Coaxial cables shall be installed or modified in accordance with this section:
1505
1506
To minimize EMI it is best to separate data and power cables from coaxial cables (See
Section 16, EMI)
1507
1508
1509
Care should be taken to route coaxial cable separately from wire bundles containing
propulsion system or rudder position control signals unless included as part of a
manufacturer’s wiring harness.
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
7.2.1
Total Attenuation (Loss)
The maximum computed signal loss for a coaxial cable installation shall not exceed the
values specified in Table 3 for each of the applications identified. If a manufacturer
specifies a lower signal loss value, then the computed signal loss shall not exceed the
manufacturer-specified loss. Signal loss calculations include transmission and
connector losses and shall be computed prior to installation in accordance with the
method described in Section 7.3.1.
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1519
1520
Table 3: Maximum Allowed Signal Loss by Application
Equipment Maximum Allowed Total Operating Frequency
Type
Signal Loss1
VHF Radio
3dB
156 MHz
AIS
3dB
162 MHz
SSB Radio
2dB
2 – 30 MHz
Cell Phone
3dB
850 MHz or 1.9 GHz
Sat Phone
(note 2)
TV
6 dB (prior to splitting)
54 – 806 MHz
Satellite TV
6dB
1.6 GHz
GPS
3dB
1.5 GHz
DGPS
3dB
150 – 500 kHz
Notes:
(1) Unless otherwise specified by manufacturer.
(2) Refer to manufacturer specifications for the specific band and
technology employed.
1521
7.2.2
Cable Selection
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
Coaxial cables shall be selected in accordance with their signal loss and impedance.
Tables 4 & 5 summarize the characteristics of coaxial cable types typically used in
marine installations. Coaxial cables of different types may be joined and used in
equipment installation provided that all the provisions of Section 7.2 are met and that
the impedances of all cables in the transmission path are the same, within ± 2 ohms.
1527 NOTE:
1528
1529
Coaxial cables of different impedances shall not be used in the same transmission path.
Nominal O.D.
Conductor (AWG)
Impedance
Velocity Factor %
Table 4: 50 Ohm Marine Coaxial Cable Characteristics
RG58U
RG8X
RG8U
RG213
RG-214
LMR240
LMR400-50
RG-174
0.18in/
4.76mm
20
50
66
0.25in /
6.35mm
16
50
78
0.40in /
10.32mm
0.40in /
10.32mm
13
50
66
0.425in
10.8mm
13
50
66
0.25in
6.35mm
15
50
84
0.40in /
10.32mm
9
50
85
0.1in /
2.54mm
13
52
80
26
50
66
1530
1531
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Table 5: 75 Ohm Marine Coaxial Cable Characteristics
1533
Nominal O.D.
Conductor (AWG)
Impedance
Velocity Factor (%)
RG-6
0.185in / 4.7mm
18
75
75
RG-11
0.285in / 7.2mm
14
75
66
RG-59
0.146in / 3.7mm
20
75
66
LMR400-75
0.375in / 9.525mm
10
75
85
1534
1535 NOTE:
There are various coaxial cable calculators available on line and as mobile apps
1536
For example:
1537
1538
http://timesmicrowave.com/calculator/?productId=118#form
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
7.2.3
Connector Selection
Connectors shall be selected in accordance with their type and maximum operating
frequency. Table 6 identifies typical connectors used in marine installations and
identifies permitted application of each. Check with connector manufacturer for exact
specifications.
Table 6: Connector Types, Frequency, and Usage Chart
Maximum
Operating
Frequency
300 MHz
4.0 GHz
11.0 GHz
11.0 GHz
2.0 GHz
2.5 GHz
18.0 GHz
4.0 GHz
200 MHz
Connector Type
Impedance
Permitted Uses
UHF (PL-259)
50-Ohm
VHF, SSB, DGPS, STEREO, AIS
BNC
50-Ohm
HF, SSB, DGPS, CELL, GPS, AIS
TNC
50-Ohm
VHF, SSB, DGPS, CELL, GPS, MINI-M
“N”
50-Ohm
VHF, SSB, DGPS, CELL, GPS , AIS
“F”
75-Ohm
TV, GPS
“Mini UHF”
50-Ohm
CELL
“SMA”
50-Ohm
SAT Phone, Satellite Radio
“SMB”
50-Ohm
Satellite Radio
“FME”
50-Ohm
Satellite Radio
Abbreviations:
DGPS = Differential GPS (150 – 500 kHz)
VHF = VHF Radio (160 MHz)
SSB = Single Side Band (2 – 30MHz)
CELL = Cellular Phone (850 MHz) or (1.96 GHz)
GPS = Global Positioning System (1.5 GHz)
STEREO = AM/FM Stereo (100MHz)
MHz = Megahertz (1 MHz = 1,000 kHz)
GHz = Gigahertz (1 GHz = 1,000 MHz)
AIS = Automatic Identification System (162 MHz)
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1546
7.2.4
Cable Junctions
1547
1548
Cable junctions shall be created using matching connectors and an appropriate gender
adapter for the transition.
1549
1550
1551
1552
Wherever possible, cable junctions shall be located where they are protected from
direct exposure to rain, spray, or splash. Where cable junctions are exposed, selfvulcanizing tape or shrink tubing shall be applied to the junction to ensure that the
connectors are not exposed continuously to direct environment.
1553
1554
1555
1556
Cable junctions shall be secured to immobilize the junction and ensure that the cables
do not impose direct strain on the connectors. Strain relief shall be provided not more
than 3 inches (75 mm) from the junction. Figure 10 illustrates proper sealing and
mounting of a junction.
1557
1558
1559
Figure 10: Protecting a Cable Junction
7.2.5
Physical Installation
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
Coaxial cable shall be installed in a path that provides the most direct path possible and
observes the minimum bend radius for the type of cable in use. Figure 11 shows how
to measure the bend radius and lists the minimum bend radius for each type of cable. If
a cable manufacturer specifies a larger bend radius than listed, then the minimum bend
radius shall not be less than the manufacturer-specified bend radius.
1565 NOTE:
1566
1567
Coaxial Cable bend radius affects cable impedance. A gentle “S” curve over a
longer distance is preferred over a straight run with multiple tight right angle (90
degree) bends. Refer to purple and blue lines in Figure 11.
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1568
Cable
Type
RG58U
Minimum Bend Radius (inches /mm)
(R)
2.0”/ 50mm
RG8X
2.4”/ 60mm
RG8U
1569
1570
4.5”/ 112mm
RG213
5.0”/ 125mm
LMR240
0.75”/20mm
LMR400
1.0”/ 25mm
Figure 11: Coaxial Cable Minimum Bend Radius
1571
1572
7.3
Signal Loss Calculations
1573
1574
1575
1576
Signal loss calculations shall be performed to determine whether a planned cable
selection and length will meet the maximum transmission loss requirements of Section
7.2.1. Transmission line signal loss between communication equipment and antennas
shall be calculated using the following formulas:
1577
Total loss = Cable loss (due to type & length of cable) + (all Connector Losses)
1578
1579
Cable loss = (Loss dB (per 100' or 100 meters) @ the operating frequency) 
(Cable length in feet (or meters)/100)
1580
Connector losses = (Number of complete connector junctions)  (0.5 dB)
1581
1582 NOTE:
1583
1584
For the equation above, Connectors at both ends of transmission lines ARE NOT
considered junctions. (Radio chassis connector and antenna base connector are
NOT considered junctions)
1585 NOTE:
If the connector is not properly assembled this loss may increase significantly.
1586
1587
If the maximum cable loss with the connectors exceeds the maximum specified loss
permitted in Section 7.2.1, the following changes may be made to the planned
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1588
1589
installation, and the signal loss recalculated, to decrease total loss to an acceptable
value:
1590
1. Change the cable type to a lower loss cable.
1591
2. Change the cable routing to reduce the overall cable length.
1592
3. Eliminate intermediate cable splices to reduce connector losses.
1593 NOTE:
1594
1595
1596
To ensure that longer transmission lines do not exceed the maximum attenuation
specified for the application, consider selecting antennas that have a connector at
the base, rather than an attached length of coaxial cable, so that a better quality
cable can be used for the entire length.
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
7.3.1
Calculation Method
The loss characteristics of coaxial cables used in marine installations will vary with the
cable type and even the specific cable manufacturer of similar cable. Tables 7 and 8
identify representative examples of commercially available cable and the loss
characteristics vs. frequency for each cable type. Table 7 lists 50-ohm cables used in a
wide variety of onboard applications, and Table 8 lists 75-ohm cables typically used for
TV applications.
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1605
Table 7: Coaxial Cable Loss Characteristics (50 Ohm)
Frequency
(MHz)
50
100
160
200
400
700
900
1000
1900
1606
1607
1608
RG 58
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
9.0
13.0
15.0
16.0
37.0
Signal Loss per 100 Feet (30.5 m) (dB)
RG 8X RG 8/U RG 213 LMR240
2.5
1.3
1.3
1.7
3.7
2.2
2.2
2.5
4.0
2.6
2.6
3.1
5.0
3.0
3.0
3.5
7.0
4.5
4.5
5.0
9.0
5.0
5.0
6.6
11.0
6.5
6.5
7.6
13.5
9.0
9.0
8.0
15.2
12.1
12.0
11.2
LMR400
0.9
1.3
1.6
1.8
2.5
3.4
3.9
4.1
5.8
Table 8: Coaxial Cable Loss Characteristics (75 Ohm)
Frequency
(MHz)
50
100
200
400
700
900
1000
Signal Loss per 100 Feet (30.5 m) (dB)
RG 59
RG 6
RG 11
2.4
1.5
0.9
3.4
2.1
1.2
5.0
3.2
1.7
7.4
4.5
2.4
10.0
5.9
3.3
11.3
6.8
3.7
12.0
7.3
3.9
1609
1610
1611
Loss characteristics shall be obtained from the manufacturer for each cable to be
installed. If a cable manufacturer specifies a greater signal loss than the loss listed, then
the installer shall use that loss value in all signal loss calculations.
1612
1613
1614
Table 9 can be used to calculate the proposed total transmission loss for the cable type
and frequency of operation. The following steps ensure that the formulas listed above
are appropriately applied:
1615
•
Enter the appropriate frequency for the communication application.
1616
•
Enter the cable type and length of each segment to be used.
1617
1618
•
From Tables 8 or 9 (or manufacturers data sheet), enter the signal loss for the
frequency entered.
1619
1620
•
For each cable type, divide the total length by 100, and multiply that by the signal
loss per hundred feet (30.5 m) to get the total loss for that length of cable.
1621
•
Sum all cable losses.
1622
1623
•
Enter the number of planned cable junctions, and multiply by 0.5 dB to get the total
signal loss at junctions.
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1624
1625
•
1626
1627
1628
The final value can be compared with the allowed signal loss in T for the specific
application to determine if the planned installation meets the requirements in Section
7.2.1.
Finally, add the total cable loss and the loss due to junctions to get the total
transmission line loss.
1629
Table 9: Transmission Line Loss Calculation
Cable
Type
Total
Length
Divide
Length by
100
Total Cable Loss (dB)
Number of Junctions
Total Transmission Line Loss (dB)
Loss Per
100' at
___ MHz
Total Loss
(dB)
 0.5 dB
1630 NOTE:
There are various coaxial cable calculators available on line and as mobile apps
1631
For example:
1632
http://timesmicrowave.com/calculator/?productId=118#form
1633
7.3.2
1634
1635
Loss Calculation Examples
The following three examples show how to compute cable and connector losses for
typical VHF installations:
1636
1637
EXAMPLE 1: Extending the manufacturer supplied 20 foot (6 m) cable for a total
installed distance of 52 feet (16 m).
1638
1639
EXAMPLE 2: Extending the manufacturer supplied 20 foot (6 m) cable for a total
installed distance of 68 feet (20.7 m)
1640
1641
EXAMPLE 3: Same requirements as Example 2, except substituting cable type to
reduce total transmission loss.
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
In each case, the maximum allowed signal loss from Table 3 of 3 dB for VHF
applications is used for comparison.
7.3.2.1
Extending Cable to 52 Feet (16 Meters) Using RG8X
The calculations to extend a manufacturer supplied antenna lead to 52 feet (16 m) using
RG8X cable are shown in Table 10. The manufacturer-supplied cable is 20 feet (6 m),
so the distance for the extension cable is 32 feet (9.75 m). The cable losses are
determined at 160 MHz from Table 7.. Total transmission loss in this example is 2.78
dB, which is less than the 3 dB allowed; therefore, the planned installation is
acceptable.
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1652
1653
Table 10: Example 1 Loss Calculation
Cable
Type
RG58
RG8X
Total
Length
Divide
Length by
100
Loss Per 100'
(30.5 m) at
160 MHz
Total Loss
(dB)
20
32
0.2
0.32
5.0
4.0
1.00
1.28
 0.5 dB
2.28
0.50
2.78
Total Cable Loss (dB)
1
Number of Junctions
Total Transmission Line Loss (dB)
1654
1655
7.3.2.2
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
Extending Cable to 68 Feet (20.7 Meters) Using RG8X
The calculations to extend a manufacturer supplied antenna lead to 68 feet (20.7 m)
using RG8X cable are shown in Table 11. The manufacturer-supplied cable is 20 feet
(6 m), so the distance for the extension cable is 48 feet (14.6 m). The cable losses are
determined at 160MHz from Table 7. Total transmission loss in this example is 3.42
dB, which is greater than the 3 dB allowed, so the planned installation is not acceptable,
and will have to be changed to decrease total loss to an acceptable value.
1662
1663
Table 11: Example 2 Loss Calculation
Cable
Type
Total
Length
Divide
Length by
100
Loss Per 100'
(30.5 m) at
160 MHz
Total Loss
(dB)
20
48
0.20
0.48
5.0
4.0
1.00
1.92
 0.5 dB
2.92
0.50
3.42
RG58
RG8X
Total Cable Loss (dB)
1
Number of Junctions
Total Transmission Line Loss (dB)
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
7.3.2.3
Extending Cable to 68 Feet (20.7 Meters) Using RG8U
The recalculation of Example 2 using RG8U cable instead of RG8X cable is shown in
Table 12.. Total transmission loss is now 2.75 dB, which is less than the 3 dB allowed,
so the planned installation with RG8U is acceptable.
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1669
1670
Table 12: Example 3 Loss Calculation
1671
Cable
Type
Total
Length
Divide
Length by
100
20
48
0.20
0.48
RG58
RG8U
Total Cable Loss (dB)
1
Number of Junctions
Total Transmission Line Loss (dB)
Loss Per
100'(30.5 m)
at
160 MHz
5.0
2.6
 0.5 dB
Total Loss
(dB)
1.00
1.25
2.25
0.50
2.75
1672
1673
7.4
1674
1675
1676
Connector Assembly
General guidance for installing coaxial connectors in the field is provided in this
section.
7.4.1
Cable Stripping
1677
1678
The steps in Figure 12 below show proper coaxial cable stripping techniques using
readily available cable stripping tools.
1679
1680
Setup and exact steps will vary by manufacturer and strip lengths will vary by coaxial
cable type.
1681
1682
Figure 12: Cable Stripping
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1683
7.4.2
PL-259 Connector Installation
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
The PL-259 or UHF connector is one of the most common connectors found in marine
applications, and shall be limited to use with VHF, SSB, Differential GPS (DGPS), and
Stereo applications. It is available for RG8U, LMR-400, and RG213 cable; with an
adapter, it may also be used on RG58 and RG8X cable. Figure 13 shows the assembly
of the PL-259 on RG8U and RG213 cable; Figure 14 shows the assembly of the PL-259
with adaptor on RG58 and RG8X cable. Typical cable stripping dimensions are given
in Table 13 for each coaxial cable type; different manufacturers may vary.
1691 NOTE:
1692
PL-259 connectors are typically not used for applications above 300 MHz, such as
Cell, GPS, and Sat Phone.
1693
a
b
c
Solder
2 Places
1) Slide coupling ring onto cable. Cut end of
cable even and strip jacket, braid, and
dielectric to dimensions shown in table. All
cuts are to be sharp and square. Do not nick
braid, dielectric, or center conductor. Tin
exposed center conductor and braid, avoiding
excessive heat.
2) Screw the plug sub-assembly on cable.
Solder assembly to braid through solder holes,
making a good bond between braid and shell.
Solder conductor to contact. Do not use
excessive heat.
3) Move coupling ring forward and screw in
place on plug sub-assembly.
1694
1695
1696
Figure 13: Installation of PL-259 Connector on RG8U and RG213
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1697
1698
1699
Figure 14: Installation of PL-259 Connector on RG58 and RG8X
1700
Table 13: PL-259 Cable Stripping Dimensions
Cable Type
RG8U / RG213
RG58U / RG8X
Strip Dimensions (inches & mm)
a
b
c
1 ¼ (31.5 mm) 11/16 (17.5 mm) 5/8 (16 mm)
¾ (19 mm)
3/8 (9.5mm)
5/8 (16 mm)
1701
1702
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1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
7.4.3
BNC Connector Installation
The BNC connector is also commonly found in marine applications. Field-installable
BNC connectors have more parts than PL-259 connectors. Each connector is
dimensioned specifically for the intended cable, and the installation steps are the same.
Figure 15 shows the assembly steps and lists the specific strip dimensions for each type
of cable. Typical cable strip dimensions are given in Table 14 for each coaxial cable
type; different manufacturers may vary.
Figure 15: Installation of BNC Connectors
1712
1713
1714
Table 14: BNC Cable Stripping Dimensions
Cable Type
RG8U / RG213
RG58U / RG8X
Strip Dimensions (inches & mm)
a
b
1/2 (12.7 mm)
3/16 (4.8 mm)
3/8 (9.5 mm)
3/16 (4.8 mm)
1715
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1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
7.4.4
TNC Connector Installation
The TNC connector is also commonly found in marine applications. Field-installable
TNC connectors have more parts than PL-259 connectors. Each connector is
dimensioned specifically for the intended cable, and the installation steps are the same.
Figure 16 shows the assembly steps and lists the specific strip dimensions for each
type of cable. Typical cable strip dimensions are given in Table 15 for each coaxial
cable type; different manufacturers may vary.
1724
1725
Figure 16: Installation of TNC Connectors
1726
1727
1728
Table 15: TNC Connector Detail & Cable Stripping Dimensions (RG-58)
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1729
1730
1731
1732
7.4.5
1733
1734
NOTE: Typical F Connector cable strip dimensions are ¼, ¼, and ¼.
1735
1736
1737
F Connector Installation
F connectors are used primarily for video, cable, and TV applications. They are
typically used with 75 ohm coaxial cable. Figure 17 below shows the assembly steps
and lists the specific strip dimensions for one type of connector.
Figure 17: Installation of F Connectors
1738
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1739
1740
1741
7.4.6
Other Installation Methods
Other installation methods may include Crimp Style coaxial connectors.
Refer to manufacturer instructions for proper installation.
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1742
8
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
DATA INTERFACING- NMEA 0183, NMEA 2000, ETHERNET
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for connecting electronic
equipment for the purpose of exchanging data between them. The information
provided is generally intended for equipment from one or more manufacturers that
utilize a third-party open standard to facilitate communications. Refer to manufacturer
installation and data-sheets for proprietary interface installation requirements.
8.1
General Considerations
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
Data interface connections provide the ability for two or more electronic devices to
share data by exchanging that data between them. When installing data interface
connections between new equipment, or when connecting data interface connections
between new equipment and existing equipment or data interfaces, installation and
connections shall be in accordance with the following paragraphs and any
manufacturer-provided installation instructions.
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
Equipment employing NMEA interfaces shall be installed in accordance with the
applicable NMEA standard and provisions of Section 8.2, NMEA 0183 Wiring
Requirements, or Section 8.3, NMEA 2000® Wiring Requirements. Equipment
employing Ethernet interfaces shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer
instructions and provisions of Section 8.4, Ethernet Network Wiring Requirements.
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
NOTE: Certain CAN based manufacturer interfaces may be capable of operation with
either NMEA 2000® or the manufacturer’s own proprietary network. Ensure that
NMEA 2000® networks including products from multiple manufacturers contain
only certified NMEA 2000® devices. Refer to manufacturer installation
instructions for appropriate interface modules or cabling to connect with the
NMEA 2000® backbone.
1766
8.1.1
Cable Routing and Labeling
1767
1768
Data interface cabling, cableways, and interconnections shall conform to the following
characteristics:
1769
1770
1771
•
Interface cables shall be installed in a unidirectional path from equipment to
connection points or between connection points, without excess coils or looping of
the cable back on itself.
1772
1773
•
Interface cables shall be kept to the minimum length necessary to route the cable
while observing bend radius and providing appropriate drip and service loops.
1774
1775
1776
•
Interface cables shall be bundled separately from power or other cables having a
higher insulation temperature rating to prevent insulation breakdown and other
problems due to overheating and noise caused by high currents.
1777
1778
1779
1780
•
All interface cables and terminations shall be clearly labeled in accordance with
their intended function and shall conform to the wire color code for the interface
standard employed.
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1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
NOTE: Equipment using manufacturer proprietary interfaces may also provide an
NMEA 0183 interface that can be connected to, using a Personal Computer with
HyperTerminal, for the purpose of observing and confirming non-proprietary
data transiting the interfaces.
8.1.1.1
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
Electromagnetic Interference
At installation completion, all communication receivers on the vessel shall be turned on
and tested in accordance with Section 22, Test Criteria, to verify that no interference is
radiated from the interface cables. Then verify that no interference is present from any
and all electronic devices including all transmitters/emitters of electronic signals.
8.1.2
Documentation
1791
1792
The following documentation shall be provided to the owner for each interfaced system
and shall be kept on file by the installing dealer for future reference:
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1. Interface diagram(s) in accordance with the examples contained herein, showing all
interfaced units and connections between them. This diagram shall identify all
interface modules and junction barrier strips included in the installation and shall
include the name and location of each device or module. All diagrams shall be
annotated with the vessel’s name and date of installation.
1798
1799
2. Identification by device of all hardware input and output ports in use, including
programming steps necessary to set the ports into the proper mode for operation.
1800
3. Wire colors used.
1801
1802
4. A list of all barrier strips, T-connectors, and terminations that identifies their
physical location aboard the vessel.
1803
5. Intended data flow showing input and output ports.
1804
6. Verification that interface testing was successfully completed.
1805
1806
1807
8.2
NMEA 0183 Interfacing & Wiring Requirements
1808
1809
1810
1811
NMEA 0183 is a low-cost, low-capacity, single-transmitter/multi-receiver network for
interconnecting marine electronic devices, also known as a “single talker/multiple
listener” interface. This section identifies requirements and recommended practices for
installing and connecting devices using the NMEA 0183 interface standard.
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
There are multiple versions of the NMEA 0183 specification in use in the marine
industry. Prior to NMEA 0183 version 2.0, including NMEA 0180 and NMEA 0182,
the hardware employed a Single-Ended interface implemented with one signal wire and
a common ground, based on EIA-232. All implementations from 2.0 and later employ
a differential interface with two signal wires, based on EIA-422. Most remaining
differences between versions are related to the content of the data sentences sent
between devices.
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1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
NOTE: Due to the difference between the Single-Ended and differential interfaces
implemented in ANSI/TIA/EIA-232-F (RS-232) and ANSI/TIA/EIA-422-B (RS422), older versions of NMEA 0183 prior to version 2.0 shall not be connected to
equipment supporting NMEA 0183 version 2.0 or higher without proper interface
circuitry. Do not connect one of the signal wires of the differential interface to the
common ground of the Single-Ended interface
1826
1827
1828
1829
A high-speed version, NMEA 0183-HS also exists for devices that require greater
bandwidth. Table 16 compares the data transmission characteristics of NMEA 0183
and NMEA 0183-HS, and identifies approximate aggregate throughput of each
interface.
1830
1831
Table 16: NMEA 0183 and NMEA 0183-HS Data Transmission Characteristics
NMEA 0183
4,800
8 (d7 = 0)
None
One
450
Baud Rate (bits/sec)
Data Bits
Parity
Stop Bits
Usable Throughput (char/sec)
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
8.2.1
NMEA 0183-HS
38,400
8 (d7 = 0)
None
One
3,600
NMEA 0183-HS (High Speed)
NMEA 0183-HS implements the same sentences as NMEA 0183 Version 2.0 and
above, but at a higher baud rate. NMEA 0183-HS devices utilize an additional signal
ground connection (C) in addition to the A & B signal lines and cable shield. This C
connection ensures that the common mode voltage is equal at all 0183-HS TALKERs
and LISTENERs.
Figure 18: NMEA 0183-HS Wiring
1840
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1841
1842
All signal and common line connections "A", "B" and “C” are connected in parallel.
See Figure 18.
1843
1844
1845
1846
With single shielded cables and a separate wire as common line “C” (signal ground), it
is recommended that the shield be connected to the TALKER chassis only and not be
connected to any LISTENER. And it is recommended that the shield shall be
continuous (unbroken) between all LISTENERs (see Figure 18).
1847
1848
1849
1850
With double shielded cables and the inner shield used as common line “C” (signal
ground), it is recommended that the outer shield shall be connected to the TALKER
chassis only and not be connected to any LISTENER. And it is recommended that the
outer shield shall be continuous (unbroken) between all LISTENERs
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
With double shielded cables and a separate wire as common line “C” (signal ground), it
is recommended that the inner shield be connected to the TALKER chassis only and
not be connected to any LISTENER. And it is recommended that the inner shield shall
be continuous (unbroken) between all LISTENERs. The outer shield may be connected
to chassis on either side if required.
1861
NOTE: NMEA 0183-HS devices shall not be directly connected to standard NMEA 0183
devices (4,800 baud). With single shielded cables, it is recommended that the
shield be connected to the talker chassis only, and not be connected to any listener.
8.2.2
1862
1863
RS-232 and RS-422 Overview
This is a summary of information for a very basic understanding of Serial Data
Communications with emphasis on two standards: RS-232 and RS-422.
1864
•
Serial Data Communications over dedicated conductors:
1865
•
Data is transferred with Digital Signaling
1866
•
In Digital Signaling, data is labeled either as High and Low or as Zero and One
1867
•
These are Binary Numbers and are known as data bits.
1868
•
Groups of data bits are packaged into ‘words’ which are called Bytes.
1869
1870
•
It is commonly considered that eight bits make up a Byte which allows for a
count of 0 to 255 defining specific characters (letters, punctuation, etc.)
1871
1872
•
An example of a Byte: 0101 0011 and is read right to left: 128 64 32 16 (space)
8 4 2 1. This example, therefore, equals a numeric value of 83
1873
•
Bytes are how information is packaged into NMEA0183 Sentences.
1874
8.2.2.1
Data Transfer
1875
1876
The data is transferred on two conductors per circuit called a Communications Pair.
The voltage is measured from one conductor to the next on this pair of wires
1877
Two voltage ranges exist to represent either a High or a Low or as a Zero or a One.
1878
The rate per second at which these voltages change is called the Baud Rate.
1879
1880
Standard NMEA0183 data is transmitted at a Baud Rate of 4800 which is also referred
to as 4800 bits per second.
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1881
1882
High Speed data, NMEA0183 HS, which is used for AIS data and other things, is
transmitted at a Baud Rate of 38,400 bits per second.
1883
1884
1885
Two different Serial Data Communications Standards are used by different marine
electronics products. These are referred to as RS-232 and RS-422. These standards
define voltage levels on the Communication Pair as well as some other parameters.
1886
8.2.2.2
1887
1888
1889
1890
In RS-232 only one conductor changes voltage, and the COMMON or Signal Ground
stays at a constant voltage close to zero. The wire that changes voltage should swing
from at least 3 volts positive to below 3 volts negative.
8.2.2.3
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
RS-232
RS-422
In RS-422 both conductors have changing voltages on them. The voltages change from
a high state (about three to five volts) to a low state (about zero to one volt). (Insert
graphics of RS-422 waveforms showing three to four bits of data). The voltage is
measured from one conductor (TX+ or RX+) to the other conductor (TX- or RX-).
This is called Differential Signaling.
8.2.2.4
What are the other differences between RS-422 and RS-232?
1898
1899
Data voltages in the RS-422 standard are Isolated meaning that no DC Voltage is
carried from a transmitting device to a receiving device.
1900
1901
1902
RS-232 is Ground Referenced meaning the communication circuit connects Ground
from one device to the next. This will always cause a Ground Loop to be created.
1903
8.2.2.5
How do we tell if a circuit (a Communication Pair) is RS-422 or RS-232?
1904
1905
In RS-232 you will see ONE wire for TX and ONE wire for RX, and both will use a
COMMON wire, sometimes called Signal GND.
1906
1907
1908
In RS-422 you will see TWO wires for TX Data, or Transmit Data, and another TWO
wires for RX Data, or Receive Data. (See Figure 19)
1909
1910
1911
Figure 19: RS-232 and RS-422 Circuit Differences
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1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
NOTE: Some equipment manufacturers still use RS-232 and call their equipment
NMEA0183 Rev 2.0 compatible (RS-422). This is not electrically true and the only
way to interface the two devices correctly is with an aftermarket RS-232 to RS-422
converter (there are several commonly available on the market). This ensures that
both devices see the correct loads / inputs for a coherent transfer of data.
1917
8.2.3
NMEA 0183 Circuit
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
NMEA 0183 interfaces are based on a bus topology, where each device connects to the
bus in accordance with whether they are a talker or a listener. There is only one talker
on an NMEA bus, or interface circuit, and there may be multiple listeners, depending
on the driving capability of the talker. Figures 20, 21, and 22 illustrate an NMEA 0183
interface circuit and identifies the required connections.
1923
1924
Figure 20: Basic NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit
1925
1926
1927
Figure 21: NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit-example 1
1928
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GPS
(talker)
"A"
"B"
Shield
"A"
"B"
Shield
To other
devices
(listener)
(listener)
RADAR
1929
(talker)
Chart Plotter
1930
1931
Figure 22: NMEA 0183 Interface Circuit example 2
1932
1933
1934
1935
Multiple interface circuits may be provided to accommodate vessels with more than
one talker, but each circuit has only one talker and is independent and wired separately.
Note that a single device that sends and receives data using NMEA 0183 may
participate as a talker in one circuit and as a listener in another.
1936
8.2.3.1
Talker Circuit
1937
1938
1939
Each NMEA 0183 interface circuit shall have only one talker, and a maximum of 3
listeners. Where more than 3 listeners for a single talker is required, a signal expander
shall be provided that amplifies the talker output to drive a greater number of listeners.
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
Older Single-Ended devices may operate as a talker with a single differential listener by
connecting the Single-Ended talker signal to listener’s “A” connection and connecting
the listener’s “B” connection to ground. Where more than one listener is desired, a
signal expander that converts the Single-Ended signal into a differential signal is
recommended.
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
8.2.3.2
Multiple Talker Circuits
Where a single listener requires data from multiple talkers, a data multiplexer or
combiner shall be provided as indicated in Figures 23 and 24. Data multiplexers buffer
the input sentences from each talker, and provide a single data stream that may then be
connected to multiple listeners. As shown in the figure, combining two talkers through
a multiplexer results in a third talker circuit driven from the multiplexer.
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1951
1952
Figure 23: Combining Talkers for One Listener
1953
GPS
Talker Circuit 1
(talker)
(listener)
(talker)
Multiplexer
(listener)
(talker)
Talker Circuit 3
Talker Circuit 2
(listener)
1954
1955
(talker)
(listener)
Chart Plotter
Autopilot
Figure 24: Combining Talkers for One Listener
1956
1957
1958
1959
There is a practical limit to the number of talkers that can be combined based on the
available bandwidth and the number of sentences that each talker transmits. Products
are available that combine up to four talkers and replicate the combined output into four
or more new talker circuits, each capable of supporting multiple listeners.
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
NOTE: At 4,800 bits per second the total available throughput is limited to 450 characters
per second. When combining talkers, the installer shall ensure that the combined
transmitted data made up of sentences from both talkers can be handled within
the available bandwidth. The total bandwidth used can be computed by
multiplying each transmitted sentence length for each talker by the sentence
repetition rate, and summing the results.
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1966
8.2.4
1967
1968
1969
Cabling and connections between equipment using NMEA 0183 shall be in accordance
with the following paragraphs.
8.2.4.1
1970
1971
1972
Cable Requirements
Maximum Operational Cable Length
Interface cables shall be kept as short as possible and shall not exceed 150 feet (45.75
meters).
8.2.4.2
Cable Type
1973
1974
1975
Interface cables, regardless of length, shall be composed of multi-conductor tinned
shielded cable with a minimum 95 percent shielding. A twisted pair employing 22
AWG stranded wire shall be used for the NMEA 0183 data signals.
1976
1977
NMEA 0183-HS requires a third conductor, which is used to ensure that the common
mode ground potential is the same at all drivers and receivers.
1978
1979
8.2.4.3
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
All interface cables shall be terminated at a common barrier strip for each interface
circuit, in accordance with the requirements of Section 2, AC and DC Wiring.
Additional barrier strips may be used to join interface extension cables to a
manufacturer pigtail where it is impractical to route the pigtail directly to a common
barrier strip.
8.2.4.4
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
Connections
Shielding
The interface cable shield shall be grounded only at the talker and shall be left unterminated at each listener. Shield continuity shall be maintained at all barrier strips.
8.2.4.5
Color-Coding
The NMEA 0183 standard does not establish specific color-codes for NMEA 0183
interface signals. Table 17 identifies signal color codes frequently used by
manufacturers to identify and differentiate between NMEA 0183 Talker and Listener
connections in supplied pigtails.
1993
1994
Table 17: NMEA 0183 Signal Color Codes
1995
1996
1997
Color codes used by each device shall be confirmed by the installer using the
manufacturer’s documentation before equipment connections are made. When
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1998
1999
2000
equipment pigtails cannot all be joined at the same barrier strip location and the NMEA
0183 network wiring is extended, the Talker color code should be used for cabling
between barrier strips.
2001
2002
NOTE: NMEA 0183 color codes will vary by manufacturer. Refer to manufacturer wiring
diagrams before installing connections
2003
8.2.5
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
Power Requirements
Individual NMEA 0183 interface circuits are not powered separately from the
connected devices; the devices themselves provide all transmission power.
Accordingly, no over-current protection is required in circuit wiring used specifically
for NMEA 0183 data transfer.
8.2.6
2009
2010
2011
Interface between Versions, to NMEA 2000®, and to Other Devices
Connections between NMEA 0183 version 2.0 or later and NMEA 0180, 0182 and
0183 version 1.5 or lower shall only be made using buffers or transceivers that provide
opto-isolation and voltage level shifts necessary to protect interface circuitry.
2012
2013
2014
2015
NOTE: Equipment with multiple configurable ports as noted in 8.2.5 may be configured
with one port in single ended mode (version 1.5 or earlier) and another port in
differential mode (version 2.0 or later) in order to support a wide variety of
interface requirements.
2016
2017
Interfaces between NMEA 0183 or NMEA 0183-HS and an NMEA 2000® backbone
must be provided using NMEA 2000® certified devices intended for that purpose.
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
Opto-isolation and voltage level shift may be required to interface devices designed to
communicate using RS-232 with NMEA 0183 compatible devices. Refer to NMEA
0183 for specific details on opto-isolation requirements for connecting with non NMEA
0183 devices. Alternatively, Universal Serial Bus (USB) equipped multiplexers are
available with software that provides virtual serial ports for communicating with PC
based navigation and diagnostic software.
2024
8.2.7
2025
2026
2027
2028
NMEA 0183 Setup
On installation completion, the equipment shall be initialized, and the talker and all
listeners shall be set for the same data transfer format. Each piece of equipment shall
be turned on, the interface data format shall be verified, and the specific interface port
in use shall be activated and configured for the hardware connections in use.
2029
2030
2031
2032
NOTE: High-end equipment may be provided with ports that can be configured as either
Single-Ended or differential outputs. Manufacturer instructions shall be followed
to ensure that all interconnected ports are configured to use the same electrical
interface.
2033
2034
2035
2036
8.2.8
NMEA 0183 Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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2037
8.3
NMEA 2000® is a low-cost, moderate-capacity, bi-directional multi-transmitter/multireceiver network for interconnecting marine electronic devices. This section identifies
requirements and recommended practices for installing and connecting devices certified
to communicate with each other using NMEA 2000®.
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
NMEA 2000® Interfacing & Wiring Requirements
8.3.1
General Requirements
NMEA 2000® devices shall be connected in a strict bus topology, based on a
continuous backbone. Each device shall be connected to the backbone via individual
taps and drop cables. Figures 25 & 26 illustrate a minimal NMEA 2000® network and
identify significant components.
2047
2048
2049
Figure 25: NMEA 2000® Network Topology example 1
Other I/O
NMEA
2000®
Device (a)
Terminating
Resistor
Backbone Cable
Over Current
Protection
Required
+ VDC
Gnd
Shield
2050
2051
2052
2053
Device Power
Connection
Tap (T-connector
or barrier strips)
Network Power
Supply Connection
Terminating
Resistor
Drop Cable
NMEA
2000®
Device (b)
(powered from backbone)
Figure 26: NMEA 2000® Network Topology example 2
A maximum of 50 physical nodes shall be connected to the backbone, and the
disconnection of any device shall not interrupt the backbone.
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2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
NOTE: Only NMEA 2000® Certified devices should be connected to an NMEA 2000®
backbone; uncertified devices that are “compatible with” or “work with” NMEA
2000® have not undergone the same testing to ensure that interoperability and
safety requirements have been met. (See www.nmea.org for a list of NMEA 2000®
Certified devices.)
8.3.1.1
Device Power
2060
2061
2062
2063
NMEA 2000® interface driver circuitry in devices connected to the NMEA 2000®
backbone always receives power from the backbone power leads. Operational power
for the remaining device circuitry will be provided from one of the following three
sources:
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
1. A separate power supply connection – Most high power devices (MFDs for
example), and all devices with other electrical connections in addition to the NMEA
2000® interface, will incorporate a second power supply connection that is isolated
internally from the backbone power connections. The MFD Device in Figure 27
illustrates this wiring configuration.
2069
2070
2071
Figure 27: NMEA 2000® high power device with separate power connection
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2. Backbone power – Devices with no electrical connections other than the NMEA
2000® interface, and which draw no more than 1.0 amp, may be designed to draw
all operational power from the backbone. Device (b) in Figure 26. illustrates this
device type.
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2077
2078
2079
Figure 28: NMEA 2000® Power Tee
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
3. Dedicated interface power – Devices with no electrical connections other than the
NMEA 2000® interface, but which draw more than 1.0 amp may be designed to
connect to the network power source using a separately routed, dedicated power
lead as illustrated in Section 8.3.5.2.
2085
2086
2087
Only one of these three sources of power will be implemented for the NMEA 2000®
interface driver circuitry on any specific device. See the manufacturer’s documentation
to identify power supply connections used.
2088
2089
2090
NOTE: Power connections should follow manufacturer’s recommendations regarding
power lead size and shall be made in accordance with Section 8.3.5.2 and other
applicable regulatory agency over-current protection and isolation requirements.
2091
8.3.2
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
Cable Requirements
Cabling and connections shall be in accordance with the following paragraphs.
8.3.2.1
Cable Types
Network backbone and drop cables shall be either of the three cable types defined in
NMEA 2000® Standard. Significant characteristics of each cable type are provided in
Table 18.. NMEA 2000® cable selection and application shall be made in accordance
with all standards applicable to the locality where they are installed (see Section 1.1.2),
and the following paragraphs. Recent industry changes have included the addition of
many different manufacturers offering NMEA2000 cables. Networks complexity
warrants the correct calculations to be made on networks that exceed 15 nodes and 30
meters in length. Since calculating the different cable types can be difficult, one should
consider isolating different cabling networks with network bridges.
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Table 18: NMEA 2000® Cable Types & Specifications
2104
Cable Name
Lite Cable
Mid Cable*
Heavy Cable
Signal / Data Wire Gauge
24 AWG min
20 AWG min
18 AWG min
Power Wire Gauge
22 AWG min
16 AWG min
15 AWG min
Cable Type
Lite
Mid
Heavy
Connector type
Micro
Micro or Mini
Mini
Current Capacity**
3 Amps
4 A Micro | 8 A Mini
8 Amps
Cable Resistance
.057 Ω per Meter
.015 Ω per Meter
.012 Ω per Meter
Max Backbone Length
100 Meters
250 Meters
250 Meters
Max Drop Length
6 Meters
6 Meters
6 Meters
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
NOTE: Only NMEA 2000® Approved cables and connectors should be used with an
NMEA 2000® backbone. (See http://www.nmea.org for a list of NMEA 2000®
Approved cables and connectors.)
2110
2111
2112
2113
NMEA 2000® is a high speed data bus, similar to Ethernet. At these speeds, the signals
do not travel cleanly from one end of the cable to the other, but are subject to many
reflections from each connector, branch and cable join. These reflections cause the
signal to degrade significantly, and at some point the network fails to work.
2114
2115
2116
NMEA have established a set of requirements for NMEA 2000® networks which,
when followed, will ensure that the signals remain strong enough for the messages to
get through. Some of these requirements limit cable lengths and the number of nodes,
2117
Check your design to confirm that these requirements are met.
2118
2119
2120
2121
Other requirements dictate the physical characteristics of the cabling and connectors to
ensure clean signals. . Use of cabling that does not meet NMEA 2000® requirements
will result in weaker signals and lower voltages than expected and will invalidate all the
calculations.
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2122
8.3.2.2
Maximum Operational Cable Length
2123
2124
2125
The maximum length of the network backbone is constrained by limitations associated
with data transmission and with DC power distribution. The length of installed
backbone cable shall not exceed the lesser of:
2126
•
250 meters, if using Heavy Cable
2127
•
250 meters, if using Mid Cable
2128
•
100 meters, if using Lite Cable
2129
2130
2131
The maximum length attainable while maintaining the minimum voltage specified in
Section 8.3.3.1
2132
2133
In addition, the length of any drop cable from a tap to the device shall not exceed 6
meters.
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
NOTE: Short NMEA 2000® networks with a small number of devices may generally be
powered from the vessel’s 12-volt battery with proper over-current protection.
Networks that employ one or more isolated power supplies will usually be capable
of supporting more devices and longer backbone lengths, see Section 8.3.7.2.
8.3.2.3
Connection Methods
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
Backbone and drop cable connections at taps shall be made using either NMEA 2000®
Mini- or Micro-style connectors (Figure 29) or barrier strips(Figure 31), as identified in
the NMEA 2000® Standard. The pin-out for Mini- and Micro-style connectors is
shown in Figure 30.. Connection of drop cables to equipment may be made using
manufacturer-specified connectors.
2144
2145
Figure 29: NMEA 2000 Cable examples
2146
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2147
2148
Figure 30: NMEA 2000 Connector pin outs
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
NOTE: Pre-made NMEA 2000® cables and T’s are polarized with male and female ends;
be sure to decide which end of the bus will be male and which will be female
before pulling cables to avoid the need to re-pull cable, install gender changers, or
replace connectors in the field.
8.3.2.4
Shielding
2155
2156
2157
The backbone shield drain wire shall be connected at only one power insertion point
and shall be connected to the RF Ground system as identified in Section 3, Grounding,
Bonding, and Lightning Protection.
2158
2159
Shield wires can be easily identified by having grey colored jacketing for external
connections or a bare wire within the cable assembly.
2160
2161
2162
2163
NOTE: The backbone shield is intended to be grounded in only one place. Manufacturerprovided connectors or field connections made to connect the drop cable to NMEA
2000® devices shall leave the shield drain unconnected.
8.3.2.5
Terminations
2164
2165
NMEA 2000 networks shall have two termination resistors to reduce transmission-line
reflections, one at each end of the linear network backbone cable.
2166
2167
Both ends of the NMEA 2000® network backbone shall be terminated using a 120-ohm
± 5%, ¼Watt, termination resistor.
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2168
2169
2170
2171
In order to minimize network disturbance when nodes are disconnected from the
network, termination resistors shall be connected only to the ends of the main network
backbone cable and not to cable drops leading to an electronic device and not within
electronic devices.
2172
2173
2174
The resistor shall be connected using an integral NMEA 2000® termination connector,
or connected between the NET-H and NET-L backbone signal leads if using barrier
strips as shown in Figure XX below.
2175
2176
Figure 31: Barrier Strip Wiring & Terminations
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
When termination connectors are used at both backbone cable ends (vs. barrier strips)
one-termination connector shall be male and the other female. Following this practice
allows for future lengthening of the network backbone cable.
8.3.2.6
Color Coding
Color-coding of signals on the NMEA 2000® backbone and drop cables shall be in
accordance with Table 19 and Figure 32..
Table 19: NMEA 2000® Signal Color Codes
Name
Shield
NET-S
NET-C
NET-H
NET-L
2184
2185
Pair
Drain
Power
Power
Signal
Signal
Color
Bare
Red
Black
White
Blue
Figure 32: NMEA 2000 Cable Cutaway
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2186
8.3.2.7
2187
2188
2189
Cable Installation
Refer to the manufactures cabling requirements for properly installing and securing
NMEA 2000 Approved cables and connectors. Figure 33 provides guidance for
properly securing NMEA2000 or any multi stranded cabling.
2190
2191
2192
2193
Figure 33: Cable Installation Considerations
2194
2195
8.3.3
Backbone Power Requirements
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
Backbone power is used to power all transceivers directly coupled to the NET-H and
NET-L signal conductors, and optionally a portion of the connected node.
Manufacturers specify the amount of power drawn from the backbone power
conductors using a Load Equivalency Number (LEN). One network load, or LEN, is
defined as 50 mA or any portion thereof. For example, a device taking 51 mA from the
backbone power conductors is a 2 LEN device.
2202
2203
2204
A wide variety of options may be considered by installers to ensure that adequate
power is available to drive all connected NMEA 2000® transceivers. The various
options differ with respect to the following installed characteristics:
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2205
2206
2207
2208
Backbone Power Leg – A length of an NMEA 2000® backbone that has its own power
(NET-S) and ground (NET-C) connections and is isolated from the power and ground
connections of any other backbone power leg. The installer can vary the number and
length of power legs to provide the necessary capacity based on equipment distribution.
2209
2210
2211
2212
Power Insertion Point – A physical connection to the power (NET-S) and ground
(NET-C) pair used to connect a backbone power leg to a power source. This can be
implemented using a standard Tee, or by the use of power taps manufactured
specifically for that purpose.
2213
2214
Power Source – A backbone power leg must have sufficient voltage and current for the
attached devices, and may incorporate redundancy for reliability.
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
The two main considerations in determining backbone power leg number and length,
power insertion point location(s), and power source(s) are the total voltage drop on the
backbone due to connected devices (as discussed in Sections 8.3.4 and 8.3.5), and the
common mode offset voltage in the reference used by the transceivers to interpret the
NET-H and NET-L signals.
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
To ensure highly reliable operation, the NET-H and NET-L signals must be measured
by the NMEA 2000® transceivers with respect to the same common network reference.
Some allowance is provided to account for voltage drops along the NET-C conductor,
but the NET-C value at all transceivers must be within 2.5 volts of each other for the
transceivers to be guaranteed to operate. For single power leg backbones, the common
network reference is simply located at the power insertion point. However, more
complex multi-leg backbones require identifying a specific location as the common
network reference. This location may be at one of the power insertion points, or may
be a separate location chosen to simplify connections to the common network reference
from each of the power insertion points.
2230
2231
2232
NOTE: Backbone power is used primarily to supply the transceivers that drive the NET-H
and NET-L signal lines, and is not intended to be the only power supply for all
device electronics.
NMEA 2000® backbone power shall be provided in accordance with the following
paragraphs.
2233
2234
2235
8.3.3.1
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
Minimum and Maximum Voltage
The minimum voltage experienced at any point along the network backbone or device
drop cables shall be not less than 9.5 volts. The maximum voltage supplied to the
backbone shall be not more than 16 volts.
8.3.3.2
Maximum Device Load
Devices with no electrical connections other than the NMEA 2000® interface that draw
more than 1.0 amp shall not draw power directly from the network backbone but shall
be powered from a separate supply connection routed back to the power application
point. Refer to Figure 27 and manufacturer documentation
NOTE: NMEA 2000® devices that report a LEN of 0 employ dedicated interface power
connections and shall be connected in accordance with Section 8.3.5.2.
2246
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2247
8.3.3.3
Backbone Power Source
2248
NMEA 2000® backbone power shall be provided using one of the following means:
2249
2250
2251
2252
1. Direct Battery – The vessel’s 12-volt battery may be connected via the vessel’s DC
supply system to the backbone power connections. Only one connection shall be
provided, which may be located at either end of the backbone or at any point along
the backbone.
2253
2254
2255
2. Isolated Power Supply – One or more isolated 15-volt power supplies may be
connected directly to backbone power insertion points. Multiple power supplies
may be used for redundancy or to accommodate load.
2256
2257
2258
NOTE: Battery connections and isolated power supply connections shall not be combined
on the same NMEA 2000® network.
8.3.3.4
Each NMEA 2000® backbone power leg shall have only one power insertion point
using a single connection each to the power (NET-S) and ground (NET-C) connections.
2259
2260
2261
Backbone Leg Power Connection
8.3.3.5
Backbone Leg Over-current Protection
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
Each NMEA 2000® backbone power leg shall be provided with over-current protection
in accordance with ABYC E-11, AC and DC ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS ON BOATS,
subsection E-11.10.1, and the following provisions. Internationally, this standard
defers to the proper and appropriate international standards for power protection for
that respective country’s regulatory agency.
2267
2268
2269
Over-current protection shall be rated at no more than 150 percent of the backbone
cable rated current (See Table18.). The over-current protection location may vary
depending on the source of power:
2270
2271
2272
2273
1. Direct Battery – When over-current protection for the branch circuit feeding the
NMEA 2000® backbone power leg is larger than 150 percent of the backbone rated
current, backbone leg over-current protection shall be located at the power insertion
point.
2274
2275
2276
2277
2. Isolated Power Supply – When the rated output for an isolated power supply
feeding the NMEA 2000® backbone power leg is larger than the backbone rated
current, backbone leg over-current protection shall be located at the power insertion
point (also see 8.3.3.6).
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
NOTE: Isolated power supplies approved for use with NMEA 2000® networks are
required to have built-in over-current protection limiting their output to 150
percent of rated capacity and do not require external over-current protection on
their output when used singly to power a backbone power leg.
8.3.3.6
Redundant Power
2283
2284
2285
When multiple power supplies are connected to any power insertion point in order to
provide redundant sources for the associated backbone power leg, the connection shall
meet both of the following requirements as illustrated in Figure 34.
2286
2287
1. Power supply outputs shall be diode protected to prevent back feeding a defective
or de-energized supply.
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2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2. The power supply outputs shall be connected together ahead of the over-current
protection for the associated power leg.
NOTE: Over-current protection is always required between the point where supplies are
paralleled for redundant applications and the backbone even when using output
limited power supplies. The level of over-current protection, 3 or 8 Amps, is
determined by the rating of the backbone cable in use.
Net-H
Net-L
Net-S
Net-C
Shield
Over Current
Protection
(3 or 8 Amp)
To DC Main
Negative Bus
Isolated
Power
Supply
2294
2295
2296
Figure 34: Redundant Power Supplies
8.3.3.7
2297
2298
2299
2300
Isolated
Power
Supply
Common Network Reference
The NET-C connection of each power insertion point shall be connected together at a
common network reference point that shall in turn be connected to the vessel DC Main
Negative Bus.
8.3.3.8
Isolated Power Supplies
2301
2302
When isolated power supplies are used, the connection to the power insertion point
shall meet all of the following requirements:
2303
2304
1. The drop cable from the power insertion point to the power supply shall be less than
or equal to 6 meters in length.
2305
2306
2307
2. The conductor gauge used in the drop cable from the power insertion point shall be
at least as large as the power pair conductor gauge used in the backbone at the
power insertion point.
2308
2309
2310
3. The drop between the power insertion point and power supply shall incorporate
over-current protection unless the power supply is output limited to no more than
150 percent of the backbone cable rating (see 8.3.3.5).
2311
2312
2313
8.3.4
Network Planning
Network planning involves verifying that the network cabling and devices can be
connected in the intended manner while still meeting all the applicable requirements.
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2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
The requirements placed on manufacturers of certified NMEA 2000® devices ensure
that transmission characteristics and communication protocols inter-operate within the
operational bounds established by the specification. In order to accommodate a wide
variety of maritime applications, the specification provides a similarly broad variety of
options for cabling and powering NMEA 2000® devices. As a result, power
distribution quickly becomes the limiting factor in planning an NMEA 2000® network
as the number of nodes, the power required, and the network size increases.
2321
2322
2323
In order to meet the requirements of Section 8.3.3.1, the maximum network distribution
voltage drop shall be equal to or less than the values given in Table 20 for networks
powered from the indicated source.
2324
Table 20: Maximum Network Voltage Drop
Power Source
Battery
Isolated Power Supply
2325
2326
2327
2328
Maximum Voltage Drop
1.17 Volts
3.61 Volts
NOTE: If redundant power is provided using diodes to combine output from multiple
power sources into a single power source, the maximum allowed voltage drop
identified in Table 20 shall be reduced by the voltage drop expected across the
diodes, typically 0.6 volt.
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
This section describes two basic NMEA 2000® topologies and provides a quick
analysis for ensuring that the maximum voltage drop is not exceeded for networks
powered from either the vessel’s battery or a single power supply. Networks powered
from multiple power supplies should not be planned using these methods. The analysis,
known as the Initial Voltage Drop Estimate, consists of a simple calculation to
characterize how critical power distribution will be for the intended installation. The
initial calculation is based on the conservative assumption that the total load on a
network produces a voltage drop over the entire length of the network.
2337
2338
2339
2340
This initial calculation will determine whether one of two standard network topologies
may be implemented without further analysis. A detailed analysis of the voltage drop
on each segment is described in Section 8.3.5, and shall be used if the Initial Voltage
Drop Estimate reveals that additional analysis is required.
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
8.3.4.1
End-Powered Network
An end-powered network will typically be employed on smaller vessels with a small
number of NMEA 2000® devices in a single location, or where one end of the network
is terminated in the machinery spaces or near the vessel batteries. Prepare a network
diagram similar to Figure 35, which illustrates an end-powered network and identifies
the network details.
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2347
2348
Figure 35: End-Powered Network example
2349
2350
A network diagram shall contain:
2351
•
The length of each network segment and drop cable
2352
•
The identity and network load of each equipment on the network
2353
•
The planned location where power will be supplied to the network
2354
•
The planned equipment locations
2355
2356
2357
2358
2359
A completed network diagram contains all information necessary to complete the
necessary voltage drop calculations and should be consulted to ensure that all required
materials are on-hand for the installation. A copy of the completed diagram shall be
provided to the vessel owner as well as kept on file with any installation notes.
8.3.4.2
Mid-Powered Network
2360
2361
2362
2363
2364
2365
A mid-powered network is any network where the power is connected to the network at
some location other than at the end. This network consists of two legs, one leg
extending in each direction from the power insertion point. Prepare a network diagram
similar to Figure 36, which illustrates a mid-powered network and identifies the
network details. In addition to the information required for an end-powered network,
be sure to identify the direction of each leg from the power supply application point.
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
Large networks (networks that draw >2Amp) incorporate mid power taps, this allows
two network legs to be balanced with an equal amount of current supplied to both legs.
Power taps of this nature have female connections to opposite sides of the power
insertion point. A technician can identify a mid-powered network by observing the
gender of the terminator providing a gender changer has not been used.
2371
2372
2373
NOTE: When adding a device to one side of a mid-powered network use a NMEA2000
certified network meter to ensure common mode voltage has not reach fault
status.)
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2374
2375
Figure 36: Mid-Powered Network example
2376
2377
2378
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
A mid-powered network is likely to be found on larger vessels where power is provided
to the network near where it passes a power distribution panel. As Figure 36 shows,
duplicate equipment may be present where the same capability is desired at more than
one helm location.
8.3.4.3
Initial Voltage Drop Estimate
Perform the following calculation to determine if the desired equipment and cable
arrangement can be used for a particular installation
VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION is Ohms Law (E= I x R)
2385
•
E = Voltage Drop (VD)
2386
•
I = Total Network LEN (NL)
2387
•
R = Backbone Length (BL)
2388
EQUATION VD= .1 x NL x BL x Cable Resistance
2389
Cable Resistance is in Ohms (Ω) per Meter
2390
•
Lite Cable = .057 Ω / Meter
2391
•
Mid Cable = .015 Ω / Meter
2392
•
Heavy Cable = .012 Ω / Meter
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
Table 21. lists several voltage drop ranges and identifies the applicable power source
and network topology options. Use the table in conjunction with the previously
developed network diagram to develop a final topology that satisfies NMEA 2000
requirements.
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2398
2399
Table 21: Voltage Drop Range vs. Power and Topology Options
#
Voltage Drop
Power Source
1
2
Less than 1.5 V
Greater than 1.5 V and
less than 3.0 V
Greater than 1.5 V and
less than 5.0 V
Greater than 3.0 V
Greater than 5.0 V and
less than 10.0 V
Greater than 10.0 V
3
4
5
6
Either
Battery
End
Network
Yes
No
MidNetwork
Yes
Yes
Power Supply
Yes
Yes
Battery
Power Supply
No
Yes
Power Supply
Detailed
Calculation
Optional
Required
Required
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
First, use the computed Initial Voltage Drop to identify the applicable range from the
Voltage Drop column, then read across to determine the options and topologies that
will meet NMEA 2000® requirements. For example, if the calculated initial voltage
drop was 2.0V, and the network was to be powered from the vessel battery, Table 21
shows that an end-powered network will not meet requirements, and that a midpowered network is required.
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
When a mid-powered network is required, as indicated by Rows 2 and 5, the Initial
Voltage Drop shall be recomputed for each leg of the mid-powered network, to ensure
that the voltage drop for each leg does not exceed 1.5 V for a battery powered network
or exceed 5.0 V for a power supply powered network. If the voltage drop on one leg is
higher than required, consider picking a new power insertion point one or more devices
to the right or left of the original insertion point and recalculating the voltage drop
estimate for each leg. A Detailed Segment Voltage Drop analysis must be performed if
rearrangement does not produce a voltage drop for each leg within the required values.
2415
2416
2417
2418
NOTE: Initial Voltage Drop calculations are conservative in nature and may not identify
the best topology and arrangement for a particular situation. A more detailed
analysis may yield results or options better suited to a particular vessel.
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2419
8.3.5
2420
2421
Advanced Network Planning
Advanced network planning is required for networks with more complex power
distribution requirements, and is indicated when any of the following situations occur:
2422
2423
1. Initial Voltage Drop calculations identify that detailed calculations are required,
as shown in Row 4 or 6 in Table 21.;
2424
2425
2426
2. One or more NMEA 2000® devices have no electrical connections other than
the NMEA 2000® interface and draw more than 1.0 amp using a dedicated
power interface as identified in Section 8.3.1.1;
2427
OR
2428
2429
3. Initial Voltage Drop calculations yield results that are marginally within range,
and the installer requires more flexibility in arranging equipment in the topology
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
This section provides a more detailed analysis of voltage drop within a network, and
identifies the requirements for connecting devices using a dedicated power interface.
The analysis, known as a Detailed Segment Voltage Drop, is a detailed calculation of
the voltage drop on each network segment using the loads that are connected
downstream from that segment.
8.3.5.1
Detailed Segment Voltage Drop
A detailed segment voltage drop analysis is required for end- and mid-powered
networks, where the Initial Voltage Drop estimate was greater than the maximum
voltage drop identified in Table 21 for the intended power source. To perform the
detailed analysis, first prepare a network diagram for the desired topology as discussed
in Sections 8.3.4.2 and 8.3.4.3. The diagram will provide the necessary information to
complete the detailed power distribution analysis worksheet shown in Table 22.
Table 22: Detailed Voltage Drop Calculations
The left-hand column of the worksheet lists each device, beginning with the device
closest to the power connection point; the lengths of each cable segment are entered
across the top. Use the following procedure to complete the worksheet. Complete a
single worksheet for end-powered networks and two worksheets for mid-powered
networks, one worksheet for each leg extending from the power insertion point.
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2450
2451
2452
1. In the left-hand column, list devices in the order they are connected, starting
with the device connected closest to the power connection. Also enter the
network load specified by the manufacturer for each device.
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2. Across the top, enter the segment cable lengths: Segment 1 being the length of
the backbone cable between the power supply connection tap and the first
device tap; Segment 2 being the length of backbone cable between the first
device tap and second device tap, etc. For the last segment, include the length
of the drop cable to the last device in the segment length to account for the full
wire distance from the power application point to the device, as shown in
Figure 37.
2460
2461
2462
3. Working down each segment column, compute the round-trip voltage drop for
each segment due to the current draw of each device connected after the
segment using the following formula
2463
VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION is Ohms Law (E= I x R)
2464
•
E = Voltage Drop (VD)
2465
•
I = Total Network LEN (NL)
2466
•
R = Backbone Length (BL)
2467
EQUATION VD= .1 x NL x BL x Cable Resistance
2468
Cable Resistance is in Ohms (Ω) per Meter
2469
•
Lite Cable = .057 Ω / Meter
2470
•
Mid Cable = .015 Ω / Meter
2471
•
Heavy Cable = .012 Ω / Meter
2472
2473
4.
2474
2475
2476
5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for each column, noting that each column has one less
device contributing to the voltage drop. For example, Device 1 only draws
current through Segment 1 and not through any of the remaining segments.
2477
2478
6. After all columns are completed, add the total for each column across the
bottom to compute the total voltage drop at the end of the last segment.
2479
2480
2481
Add the computed value in each cell of the column to calculate the total
voltage drop in the segment, and enter the value at the bottom of the column.
If the total voltage drop at the end of the last segment is less than 1.5 volts for battery
power, or less than 5.0 volts for an isolated power supply, the network cabling plan
meets the requirements of NMEA 2000®.
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Depth
Sounder
0.3 meter
2 loads
10 meters
Electronic
Compass
Compass
Display
0.3 meter
2 loads
0.3 meters
Over Current
Protection
Required
0.3 meters
2 meter
1 load
2 meters
0.3 meter
2 loads
Speed Log
5 meters
2 meter
1 load
Autopilot
Add the drop
length to the last
segment only
Power from
Battery
Use these backbone lengths as segment lengths
2482
2483
Figure 37: Backbone Segment Lengths
2484
2485
In some situations, the device at the end of the network may not experience the greatest
voltage drop. Such a situation exists under either of the following conditions:
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
1. The length of the last backbone segment and drop cable for the last device is
short and the length of a drop cable to another device is longer, so that the
total cable distance from the power connection tap to the other device is
greater than the cable distance from the power connection tap to the last
device;
OR
2492
2493
2494
2495
2496
2497
2. The power draw for another device is significantly more than the power draw
for the last device, so that the voltage drop in its drop cable is greater than the
voltage drop in the remainder of the backbone cable plus the voltage drop in
the drop cable for the last device. Remember that the remainder of the
backbone cable still carries current from all devices that are farther from the
power connection tap than the device in question.
2498
2499
2500
2501
2502
2503
In these situations, the voltage drop at the suspected device should be calculated and
compared with the result obtained in Step 6. The voltage drop for the suspected device
is obtained by first calculating the voltage drop in the drop cable of the suspected
device, and then adding it to the sum of voltage drops for all backbone segments
between the power supply connection tap and the connection tap of the suspected
device.
2504
2505
2506
2507
2508
2509
2510
8.3.5.2
Connecting Devices Drawing More Than 1 Amp
NMEA 2000® certified devices with no electrical connections other than the NMEA
2000® interface that draw more than 1.0 amp and have an indicated LEN of 0, as
identified in Section 8.3.3.2, shall not be connected to the NET-S and NET-C power
pair on the NMEA 2000® network. Instead, a separate pair of power leads shall be
provided, as shown in Figure 38., which originates at the same network connection
point where the power is applied to the network cable. Devices (a) and (b) in Figure 38
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2511
2512
illustrate other more common power connection configurations as previously illustrated
in Figures 26 and 27..
(powered from backbone)
NMEA
2000®
Device
Other I/O
Standard Device
Power Connection
(a)
(b)
Over Current
Protection
Required
+ VDC
Gnd
Shield
2513
2514
NMEA
2000®
Device
NMEA
2000®
Device
Dedicated Power
Lead for Device
Drop Cable Without Power
Connection (Provided by
Manufacturer)
Device Requiring
Separate Power
Figure 38: Dedicated Power Leads for Large Loads
2515
The dedicated power lead shall meet all three of the following requirements:
2516
2517
•
The dedicated power lead shall be a twisted pair of red and black, connected in
accordance with the Signal Color Codes in Table 19.
2518
2519
2520
2521
2522
2523
•
The dedicated power lead shall be the larger of 18 AWG, the gauge required to
limit the voltage drop to less than the Maximum Voltage Drop specified in Table
20, or the manufacturer’s recommended wire gauge. The dedicated power lead shall
be provided with over-current protection in accordance with ABYC E-11, AC and
DC Electrical Systems On Boats, subsection E-11.10.1, or other applicable local
regulatory agency requirements.
2524
2525
2526
•
When dedicated leads are provided to power a device with a large load, the network
load for that device should be omitted from the Initial Voltage Drop and Detailed
Voltage Drop analyses.
2527
8.3.5.3
Other Considerations
2528
2529
2530
The requirements provided herein are intended to cover a majority of installation
scenarios encountered in the field. Refer to the NMEA 2000® Standard for more
information regarding NMEA 2000 networks that include the following options:
2531
2532
Multiple NMEA 2000® backbones and bridges; or
Devices redundantly connected to more than one NMEA 2000® backbone.
2533
8.3.6
Example Calculations
2534
2535
2536
The following three examples demonstrate how to compute network voltage drops
using both initial and detailed calculation methods and illustrates the effects of various
choices available to the installer on the final network configuration.
2537
2538
2539
End-Powered Network Initial Estimate – Calculation of Initial Voltage Drop
estimate for the network described in Section 8.3.6.1, using the Equation from Section
8.3.4.3 based on a backbone composed of Light Cable.
2540
2541
Mid-Powered Network Initial Estimate – Calculation of Initial Voltage Drop
estimate for the network described in Section 8.3.6.2, using the Equation from Section
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2542
2543
8.3.4.3, comparing the results from a backbone composed of Light Cable versus one
composed of Heavy Cable.
2544
2545
2546
Mid-Powered Network Detailed Analysis – Calculation of Detailed Network
Segment Voltage Drop for the network described in Section 8.3.6.3, using the
worksheet in Table 22. and the procedure described in Section 8.3.5.1.
2547
8.3.6.1
2548
2549
2550
2551
2552
2553
2554
2555
2556
End-Powered Network Initial Estimate
An Initial Voltage Drop estimate is calculated for the end-powered network described
in Section 8.3.4.1 in order to determine if the network can be connected to the vessel
battery at one end of the network. Table 23 below summarizes the total backbone
length and network loads. The Initial Voltage Drop estimate is computed based on
using Light Cable from the Equation in Section 8.3.4.3. The voltage drop of 0.80 volt
is well within Range 1 in Table 21, indicating that the network can be provided power
from the vessel battery at either end of the network.
Table 23: End-Powered Network Initial Estimate
Network Loads
Network Length
Lite Cable Resistance
Voltage Drop Estimate
2557
2558
2559
2560
2561
2562
2563
2564
8.3.6.2
8
17.6 meters
.057 ohms / meter
0.80 volt
Mid-Powered Network Initial Estimate
An Initial Voltage Drop estimate is calculated for the mid-powered network described
in Section 8.3.4.2 in order to determine if the network can be connected to the vessel
battery, and whether Mid or Heavy Cable will be required. Table 24 summarizes the
total backbone length and network loads as calculated for an end-powered network.
The Initial Voltage Drop estimate is computed based on Light, Mid and Heavy Cable,
using the Equation from Section 8.3.4.3.
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2565
Table 24: Mid-Powered Network Initial Estimate for Entire Backbone
Network Loads
Network Length
Lite Cable Resistance
Voltage Drop Estimate
Light Cable
20
60.2 meters
057 ohms / meter
6.86 Volts
Mid Cable
20
60.2 meters
.015 ohms/ meter
1.81 Volts
Heavy Cable
20
60.2 meters
.012 ohms/ meter
1.44 Volts
2566
2567
2568
2569
Results for all three cable types indicate that an end-powered network would not be
suitable for this application. The voltage drop of 1.81 and 1.44 volts for Mid and
Heavy Cable respectively is within Range 2 of Table 21, indicating that a network
powered from a battery applied at the network midpoint may be acceptable.
2570
2571
2572
2573
A recalculation for each network leg using Heavy Cable is summarized in Table 25.
The calculated voltage drop for each leg is less than 1.5 volts, indicating that the
selected power application point is acceptable for a network using Heavy Cable and
powered from the vessel’s battery.
2574
Table 25: Mid-Powered Network Estimate for Each Leg
Network Loads
Network Length
Heavy Cable Resistance
Voltage Drop Estimate
2575
8.3.6.3
Left Leg
11
35.6 meters
.012 ohms/ meter
0.47 Volts
Right Leg
9
24.6 meters
.012 ohms/ meter
0.27 Volts
Mid-Powered Network Detailed Analysis
2576
2577
2578
2579
A detailed voltage drop analysis is performed for the mid-powered network described
in Section 8.3.4.2 to determine the best combination of cable type and power
connection point and illustrates the potential drawback of relying solely on the initial
estimate calculation.
2580
2581
2582
2583
2584
2585
2586
2587
A Detailed Network Segment Voltage Drop analysis was prepared using the procedure
described in Section 8.3.5.1, as shown in Table 26 shows a separate tabulation of values
for each leg of the network based on the use of Light Cable, beginning with the first
network segment connected to the power supply and working out. Recall that the last
segment length includes the length of the last drop cable, making the segment lengths
11.0 meters and 0.6 meter for the last device connected to the left and right legs,
respectively.
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2588
Table 26: Mid-Powered Network Detailed Analysis
2589
2590
2591
2592
2593
2594
2595
2596
2597
2598
The detailed analysis shows that both legs are well within the 1.5-volt maximum
voltage drop for battery-powered networks. Comparing these results with the result
from the Initial Voltage Drop calculations in Section 8.3.6.2 for Light Cable, it is
apparent that the Initial Voltage Drop calculations are highly conservative. An installer
is encouraged to perform detailed analysis any time the initial estimate results show
criteria that are marginally out of range.
8.3.7
Example Power Connections
2599
2600
2601
2602
The following three examples demonstrate acceptable methods of connecting power to
NMEA 2000® backbones, using either battery power or one or more isolated power
supplies. The examples show the electrical connections implied in the previous
backbone diagrams.
2603
2604
2605
2606
Single Leg Backbone – A backbone where the NET-S and NET-C conductors run the
entire backbone length uninterrupted. The power insertion point may be located
anywhere along the backbone and may be powered from either a vessel battery or an
isolated power supply.
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2607
2608
2609
2610
2611
Multiple Leg Backbone – A backbone where the NET-S and NET-C conductors are
interrupted at one or more locations along the backbone creating two or more backbone
power legs. The power insertion point for each power leg may be located anywhere
along the leg, and each power leg must be powered using its own isolated power
supply.
2612
2613
2614
2615
2616
Two Leg Backbone with Collocated Power Insertion Points – A special case of the
second example where the NET-S and NET-C are interrupted at a single point on the
backbone and the power insertion points for each power leg are located immediately to
either side of that interruption. This example may be powered from either a vessel
battery or an isolated power supply.
2617
2618
2619
2620
2621
2622
2623
8.3.7.1
Single Leg Backbone Power
The simplest and most common method of powering an NMEA 2000® backbone is a
single power insertion point incorporating the connections to NET-S, NET-C and the
Shield. The power insertion point may be located anywhere along the backbone as
determined using the analysis methods of Section 8.3.4 or 8.3.5. Figure 39.illustrates a
direct connection from the DC power distribution system powered from the vessel
battery.
2624
2625
2626
Figure 39: Single Power Leg Using Battery
2627
2628
2629
2630
2631
2632
2633
2634
A single power leg may also be powered from an isolated power supply. Figure 40.
illustrates two possible electrical connections, depending on whether the power supply
is connected to an AC or DC power source. The difference between the diagrams is
how the NET-C and Shield connections are made because the NET-C cannot be
connected to the AC power ground. Instead, the NET-C and Shield are connected
together, creating the common network reference point, and a dedicated conductor is
used to connect from there to the DC Main Negative Bus. The conductor is sized in
accordance with the RF Ground System requirements (8 AWG).
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2635
2636
Figure 40: Single Leg Using Isolated Supply
8.3.7.2
Multiple Leg Backbone Power
2637
2638
2639
2640
2641
Multiple legs may be necessary to support longer backbones and/or more connected
devices. Figure 41. illustrates a backbone that has been isolated into three power legs,
with each leg powered using an isolated power supply. Between power legs, both the
NET-S and NET-C connection is broken to isolate the power in each leg. The NET-H,
NET-L and Shield connections remain continuous for the entire backbone length.
2642
2643
2644
2645
2646
One overriding consideration in supplying power to multiple power legs is to ensure
that the ground reference for all legs is within the common mode offset voltage limit
required by the NMEA 2000® transceivers, namely 2.5 volts. This requires that all
NET-C connections are connected to the same common network reference using a
dedicated connection with no voltage drop.
2647
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Over Current Protection
(3 or 8 Amp)
Net-H
Net-L
Net-S
Net-C
Shield
Isolated
Power
Supply
Common Network
Ground
Isolated
Power
Supply
Isolated
Power
Supply
To DC Main
Negative Bus
To RF Ground
System
2648
2649
Figure 41: Multiple Power Legs Using Isolated Supplies
2650
2651
2652
2653
2654
2655
As with the single power leg examples, each leg is provided with its own over-current
protection based on the type of cable being used. One advantage of multiple power
legs is that each leg can be constructed of the type of cable appropriate for that leg; for
example the center power leg in Figure 41.may be constructed of heavy cable and use
an 8 amp fuse, while the legs on either end could be constructed of light cable and use a
3 amp fuse for each.
2656
2657
2658
2659
2660
8.3.7.3
Two Leg Backbone with Collocated Power Insertion Points
One special case is a backbone where the NET-S and NET-C are interrupted at a single
point on the backbone creating two power legs. It is still possible to provide power to
these two backbone legs using the vessel battery provided that the power insertion point
for each leg is at the isolation point between the two legs, as shown in Figure 42.
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Net-H
Net-L
Net-S
Net-C
Shield
Over Current Protection
(3 or 8 Amp)
Common Network
Ground
To Vessel
Battery Positive
To DC Main
Negative Bus
To RF Ground
System
2661
2662
Figure 42: Collocated Power Insertion Points Using Battery
2663
2664
2665
Note that just as in the Single Power Leg example, the single battery source can be
replaced with a single AC/DC or DC/DC isolated power supply.
8.3.8
Interfaces between the NMEA 2000® backbone and other data interfaces, such as
NMEA 0183, NMEA 0183-HS, or RS232, must be provided using NMEA 2000®
certified devices intended for that purpose.
2666
2667
2668
2669
2670
2671
2672
2673
2674
2675
2676
Interface to NMEA 0183 and Other Networks
8.3.9
General Test and Setup
The backbone power shall be energized and network signal and power integrity shall be
verified after the installation of the network backbone, all T-connectors and/or barrier
strips, and the terminating resistors has been completed. Measure the characteristics
identified in Table 27 at each end of the backbone, in the last drop connection before
the terminating resistor. If the last drop connection is the power connection, measure
the characteristics at the second to last drop connection from the terminator.
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2677
Table 27: Test Characteristics
Test
1
2
3
Pin / Signal
(1) Shield
(2) NET-S
(4) NET-H
(5) NET-L
Measurement
Resistance between shield and
pin (3) NET-C ()
Voltage between NET-S and
pin (3) NET-C (Gnd)
Resistance between NET-H
and NET-L
Nominal
Value
0Ω
12 V to
13.84V
60 Ω
Tolerance
> 0 Ω ≤ 15 Ω
≥ 9 V≤ 15.75 V
≥ 54 Ω≤ 71 Ω
2678
Upon completion, de-energize the network and connect the NMEA 2000® devices.
Refer to device manufacturer documentation for specific device initialization or powerup ordering intended to automatically detect and identify certain types of NMEA 2000®
devices. Verify that all devices operate in accordance with manufacturer instructions.
Optionally, check that the sustained Bus Error Rate (errors/sec) is not more than 1 per
second. Bus Error Rate may be obtained from the diagnostic screen of some NMEA
2000® products, or from dedicated NMEA 2000® test tools.
2679
2680
2681
2682
2683
2684
2685
2686
8.3.9.1
Instance Configuration
Manual device instance configuration may be required on NMEA 2000® backbones that
contain more than one device of a given type, or where an interface is provided to more
than one tank, battery bank, engine, or environmental control. Table 28 identifies predefined instance assignments that have been established for specific device types, and
shall be followed to ensure that instance assignments are uniform across low-cost
instrumentation.
2687
2688
2689
2690
2691
2692
2693
Table 28: Pre-defined Instance Assignments
Device Type
Engine
Instance
0
1
etc.
Definition
Single Engine or Dual Engine Port
Dual Engine Starboard
For more than 2 engines, instances will start
with port bow (0) to starboard stern (n)
2694
2695
2696
2697
2698
2699
2700
2701
2702
2703
2704
In the absence of a pre-defined instance assignment, instances shall be numbered
sequentially from port bow (0) to starboard stern (n), increasing in value from port to
starboard, and from bow to stern.
8.3.9.2
Variations of parameter Instancing
Certain PGNs created allow for a device to supply a source ID allowing instancing to
be configured. This is commonly known as data instancing. Devices may transmit the
same PGNs in separate intervals carrying different data measurements. A display can
properly define each data type /data source in conjunction with data instance can be
defined and stored. This allows for a display to accept multi parameters using one
common PGN.
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2705
2706
2707
Data instance when transmitted on the NMEA2000 bus should be properly configured
from the originating device/node address in order to eliminate parameter instancing
conflicts.
2708
2709
Review a devices datasheet prior to connecting to the NMEA2000 bus to verify if a
data instance should be assigned.
2710
2711
2712
8.3.10 NMEA 2000 Installation Testing
2713
8.4
2714
NOTE: This section is not intended to be a comprehensive Ethernet installation tutorial.
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
2715
2716
2717
2718
2719
2720
2721
2722
2723
2724
2725
Ethernet Network Interfacing Requirements
Ethernet is a low-cost, high-capacity, bi-directional multi-transmitter/multi-receiver
network for interconnecting computational devices, and is widely used in non-marine
applications. Ethernet standards support a variety of physical media and transmission
characteristics that can be made interoperable through proper selection and installation
of equipment. This section identifies some recommended practices for installing and
connecting Ethernet devices in a marine environment.
8.4.1
General Practices
Marine devices connected using Ethernet are typically connected in a star topology,
where one or more hubs represent the center of the star, and each device is connected
directly to a hub. Figure 43. identifies a minimal Ethernet network and identifies the
significant components.
2726
2727
Figure 43: Ethernet Topology
2728
2729
2730
2731
A maximum of 1,024 segments may be connected in any one network, a segment being
each connection between a device and the hub, or a connection between two hubs.
Networks and cabling installed in accordance with this standard shall be capable of
supporting 100BaseT transmissions (See IEEE 802.3).
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2732
8.4.1.1
Generalized Topology
2733
2734
2735
2736
2737
The star topology described is typically implemented in a general way through the use
of multiple hubs, dual speed hubs, and switches. The notion of a star configuration can
be maintained when all the interconnecting hubs are grouped together in the center of
the star, and network segments that radiate out from the equipment at the center connect
all nodes.
2738
2739
2740
The operational differences in equipment used to interconnect nodes are summarized in
the following basic definitions. Most commercially available devices are represented
by these basic building blocks, or some combination thereof:
2741
2742
2743
Repeater (or hub) – a device that joins two or more networks with the same network
protocol and address space. Signals are re-timed and amplified, but repeaters also add
latency and reduce the maximum number and length of cables that a signal can traverse.
2744
2745
2746
2747
Bridge – a device that joins two network segments using the same network protocol
and address space. Signals are forwarded independent of the originating network. Data
rate and physical media may differ on the two sides of a bridge. A bridge may perform
message filtering.
2748
2749
Router – a device that joins two networks with the same network protocol. On each
side of a router, the address space, data rate and physical media may differ.
2750
2751
2752
Switch – typically a device that incorporates several bridges, allowing the creation of
complex networks where the signal timing and cable length of each network segment
may be determined independent of the other connected segments.
2753
2754
2755
2756
For example, a dual-speed hub is a combination device that incorporates two repeating
hubs, one for each speed supported and a bridge that connects the two repeaters
together. The interface connectors are wired to internal logic that automatically senses
the speed of the connection and connects the segment to the appropriate hub internally.
2757
8.4.1.2
Multiple Protocols
2758
2759
2760
2761
2762
2763
2764
Ethernet is capable of supporting multiple independent protocols over the same
network, such as IP, IPX (Novel), and NetBEUI. Protocol identification is contained in
the frame header or first few bytes of the data packet, depending on the framing type
used. Except for the potential impact on overall throughput and the amount of traffic
generated, proprietary and other standard protocols may be intermixed on the same
Ethernet network, unless otherwise prohibited by the manufacturer.
8.4.2
Cabling
2765
Cabling and connections shall be in accordance with the following paragraphs.
2766
2767
8.4.2.1
Maximum Operational Cable Length
2768
2769
2770
2771
The maximum length of the network cables is determined by limitations associated
with data transmission and detecting those transmissions at each connected device.
Ethernet cabling shall be installed so that it meets each of the following limitations:
•
The maximum length of any network segment shall be 100 meters (See IEE 802.3).
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•
2772
2773
2774
2775
2776
The maximum length between any two nodes, inclusive of any inter-hub segments
shall be 400-(R  90) meters, where R is the number of repeaters or hubs that the
network passes between the two nodes.
Figure 44 illustrates how at least one segment must be shorter than the maximum
segment length of 100 meters in a network using more than one hub.
Node
Node
100m
Hub
Hub
(Repeater)
(Repeater)
Figure 44: Maximum Operational Length When Two Hubs Are Used
8.4.2.2
2780
2781
2782
2783
2784
100m
Max length = 400 - (2 x 90) = 220m.
2777
2778
2779
20m
Cable Type
Segment cables shall be stranded, tinned, 4-pair cables that, as a minimum, meet the
requirements of EIA/TIA 568-5, also known as Category 5 or CAT5, CAT5e, or CAT6
cable. (See IEEE 802.3, ISO/IEC 11801 Amendment 2))
8.4.2.3
2785
2786
Connections
All connections between cables and between cables and equipment shall be made using
RJ45 style connectors, in accordance with Section 8.4.3.
2787
2788
2789
NOTE: Be sure to use CAT6 connectors with CAT6 cable, CAT5, CAT5e connectors with
CAT5 cable.
2790
2791
2792
2793
2794
2795
2796
NOTE: Insulation displacement connectors, as found on punch-down blocks (also known
as 110 and 66 blocks), shall not be used, as they are known to score the wire even
when the wire is properly inserted using a punch-down tool.
8.4.2.4
Shielding
Ethernet cable shielding is not required. Shielded cabling is recommended for noisy
environments to improve reliability.
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2797
8.4.3
2798
2799
2800
2801
2802
2803
Connectors
Ethernet connectors are typically RJ45 type connectors. Where connections are in
locations exposed to moisture, connectors shall be rated IP 67 or higher in accordance
with the requirements of IEC 60529. Closure caps shall be provided for any fixed
mount connector, so that the requirements of IEC 60529 are still met when the fixed
mount connector is not used.
8.4.3.1
Color Coding
2804
2805
2806
When field installing connectors, wiring and signals shall conform to the requirements
of EIA/TIA 568A as listed in Figures 45 and 46. .All four pairs shall be terminated at
each connector.
2807
2808
Figure 45: EIA/TIA Color Codes for Straight and Crossover Cable Wiring
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2809
2810
2811
NOTE: EIA/TIA 568A and 568B both provide the same pair grouping of pins, and differ
only in the color code and Pair ID assigned to Pins 1, 2, 3, and 6. Either standard
is correct, maintain the same standard throughout the network.
2812
2813
Figure 46: EIA/TIA Color Codes for Straight and Crossover Cable Pin-outs
2814
2815
2816
2817
2818
Crossover cables are used to connect hubs and switches without an available crossover
port and to connect two computers without an intervening hub. Crossover cables may
be created by connecting a connector at one end in accordance with EIA/TIA 568A and
the other end in accordance with EIA/TIA 568B. Crossover cables shall be clearly
marked as such within 12 inches (300 mm) of each end.
2819
2820
2821
2822
2823
2824
2825
2826
8.4.3.2
Connector Assembly
General guidance for installing crimp-on RJ45 connectors in the field is provided in this
section. RJ45 connectors are available for both flat and round cables, and for both solid
and stranded wire. Ensure that the RJ45 connector to be installed is rated for stranded
wire, and matches the cable cross-section, flat or round, before proceeding. Figure 47.
illustrates the correct procedure for preparing the cable and crimping the connector,
including typical strip dimensions. Refer to manufacturer’s documentation for
instructions on attaching a waterproof back-shell when required.
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Pin 1
1) Remove approximately 1" of the
cable jacket.
1/2"
2) Untwist each pair, and straighten
wires between fingers.
3) Rearrange wires in order of 568
A or 568 B identified above.
Pin 8
4) Cut wires at a perfect right angle
to cable, 1/2" from jacket.
5) Insert wires into connector, pins
facing up.
3/16"
6) Push wires until fully inserted,
cable jacket should penetrate
connector 3/16".
7) Use a crimp tool to compress
pins into wires and capture cable
jacket in connector.
2827
2828
Figure 47: Installation of RJ45 Connector
2829
2830
2831
2832
NOTE:
2833
8.4.4
2834
2835
2836
2837
There are high quality crimping tools that allow you to install the eight
conductors in any RJ plug, and slide them completely through the connector,
thereby allowing the installer to ensure the colors were placed into the right
slot before crimping. There are also connection tools for Cat6 and Cat7.
Power Requirements
Individual Ethernet interface circuits are not powered separately from the connected
devices; the devices themselves provide all transmission power. Accordingly, no overcurrent protection is required for Ethernet circuits.
8.4.4.1
Power over Ethernet
2838
2839
2840
2841
2842
2843
Power over Ethernet (POE) is a means of utilizing the spare pairs in an Ethernet cable
to distribute power to connected hubs or other devices in remote locations. Devices
supporting POE may be utilized, provided that they conform to IEEE 802.3-2005,
Section 33, Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Power via Media Dependent Interface
(MDI). Devices conforming to IEEE 802.3-2005, Section 33 use two pairs of a four
pair cable to provide a maximum of 350 mA at 48 volts DC.
2844
2845
2846
NOTE: Lack of standardization in legacy equipment resulted in multiple, incompatible,
implementations of POE. Be sure that all POE equipment conforms to the same
standard before interconnecting them.
2847
8.4.5
2848
2849
Ethernet Network Planning
Network planning involves verifying that the network cabling, interconnecting hubs,
and connected devices can be installed in their intended locations while still meeting all
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2850
2851
2852
2853
2854
the applicable requirements. Manufacturers of Ethernet products ensure that the
transmission characteristics of their products are within the operational bounds
established by specification. The installer is responsible for ensuring that equipment is
interconnected in a manner that the combined performance also falls within those
operational bounds.
2855
2856
2857
2858
2859
2860
The overriding consideration is to ensure that signals transmitted propagate to their
destination within a specific time frame. Since signal propagation is based on
transmission characteristics established by specification, the cable length and cable type
determine the delay in any single network segment. However, network planning is
made more complicated in the general case by the flexibility to repeat and/or retransmit
data to multiple segments within the bounds of the same network.
2861
2862
2863
2864
2865
2866
2867
2868
Computers that are interconnected so that they receive all the signals as they are
transmitted are said to belong to the same Collision Domain, because each computer is
affected by any and all computers that attempt a transmission concurrently, resulting in
a collision and lost messages. All computers in the same Collision Domain must be
within range so that the signal can travel to and return from any other computer in the
same Collision Domain within the specified time frame. The round-trip distance that a
message can travel within the required time frame is known as the network diameter,
and may span multiple segments and hubs.
2869
2870
2871
2872
2873
2874
NOTE: While the propagation characteristics of a 100BaseT and a 10BaseT network are
the same, as determined by the type of cable (CAT5) used, the time frame for
detecting collisions in a 100BaseT network is shorter than a 10BaseT network due
to the higher throughput and shorter message duration used in 100BaseT. This
results in a smaller network diameter and is the reason that 10BaseT design
guidelines, such as the “5-4-3 rule,” are inappropriate for 100BaseT networks.
2875
2876
2877
2878
2879
2880
2881
2882
2883
8.4.5.1
Choosing Interconnection Devices
Generally, hubs, switches, or a combination of each will be used to interconnect
Ethernet segments. The difference between a hub and a switch is shown Figure 48,
which compares the Collision Domains created by each configuration. A hub simply
boosts the signal as it passes from one segment to the other regardless of any other
traffic that may exist, extending the Collision Domain and also the network diameter.
A switch receives the complete message into a buffer and does not relay the message to
the next segment unless the segment is idle. In this way, the switch separates the traffic
into two separate Collision Domains.
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Single Collision
Domain
Node
Node
Hub
(Repeater)
Node
Node
Switch
(Bridge)
Independant Collision
Domains
2884
2885
2886
Figure 48: Hub vs. Switch
2887
2888
2889
Benefits of using hubs and/or switches are listed in Table 29, which identifies the
advantage or disadvantage of using a hub or switch for a number of operational
characteristics.
2890
2891
2892
2893
2894
2895
2896
The disadvantage of a switch can be illustrated by adding a network analyzer to the hub
and the switch in Figure 48. When connected to the hub, the analyzer becomes part of
the same Collision Domain as the nodes, and can receive all traffic originated by either
node. When connected to the switch, the analyzer creates its own Collision Domain
and can only receive traffic directed to that Collision Domain; any problems being
experienced between the nodes in the network go undetected.
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2897
Table 29: Characteristics of Hubs vs. Switches
2898
Characteristic
Bandwidth Utilization
Hub
Shared by all nodes
Network Diameter
Switch
Max bandwidth available to
each node
Unlimited segments with full
100 meter length
Each hub reduces the
maximum allowed network
diameter by up to 90 meters
Troubleshooting Visibility
All traffic visible to analyzer No traffic visible to analyzer
connected to any port
(Note 1)
Cost
Low
Moderate
Note 1: Managed switches typically provide the ability to mirror traffic from any one port to
another designated port; these switches are usually more expensive.
2899
8.4.5.2
Equipment Locations
2900
2901
2902
2903
2904
Once the overall topology is developed and the equipment for interconnecting the
segments in the topology is determined, the locations for the nodes and the
interconnecting hubs or switches are planned. In order to provide ease for
troubleshooting later, all interconnecting equipment should be located in close
proximity to one another.
2905
2906
Interconnecting equipment shall be located in a closed area, away from environmental
hazards.
2907 NOTE:
2908
Depending on the vessel type and size, the closed area may be a location under the
helm, or a climate controlled compartment below deck.
2909
Multiple Ethernet Networks
8.4.5.3
2910
2911
2912
2913
2914
2915
2916
2917
Multiple Ethernet networks may be used to segregate traffic from different applications
in order to preserve security, to reserve sufficient capacity to ensure reliable
performance, or to maintain clear administrative bounds for systems employing
independent resources. VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks) are where a router can
manage a whole series of Virtual LANs, thus removing the need to physically install
multiple LANs. These types of routers are more expensive but becoming the norm for
larger more complex installations. Situations where independent networks should be
installed with no interconnection between them are discussed below.
2918
2919
2920
2921
2922
2923
2924
2925
Security - System security goes beyond protecting resources from unauthorized access
– it also includes protecting equipment and software from unintended configuration
changes or modifications due to malicious software that is readily distributed via the
Internet and other communications means. Such software may affect the performance
of equipment critical to vessel safety, or even render it unusable under certain
circumstances. Independent networks are used to isolate safety-critical applications
from other applications in order to preclude the ability for malicious software to gain
access to those systems.
2926
2927
2928
2929
2930
Continuous video or audio streaming - As the number of video or audio sources that
are expected to be continuously operational grows, so does the bandwidth required to
support them. Homogeneous networks that combine streaming traffic with other traffic
are subject to conflicts between the traffic priorities and limitations on processing
required to forward traffic at each hub and switch. Many routers now have Quality of
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2931
2932
2933
2934
Service (QoS) where you can set a certain "guaranteed bandwidth" to some services
such as VoIP or ensure they do not take more than a certain level of bandwidth. The
most direct method however is to segregate the high bandwidth traffic from the
remaining traffic.
2935
2936
2937
2938
2939
2940
Independent administration - Applications involving multiple computers or displays
using a network may be administered by different organizations. For example,
navigation information sources such as radars and GPS, their displays, and other
applications may be installed and administered by a dealer with specific experience
with navigation systems. Such systems should be configured and remain in their
installed configuration without modification while the vessel is in operation.
2941
2942
2943
2944
2945
The remaining networked computers may be used for a variety of applications,
including Internet communications, voyage management, or vessel accounting. Such
systems are likely to be administered by the owner, or by an agent of the owner that
specializes in accounting or voyage management applications, and are likely to be
updated on a continuous basis, even while the vessel is in operation.
2946
2947
2948
2949
Since the operation and reliability of each of these different applications is the
responsibility of different organizations, their networks should be independent of one
another.
2950
8.4.5.4
Network Diagram
2951
2952
2953
A network diagram shall be prepared and provided to the vessel owner on completion
of installation and testing. The diagram should contain the following information, as
appropriate for the installation and protocols employed:
2954
•
The location and model of each hub or switch used to interconnect network segments
2955
•
The addresses, if any, assigned to any equipment connected to the network
2956
•
The location and configuration information for any routers or wireless access points
2957
•
Any provisions for future network connections
2958
8.4.6
2959
2960
2961
2962
2963
2964
2965
2966
2967
2968
2969
Advanced Network Planning
Advanced network planning involves consideration for the higher-level protocols to be
transmitted over the Ethernet network. Manufacturer documentation should be
consulted to determine what protocols might be in use between any specific equipment.
One protocol that is gaining in popularity for marine applications is Internet Protocol
(IP)
8.4.6.1
Internet Protocol Planning
Planning for IP based communications on an Ethernet network involves determining
the configuration parameters for each node, and how each node receives its parameters.
The configuration parameters that must be considered by all nodes are listed in Table
30.
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2970
2971
Table 300: Internet Protocol Configuration Parameters
Parameter
IP Address
Address Mask
Default Gateway
DHCP Server
DNS Server
Description
Unique address that identifies each node on the network
Numeric value that determines what addresses are reachable
on the local network, and what addresses are reached via the
default gateway
Address, typically of a router, which can be used to reach
addresses not on the local network – for example, addresses on
the Internet
(Dynamic Host Control Protocol) A flag that identifies
whether the node should attempt to get configuration
parameters from a designated node on the local network
(Domain Name System) The address of a node that can
provide mappings between node names and node addresses
2972
2973
2974
2975
2976
The IP address and address mask are two parameters that are critical to the proper
operation of the network. IP addresses must be unique, and all nodes on the network
must be using the same address mask. The Default Gateway and DNS Server may not
be required unless provision is made for communicating with some other network.
2977
2978
There are several methods for ensuring that each node is supplied with the correct
parameters, including:
2979
•
Default address assignments programmed into each node
2980
•
Manual configuration of address assignments to each node (Static IP).
2981
2982
•
Automatic configuration of address assignments through random selection and
conflict negotiation (Ad-Hoc).
2983
•
Automatic configuration of address assignments using DHCP
2984
2985
2986
2987
2988
2989
2990
2991
In many cases where the networked nodes are all from one manufacturer, default
address assignments may be provided by the manufacturer and programmed directly
into the equipment. For example, the address assigned to a particular model GPS may
be 192.168.100.1 and the address assigned to a particular model radar may be
192.168.100.2. When these two devices are connected to a network and powered on,
they will begin to communicate using the default addresses programmed into them. As
long as not more than one device of each type is connected to the network, the
addresses will be unique and communication will occur.
2992
2993
2994
2995
When a network is planned to have equipment from multiple manufacturers, the default
addresses and masks may conflict between the two manufacturers. Please refer to
manufacturer-specific documentation connecting to manufacturer's "closed" Ethernet
systems.
2996
2997
2998
2999
On larger networks, IP address administration can be simplified using a DHCP server
and setting each node to query the DHCP server for IP configuration information.
Many devices come with DHCP servers built in and configured to operate
automatically on power-up.
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3000
3001
3002
3003
NOTE: Multiple DHCP servers operating on the same network may try to assign the same
address to more than one node. Installers shall disable all DHCP servers not
being actively used.
3004
3005
3006
3007
3008
If you connect a computer to a network and the IP address that the computer has
is 169.x.x.x then this is a self-assigned address that the computer gave itself when it
could not get an IP address by DHCP. Also if the address is 0.0.0.0 then this
indicates that for some reason the specific computer does not have an IP address.
This issue is a common indicator of network problems.
3009
8.4.6.2
IP Address Allocation
3010
3011
3012
3013
3014
IP addresses are represented by a 32-bit number, which means that there are a total of
more than four billion IP addresses available for assignment. Several address ranges
have been reserved for specific functions, and three address ranges have been set aside
for local network use. The remaining addresses are administered by international
organizations that ensure that no address is ever assigned to more than one user.
3015
3016
3017
3018
3019
3020
Because arbitrary addresses in the range from 0 to 4+ million are difficult to remember
and group, IP addresses are typically represented in a format called the dotted quad. A
dotted quad is represented as four numbers separated by dots (as in 1.2.3.4). Each
number in the dotted quad represents 8 of the 32 bits in an IP address. An 8-bit number
can take the values from 0 to 255, so each value in the dotted quad can be represented
in the range from 0 to 255.
3021
3022
3023
3024
When manual or DHCP configuration of addresses is required, IP addresses shall be
chosen from one of the following three ranges of address. These addresses have been
set aside for use by local networks and will not cause conflicts if the local network is
ever connected to the Internet.
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0 192.168.255.255
3025
3026
3027
16+ million available addresses,
address mask 255.0.0.0
1+ million available addresses,
address mask 255.240.0.0
65,536 available addresses,
address mask 255.255.0.0
Assign addresses to all equipment to be connected to the network using the following
procedure to enter equipment and address information, as shown in the address
assignment sheet in Table 31.
3028
1. Pick an address range and subnet mask from the previous table.
3029
2. List all equipment in the left-hand column that requires an IP address.
3030
3031
3032
3. Pick a starting address from within the address range chosen, and enter
addresses in the IP address column, using the starting address for the first
equipment and numbering consecutively thereafter.
3033
3034
3035
3036
4. The remaining columns can be used to enter Default Gateway and DNS
addresses that may be required to access the Internet via a router. If provided,
the gateway address should be within the same range as chosen in Step 1, and
no other equipment should have that address.
3037
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3038
Table 31: IP Address Assignment sheet
3039
Equipment
Radar
GPS
Voyage Data Recorder
Satellite Tracking
IP Address
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.101
192.168.1.102
192.168.1.103
Mask
255.255.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.0.0
255.255.0.0
Default Gateway
DNS
DNS
3040
3041
3042
8.4.6.3
Web-Based Configuration
3043
3044
3045
3046
3047
Many multi-functional devices are now being shipped with a means of configuring the
device using a standard Web browser. Typically, the device requires a network
connection for normal operation, so the addition of a Web-based configuration
capability can be provided with no or, at most, a small incremental investment in
hardware.
3048
3049
3050
3051
3052
3053
3054
3055
There is no current standard for the default IP address programmed into a particular
device for access to its Web-based configuration tool. The arbitrary nature of
assignment makes it likely that the equipment will not work in any given network
without first being configured to work in that network. These devices can be
configured by first connecting them individually to a laptop configured to communicate
with the device and then using the Web-based configuration capability to reconfigure
the device with an address and mask suitable for use on the local network. Specific
steps are listed below:
3056
3057
3058
3059
3060
3061
1. Choose a convenient location to begin installing your router such as an open
floor space or table. This does not need to be the permanent location of the
device. Particularly for wireless routers, you may find it necessary to re-position
the unit after installing it as the cables / signals may not reach all areas needed.
At the beginning, it’s better to choose a location where it's easiest to work with
the router and worry about final placement later.
3062
3063
2. Plug in the router's electrical power source, and then turn on the router by
pushing the power button.
3064
3065
3066
3067
3068
3. (Optional) Connect your Internet modem to the router. Most network modems
connect via an Ethernet cable but USB connections are becoming increasingly
common. The cable plugs into the router jack named "WAN" or "uplink" or
"Internet." After connecting the cable, be sure to power cycle (turn off and turn
back on) the modem to ensure the router recognizes it.
3069
3070
3071
3072
3073
4. Connect one computer to the router. Even if the router is a wireless model,
connect this first computer to the router via a network cable. Using a cable
during router installation ensures the maximum reliability of the equipment.
Once a wireless router installation is complete, the computer can be changed
over to a wireless connection if desired.
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3074
3075
3076
3077
3078
3079
3080
3081
3082
5. Open the router's administration tool. From the computer connected to the
router, first open your Web browser. Then enter the router's address for network
administration in the Web address field and hit return to reach the router's home
page.
3083
3084
3085
3086
6. Log in to the router. The router's home page will ask you for a username and
password. Both are provided in the router's documentation. You should change
the router's password for security reasons, but do this after the installation is
complete to avoid unnecessary complications during the basic setup.
3087
3088
3089
3090
3091
3092
3093
7. If you want your router to connect to the Internet, you must enter Internet
connection information into that section of the router's configuration (exact
location varies). If using DSL Internet, you may need to enter the PPOE
username and password. Likewise, if you have been issued a static IP address
by your provider (you would need to have requested it), the static IP fields
(including network mask and gateway) given to you by the provider must also
must be set in the router.
3094
3095
3096
8. If you were using a primary computer or an older network router to connect to
the Internet, your provider may require you to update the MAC address of the
router with the MAC address of the device you were using previously.
3097
3098
3099
9. If this is a wireless router, change the network name (often called SSID). While
the router comes to you with a network name set at the factory, you will never
want to use this name on your network.
3100
3101
3102
10. Verify the network connection is working between your one computer and the
router. To do this, you must confirm that the computer has received IP address
information from the router.
3103
3104
3105
11. (If applicable) Verify your one computer can connect to the Internet properly.
Open your Web browser and visit a few Internet sites such as
http://compnetworking.about.com/.
3106
3107
12. Connect additional computers to the router as needed. If connecting wirelessly,
ensure the network name (SSID) of each is computer matches that of the router.
3108
3109
13. Finally, configure additional network security features as desired to guard your
systems against Internet attackers.
3110
3111
3112
3113
3114
3115
3116
Many routers are reached by either the Web address "http://192.168.1.1" or
"http://192.168.0.1" Consult your router's documentation to determine the exact
address for your model. Note that you do not need a working Internet
connection for this step.
8.4.6.4
Wireless Networks
Wireless networks provide a means to extend the physical cabled network to mobile
devices or devices otherwise unreachable with a physical cable. A variety of
technologies are available under the general umbrella of IEEE 802.11 compatible
devices. Wireless access points shall be configured to use WPA or higher security
settings. Security settings including encryption codes shall be documented and
provided to the vessel owner.
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3117
3118
3119
3120
3121
3122
NOTE: Wireless standards continue to advance in order to provide new capabilities and
greater security, such as Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA or WPA2) for better
encryption and Wireless Distribution System (WDS) for creating multiple wireless
access points. Older equipment may be incompatible with the new standards and
may not inter-operate when the new functions are enabled.
8.4.6.5
3123
3124
3125
The requirements provided herein are intended to cover a majority of installation
scenarios encountered in the field. Additional information and training may be required
for Ethernet networks that include any of the following options:
•
•
•
•
3126
3127
3128
3129
3130
3131
3132
Other Considerations
8.4.7
Multiple Wireless Access Points
Fiber Optic Segments
Redundant Loops & Spanning Tree Algorithms
Sub netting
Ethernet Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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3133
9
ANTENNA INSTALLATION
3134
3135
3136
3137
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of antennas
used to receive or radiate signals associated with radio equipment and their respective
systems. The information provided is intended to produce structurally sound
installations with minimum interference between RF signal sources and receivers.
3138
3139
Additional information on specific antenna installations is detailed in the following
sections:
3140
•
Satellite Compass Antennas- Section 13
3141
•
Radar Antennas- Section 14
3142
•
VHF Antennas Section 17
3143
•
SSB Antennas- Section 17
3144
•
AIS Antennas- Section 19
3145
•
Satellite Communications- Section 20
3146
3147
3148
3149
3150
3151
3152
9.1
General Considerations
Antennas installed in accordance with these standards shall meet the requirements
identified in this section. Table 32 identifies RF applications requiring antenna
installation, and describes the application use and signal direction; transmit and/or
receive.
Table 32: Antenna Types
3153
Type
Description
Signal Direction
VHF
Communication
T/R
GPS
Navigation
R
Satellite Communication Communication
T/R
Satellite TV
Entertainment
R
Cellular
Communication
T/R
SSB
Communication
T/R
DGPS
Navigation
R
Radar
Collision Avoidance
T/R
AM/FM
Entertainment
R
AIS
Vessel Tracking
T/R
Navtex
Information
R
ADF
Direction Finding
R
Mini-M
Communication
T/R
Signal Direction Key:
R = Receive only
T/R = Transmit and Receive
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3154
9.1.1
3155
3156
3157
Coaxial cables used to connect each antenna with its intended electronic device shall be
installed in accordance with Section 7, Coaxial Cables.
9.2
3158
3159
3160
Installation Requirements
Antennas shall be installed in accordance with the requirements specified in the
following paragraphs.
9.2.1
3161
3162
3163
3164
Transmission Lines
Arrangement
Antennas shall be installed for a clear, unobstructed operating environment with
maximum spacing between adjacent antennas. Specific separation and mounting
relationship requirements identified in the following paragraphs shall be observed
9.2.1.1
3165
3166
Location
Location of antennas shall be determined by specific manufacturer’s requirements with
the following criteria and priority:
3167
3168
•
GPS / DGPS Antennas – installed with a clear view to the sky, with as little
obstruction as possible.
3169
3170
•
Satellite TV Antennas – installed with a clear view to the sky, with as little
obstruction as possible.
3171
3172
3173
•
Wind / Weather Antennas – installed with a clear view to the sky, with as little
360 degree horizontal obstruction as possible so wind readings will not be
compromised by other nearby on-board structures.
3174
3175
3176
•
VHF / AIS Antennas-installed with a clear view of the horizon and as elevated
and free as possible. Optimal mounting for sailboat VHF installations is at the top
of the mast.
3177
3178
•
SSB Antennas – installed as far away as possible from any receive antennas, such
as a differential beacon.
3179
3180
•
Radar Antennas – With as clear a view forward as possible, some shadowing aft
is permissible.
3181
3182
3183
3184
3185
9.2.1.2
Minimum Spacing
The minimum spacing between antenna types mounted in the same horizontal plane, as
identified in Tables 33 & 34, shall be observed. The table lists different antenna types
across the top and down the side. The minimum spacing, in feet, is identified in the cell
where the row and column of the types to be separated intersects.
3186
3187
3188
3189
3190
3191
Table 33: Minimum Antenna Horizontal Spacing in Feet
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3192
3193
Intersecting cells identify minimum spacing between antennas of given types in feet and/or reference to
table notes.
VHF /AIS
GPS
Differential
SSB
RADAR
Sat. Comm
Cell Phone
Sat. TV
ADF
3194
3195
3196
3197
VHF/AIS
GPS
Differential
SSB
4
3
1
3
2
6
2
3
6
3
/2
1
4
(a)
6 (e)
5 (c)
3
1
1
1
1
/2
4
2
10
1
1
1
3
4
4
10
2
6
2
4
6
1
Radar
Sat-Com
Cell
Sat TV
ADF
2
(a)
3
3
(b)
6
(a)
4 (d)
4
6
6 (e)
10
6
6
6
6
6
10
2
5 (c)
1
2
(a)
6
3
4
4
3
2
1
4
4 (d)
6
4
4
4
6
1
1
6
4
10
4
4
4
Table 34: Minimum Antenna Horizontal Spacing in Meters
Intersecting cells identify minimum spacing between antennas of given types in feet and/or reference to
table notes.
VHF/AIS
GPS
Differential SSB Radar Sat-Com
Cell
Sat TV ADF
1.2m
92cm
30.5cm
92cm 61cm
1.8m
1.2m
61cm
1.8m
VHF /AIS
92cm
15cm
30.5cm
1.2m
(a)
1.8m(e)
92cm 1.5m(c) 30.5cm
GPS
30.5cm
30.5cm
15cm
1.2m
92cm
10
30.5cm 30.5cm 30.5cm
Differential
92cm
1.2m
1.2m
3m
92cm
1.8m
92cm
61cm
1.8m
SSB
61cm
(a)
61cm
61cm
(b)
1.8m
61cm
(a)
1.2m
RADAR
1.8m
1.8m(e)
10
1.8m
1.8m
1.8m
1.8m
1.8m
1.8m
Sat. Comm
61cm
1.5m(c)
30.5cm
61cm
(a)
1.8m
61cm
92cm
1.2m
Cell Phone
92cm
92cm
30.5cm
1.2m 1.2m(d)
1.8m
92cm
1.2m
1.2m
Sat. TV
1.8m
30.5cm
30.5cm
1.8m
1.2m
3m
1.8m
1.2m
1.2m
ADF
3198
3199
3200
3201
3202
3203
3204
3205
3206
3207
3208
3209
3210
Notes:
3211
3212
3213
NOTE: Figure 49 below shows a professional antenna installation. Note that all antenna
installations are a compromise based on vessel type and available mounting space
(a) GPS antennas, satellite TV antennas, and/or cell phone antennas shall not be installed in the
direct beam of a radar antenna. The GPS antenna shall be raised above or mounted below the
radar transmit beam.
(b) Radar antennas shall not be installed at the same vertical height as another radar antenna.
Sufficient vertical spacing shall be provided to ensure that the transmitting antenna of the radar is
separated by a minimum of 18 inches (45 cm) in height from another radar.
(c) Cell phone transmission can interfere with GPS reception if the cell phone transmit antenna is
in proximity to the GPS receiving antenna.
(d) Spacing of satellite TV antennas from radar antennas will depend on output power of the
radar. Higher output radars (6 kW, 10kW, 25 kW) require greater spacing to avoid interference.
(e) GPS antennas shall be mounted below the transmitted beam of SATCOM antennas.
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3214
3215
3216
3217
Figure 49: Typical Antenna Installation
9.2.2
Antenna Support
3218
3219
3220
3221
3222
3223
3224
Antenna mounting hardware shall be through bolted or screwed into supporting
structures of sufficient strength for the intended use. Support structures and hardware
shall be of sufficient material to withstand 10 pounds (5kg) of force applied 24 inches
(60 cm) from the mount in the fore-aft and side-to-side axes. This can easily be tested
with a rope and portable scale. Backing plates or other means of strengthening decks,
cabin walls, or other structures should be used to ensure sufficient strength when
existing structures are inadequate.
3225
3226
Mounting and cable feed-through holes shall be adequately sealed to prevent water
intrusion.
3227
9.2.2.1
Multipoint Mounting
3228
3229
Antennas of 8 feet (2.4 m) or less may be mounted with a single freestanding base
mount of either fixed or ratchet type construction.
3230
3231
3232
Antennas greater than 8 feet (2.4 m) in length, and antennas employing extensions
greater than 4 feet (1.2 m) in length, shall be provided with an upper support bracket
installed a minimum of 24 inches (60 cm) above the base mount.
3233
3234
3235
3236
9.2.3
Antenna Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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3237
10
3238
3239
DISPLAY INSTALLATIONS
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for locating and installing
electronic displays. These include, but bare not limited to the following:
3240
•
Stand Alone displays (Fish finder, Radar etc.)
3241
•
Multi-Function Displays
3242
•
Touchscreen displays
3243
•
Computer displays
3244
3245
3246
3247
3248
3249
3250
3251
The information provided is intended to produce structurally sound installations,
protected from the elements when required, that are easy to operate and maintain.
10.1
General Considerations
Onboard electronic displays installed in accordance with these standards shall meet the
requirements identified in the following paragraphs. Onboard displays include both
primary displays used for navigation and secondary displays used to monitor and
control onboard functions and equipment.
10.1.1 Visibility
3252
3253
3254
3255
3256
3257
Equipment mounted at the helm station shall be adequately visible to allow use of all
functions of the equipment under all lighting conditions. All displays that employ
separate backlighting connections shall be connected to an appropriate lighting circuit.
In mounting locations that are not fully enclosed, the installer shall, within the
limitations of display technology, ensure that the equipment can be seen for all primary
functions with direct sunlight on the display.
3258
3259
3260
3261
3262
3263
3264
Care should be taken when selecting a mounting location to ensure that the operator’s
line of sight and/or field of vision ensures visibility of any display fitted with a
polarizing filter. Many polarized corrective lenses and sunglasses may create a
condition at certain viewing angles to a screen fitted with a polarizing filter that “blacks
out” the display, rendering it partially or completely invisible. The viewing angle of
any display thus fitted should be adjusted by the installer and checked for visibility with
polarized lenses
3265
3266
Visibility improvements shall be implemented as required through the use of mounting
wedges, brackets, and hoods.
3267
3268
3269
3270
3271
3272
3273
3274
3275
3276
3277
10.1.2 Accessibility
All displays with integral controls shall be mounted so that the controls may be
operated with one hand, while the other hand may be used to grasp a handrail or wheel.
Primary navigation equipment, identified in the following list, shall be installed in a
manner that permits normal operation of the electronics equipment controls without the
user having to leave the helm or other normal watch keeping position.
•
•
•
•
•
VHF Radio (primary)
MFD
GPS
Radar
Chart plotter
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•
•
3278
3279
3280
10.1.3 Touchscreen Displays
3281
3282
3283
3284
3285
3286
3287
Touch screens can be affected by water, oil, or grease. This has the potential to not see
where you touch the display, which could lead you to activate another point on the
display. If a capacitive display is installed in an area where it will be getting wet, you
will want to make sure the touch screen portion can be shut off and that it also has hard
keys so you can still have functionality of the display.
10.1.4 Serviceability
3288
3289
3290
3291
3292
3293
3294
Depth sounder/Fish finder
Autopilot
Displays shall be mounted so that any display may be serviced without requiring more
than one additional piece of equipment to be removed in addition to the display being
serviced. Sufficient cable shall be provided behind equipment displays to allow the
equipment to be fully removed from the mounting location and operated for service.
10.2
Installation
Displays shall be installed in accordance with the following paragraphs.
10.2.1 Mounting
3295
3296
3297
3298
Displays shall be mounted using hardware fasteners and brackets appropriate for the
installation. All sealing gaskets supplied with the equipment shall be installed in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Custom brackets may be used instead
of or in addition to manufacturer-provided hardware to secure equipment displays.
3299
3300
Display cases shall not be permanently modified to preclude equipment replacement
under warranty.
3301
3302
3303
3304
3305
NOTE: Check with manufacturers temperature specifications and make sure the
mounting location does not exceed the operating temperatures.
10.2.1.1 Flush Mount Display Installations
Flush Mount Displays shall be installed in accordance with the following bullets and as
illustrated in Figure 50.
3306
•
Confirm layout before cutting & drilling holes
3307
•
Use supplied mounting hardware & gaskets when applicable
3308
•
Marine-Grade silicone (Not 5200) can also be used as a gasket
3309
•
Provide service loops in cabling for equipment removal
3310
•
Allow space for proper ventilation
3311
•
Allow for manufacturer’s compass safe distance
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3312
3313
3314
Figure 50: Flush-Mount Display Installation Steps
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3315
3316
3317
10.2.1.2 Bracket Mount Display Installations
Bracket Mount Displays shall be installed in accordance with the following bullets and
as illustrated in Figure 51.
3318
•
.Confirm layout before cutting & drilling holes
3319
•
Use supplied mounting hardware where applicable
3320
•
Thru-bolt display brackets when applicable
3321
•
Leave room behind display for connections and display removal
3322
•
Provide service loops in cabling for equipment removal
3323
3324
•
Seal all cable entrances into the dash using marine-grade silicone (Do not use a
permanent bonding agent)
3325
3326
3327
3328
3329
3330
3331
3332
3333
3334
3335
Figure 51: Bracket-Mount Display Installation Steps
10.2.1.3 Cored Construction
Where mounting locations involve cutting into hulls or decks with cored construction,
the core material shall be protected by removing the core in the area surrounding the
mounting location and replacing the core with a solid plug of fiberglass or epoxy.
When the plug has cured, mounting holes may be drilled in the plug material.
10.2.2 Environmental Protection
Displays shall be mounted in a manner that prevents direct water exposure during
normal operation of the boat, unless the specifications guarantee the display as fully
waterproof. Waterproof displays installed in exposed locations shall have all exposed
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3336
3337
3338
connectors protected from direct water spray through the use of properly fitted rubber
boots or dummy connectors.
10.2.3 Cabinets and Enclosures
3339
3340
3341
3342
Cabinets and enclosures used to protect equipment shall be of sufficient volume to
provide air circulation for cooling behind the equipment displays. If the equipment
displays include the use of an internal cooling fan, provision shall be made for air to be
exchanged externally from the cabinet or enclosure.
3343
3344
3345
A drain hole shall be made in sealed electronic boxes located in exposed locations to
prevent the accumulation of water that may leak into the electronics box and to allow
water to drain out and away from the electronic equipment and associated wiring.
3346
3347
A small bead of silicone may be used as a sealant to prevent water from leaking into the
cabinet or enclosure from around the mounting surface of flush-mounted displays.
3348
3349
NOTE: Silicone sealant or other such sealant/adhesive shall not be used as the only means
of mechanically fixing a display to a mounting surface.
3350
10.2.4 Marking
3351
3352
At the completion of display installation, best installation practice is that all connected
cables shall be labeled with the following information:
3353
1. Equipment Name
3354
2. Equipment Model
3355
3. Connection Function
3356
3357
3358
In addition, display locations that include displays and equipment that are not
guaranteed waterproof, and where the location may be inadvertently exposed to water
by leaving access doors open, shall be clearly labeled as follows:
EQUIPMENT NOT WATERPROOF!
DO NOT EXPOSE TO DIRECT
WATER SPRAY.
3359
3360
3361
3362
10.2.5 Display Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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3363
11
3364
3365
3366
3367
3368
BLACK BOX INSTALLATIONS
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for locating and installing
black box sensors. The information provided is intended to produce structurally sound
installations, protected from the elements when required, that are easy to operate and
maintain.
11.1
3369
General Considerations
Examples of Black box sensors include, but are not limited to the following:
3370
•
Fish finder transceiver boxes
3371
•
Autopilot Course Computer boxes
3372
•
NMEA 0183 / NMEA 2000 Interface boxes
3373
•
Radar processor boxes
3374
3375
•
AIS Receiver boxes
3376
3377
3378
3379
3380
3381
11.2
Installation
Sensor boxes shall be installed in accordance with the following paragraphs.
11.2.1 Mounting Location & Orientation
Most sensor boxes can be mounted on a bulkhead wall, desktop, or deck. Sensor boxes
shall be mounted in a central location where all required cables necessary for
connection to the box can be reasonably routed.
3382
•
Mount all boxes using manufacturer-supplied hardware
3383
3384
•
All sealing gaskets supplied with the equipment shall be installed in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
3385
3386
3387
•
The preferred mounting orientation is on a vertical surface, where all cable exits
are facing downward, if there is only one side of the box that has cable exits.
.(See Figure XX)
3388
3389
•
If the box has 2 sides with cable exits, the preferred mounting method is to have
the cables exiting the sides or side/bottom of the box.(See Figure XX)
3390
3391
•
Mount boxes where the path for running the required electrical cabling is
reasonably direct; keep in mind the different cable lengths.
3392
3393
•
Leave slack, including service loops in cables for maintenance and servicing
ease
3394
3395
•
Mount where the status indicator on the box can be observed for system testing
and troubleshooting.
3396
•
Mount all black boxes in a dry location, above bilge water levels.
3397
•
Locate all black boxes away from exhaust pipes and vents.
3398
3399
•
The mounting location should be well ventilated, and the temperature and
humidity should be moderate and stable.
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3400
•
Mount the unit where shock and vibration are minimal.
3401
3402
•
Keep the unit away from electromagnetic field-generating equipment such as
motors and generators.
3403
3404
•
Observe the compass safe distances noted in the safety instructions to prevent
disturbance to the magnetic compass.
3405
3406
3407
NOTE: Check with manufacturers temperature specifications and make sure the
mounting location does not exceed the operating temperatures.
3408
3409
3410
NOTE: When possible, do not mount black boxes with cables exiting the top of the box, as
this could cause water intrusion.
3411
3412
3413
3414
Figure 52: Black box cable routing when mounted vertically
3415
3416
3417
3418
3419
3420
3421
3422
3423
3424
3425
3426
11.2.2 Serviceability
Boxes shall be mounted so that they may be easily serviced. Sufficient cable lengths
including service loops shall be provided at all cable connection points to allow the
equipment to be fully removed from the mounting location and be operated for service.
11.2.3 Environmental Protection
Black boxes shall be mounted in a manner that prevents direct water exposure during
normal operation of the boat, unless the specifications guarantee the box as fully
waterproof. Waterproof black boxes installed in exposed locations shall have all
exposed connectors protected from direct water spray through the use of properly fitted
rubber boots or dummy connectors.
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3427
3428
NOTE: Silicone sealant or other such sealant/adhesive shall not be used as the only means
of mechanically fixing a sensor box to a mounting surface.
3429
11.2.4 Cable Marking
3430
3431
At the completion of installation, best installation practice is that all connected cables
shall be labeled with the following information:
3432
•
Equipment Name
3433
•
Equipment Model
3434
•
Connection Function
3435
3436
3437
In addition, mounting locations that include black boxes and equipment that are not
guaranteed waterproof, and where the location may be inadvertently exposed to water
by leaving access doors open, shall be clearly labeled as follows:
EQUIPMENT NOT WATERPROOF!
DO NOT EXPOSE TO DIRECT
WATER SPRAY.
3438
3439
3440
3441
11.2.5 Black Box Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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3442
12
3443
3444
3445
3446
TRANSDUCER INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for the installation of
transducers used with depth sounders and fish finders. General guidance is provided
for selecting transducers appropriate for the intended application, and installation
requirements are identified that maximize transducer performance.
3447
3448
NOTE: The installation steps within this section may also apply to the installation of
Underwater Lights. Refer to manufacturer specific instructions for more details.
3449
12.1
3450
3451
3452
General Considerations
Transducers installed in accordance with these standards shall be selected and located
in accordance with the criteria identified in the following paragraphs.
12.1.1 Transducer Types and Construction
3453
3454
3455
This section applies to a wide variety of transducers used for depth, speed, and
temperature measurement of the water surrounding a vessel’s hull. Transducer types
include the following:
3456
3457
3458
3459
3460
3461
3462
3463
Depth Transducer – A device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
or sound. It is intended to operate as part of an echo sounder system and is generally a
piezoelectric crystal that resonates at a specific frequency, expressed in kilohertz (kHz).
The transducer is a two-way device – it converts electrical energy at its resonant
frequency into mechanical energy (during transmission) and turns received mechanical
energy (during reception) into electrical signals. The transducer is connected to the
depth sounder display, black box, or MFD by a wire connection. This connection may
or may not have a manufacturer specific connector
3464
3465
3466
3467
3468
Multi-Frequency Transducer (AKA Dual Frequency) – A transducer that is capable
of operating at more than one frequency (e.g., 50 kHz and 200 kHz). This is
accomplished either by using a single crystal element that resonates in both the
thickness and radial mode or by including separate elements or an array of elements for
each frequency in a single housing.
3469
3470
3471
3472
Broadband / CHIRP Transducer A transducer that is capable of operating at a
multitude of frequencies as specified by the transducer manufacturer. This transducer
usually includes two separate elements or an array of elements for each frequency band
in either a single housing or two separate housings.
3473
3474
3475
3476
Speed/Temp Sensor – A device that contains two independent sensing devices. The
first is designed to generate electrical pulses at a rate proportional to the speed of the
boat through the water. The second is electrically related to the temperature of the
water. (Possibly consider rewriting this entire paragraph for clarity)
3477
3478
3479
3480
3481
Combination Transducer or Triducer® Multisensor – A transducer that contains a
depth transducer with a speed and temperature sensor, all-in-one mechanical housing.
The electronics for the speed/temp sensor may be permanently mounted in the
transducer housing or may be contained in a retractable insert within the housing
design.
3482
3483
3484
Integrated Transducer (AKA Smart Transducer) – A transducer that contains
integrated electronics in order to provide a standard digital signal at its output. Signals
will typically conform to either NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® communication
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3485
3486
3487
3488
3489
3490
3491
3492
3493
3494
3495
standards. Integrated Transducers process the depth, speed and temperature
information, and transmit numeric data via the noted protocols for the instrument to
display.
12.1.2 Transducer Configurations
Transducers are generally constructed to be mounted in one of the three following
configurations:
12.1.2.1 Transom Mount
Transom mount transducers are mounted to the exterior of the transom of the vessel;
only a signal cable penetrates the hull, generally above the waterline.
Figure 53: Transom-Mount Transducer Installation
3496
3497
NOTE: Transom mount transducers are ONLY recommended for vessels under 35 feet
(10.6 m) with Outboard or I/O engines.
3498
3499
NOTE: Transom mount transducers are not recommended for sailboats or powerboats
with inboard engines.
3500
12.1.2.2 Through-Hull
3501
3502
3503
Through Hull transducers are mounted through a penetration in the vessel bottom.
Installation requires that a hole be drilled through the hull and may require the use of a
fairing block to level the face of the transducer parallel to the water’s surface.
3504
There are three types of through hull transducer styles:
3505
3506
1. Low-profile / flush-mount models are designed for hulls with low dead rise (less
than 7 degrees). No fairing block is required.
3507
3508
3509
3510
3511
2. Tilted Element™ models are similar to Low Profile / flush mount models but can
accommodate hull dead rise angles up to 24°. The ceramic element(s) inside the
transducer is tilted to compensate for hull dead rise as shown in Figure 54. Installers
must match the tilt angle of transducer to dead rise of the vessel hull at the specific
location of installation.
3512
3513
3514
3515
Triducer® Multisensor and Tilted Element™ are trademarks of Airmar Technology Corporation, Milford, NH
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3516
3517
Figure 54: Low-Profile, Tilted Element Installation
3518
•
12° transducer for dead rise angles from 8° to 15°
3519
•
20° transducer for dead rise angles from 16° to 24°
3520
•
No Fairing block is required on Tilted Element transducers
3521
3522
3523
3524
Be sure your transducer model matches the dead rise angle of your hull at the selected
mounting location. The tilt angle is printed on the top of the transducer. To measure the
dead rise angle of your hull at the selected mounting location, use an angle finder or a
digital level.
3525
3526
NOTE: Low Profile and Tilted Element transducers are ONLY recommended on
powerboats under 35 feet (10.6 m) and sailboats of all sizes.
3527
3528
3529
NOTE: For powerboats over 40 feet (12 m), a through hull stem transducer or in hull
transducer is recommended for optimal performance.
3530
3531
3. Traditional Stem style transducers and Long stem thru hull versions with and
without fairings are typically installed on vessels over 35 ft.(10.6m).
3532
3533
3534
3535
Figure 55: Thru-Hull Transducer Installation
3536
3537
3538
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3539
3540
3541
3542
3543
3544
3545
3546
3547
3548
3549
3550
3551
3552
3553
3554
3555
3556
3557
3558
12.1.2.3 In-Hull Transducers
In hull transducers are mounted inside the hull in direct contact with the hull. Generally
installed using a glue or epoxy to form a void-free connection to the hull. In-hull
transducers radiate energy directly through the hull into the water below as shown in
Figure 56. Some models employ a plastic housing which is filled with propylene glycol
(non-toxic anti-freeze/coolant) or mineral oil to conduct the energy from the transducer
through the hull.
Figure 56: In-Hull Transducer Installation
NOTE: In Hull transducers are only recommended for solid fiberglass hulls
12.1.2.4 Commercial Tank Mount
Commercial tank mount transducers are typically installed on steel hulled commercial
fishing vessels and commercial ships. The transducer is mounted in a steel blister on the
outside of the ship’s hull. In this type of installation, the shipyard usually performs
installation on the transducer as they typically do all work below the waterline on
regulated commercial vessels. Figure 57 illustrates how a commercial tank mount
transducer is installed.
Figure 57: Tank-Mount Transducer Installation
3559
3560
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3561
3562
Table 35 identifies materials used for the manufacture of transducers, characterized by
the method of mounting: transom mount, through-hull, or in-hull.
3563
Table 35: Transducer Materials
Transom
Through-hull
Bronze
Plastic
Stainless steel
Aluminum
Epoxy Resin
Urethane
Rubber
Plastic
3564
3565
3566
3567
3568
3569
3570
3571
In-hull
Plastic
Plastic (oil-filled tank)
12.1.3 Transducer Selection
Transducer selection involves consideration of a number of factors, including the
intended application, hull thickness and material, vessel speed, and potential transducer
locations. Table 36 provides a matrix of hull materials, transducer types, and
propulsion methods and identifies suitable selections for various combinations of
criteria.
Table 36: Suitable Transducer Selection Combinations
Hull
Material
Fiberglass
(solid)
Fiberglass
(cored)
Wood
Steel
Aluminum
Transom Mount
OutSternInboard
drive
board
P
P
N/R
Through-Hull Mount
OutSternInboard
drive
board
BR, P
BR, P
BR, P
In-Hull Mount
OutSternInboard
drive
board
P
P
P
P
P
N/R
BR, P
BR, P
BR, P
N/R
N/R
N/R
P
P
P
P
N/R
N/R
BR
SS
BR
SS1,
RB
N/R
N/R
N/R
N/R
N/R
N/R
P
P
N/R
SS1,
AL1
SS1,
AL1,
RB,
TM
BR
SS1,
RB,
TM
SS1,
AL1,
RB,
TM
N/R
N/R
N/R
Abbreviations:
AL = Aluminum
BR = Bronze
P = Plastic
RB = Resin Blister Housing
SS = Stainless Steel
TM = Urethane or Rubber Tank Mount
N/R = Not Recommended
Notes: (1) Transducer isolated from hull using dielectric material.
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3572
3573
3574
3575
3576
3577
3578
3579
3580
3581
3582
3583
3584
3585
3586
3587
Transducers shall be selected after reviewing available mounting locations, as described
in Section 12.1.4, keeping in mind the various options identified in Table 36 and the
considerations in the following paragraphs.
12.1.3.1 Hull Thickness
Verification of hull thickness shall be performed prior to transducer installation. The
intended installation may require an extended-length transducer to permit proper
installation and sealing. For through-hull types, ensure that the stem length is sufficient
to permit installation with a fairing block, if required, to adapt to the hull dead rise in
the intended location.
12.1.3.2 Steel and Aluminum Hull Vessels
On metal hull vessels, special installation techniques need to be followed to ensure that
a potential corrosion problem is not introduced by installing the transducer. Only
plastic or stainless steel transducer housings are recommended for metal hulls. All
metal transducers must be properly isolated from the metal hull to reduce potential
electrolysis as shown in Figure 58. Follow specific transducer manufacturer instructions
for proper isolation
3588
3589
3590
Figure 58: Isolating a Transducer
3591
3592
3593
3594
3595
3596
3597
3598
3599
3600
3601
3602
12.1.3.3 Vessel Speed
High speed vessels can result in more turbulence over the face of the transducer from
below waterline fittings, strakes or steps. Transducers are adversely affected by
turbulence and are therefore more sensitive to the proximity of below-waterline fittings
on high-speed hulls than on low-speed hulls. Locations that provide acceptable
performance at low speed may not have the same performance at higher speeds.
12.1.3.4 Transducer / Display Matching
Wherever possible, transducers and transceivers shall be used that are from the same
manufacturer and/or are recommended for use by the transceiver manufacturer. Other
transducers may be used, provided that the transducer is selected to match the
characteristics of the transceiver electronics. The installer shall verify that the
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3603
3604
3605
operating frequency (or frequencies) and impedance of the transducer and transceiver
match. Speed/temp sensor electrical signals must also be verified to be compatible with
the transceiver.
3606
3607
NOTE: Previously installed or other used transducers that are unmarked with regard to
operating frequency and impedance shall not be connected to new displays.
3608
3609
NOTE: Unused or disconnected transducers shall be removed from the vessel and the hull
shall be repaired.
3610
3611
3612
3613
3614
3615
3616
12.1.3.5 Non-penetrating Installations
An in-hull transducer may provide adequate performance, and offers the advantage of
being able to perform the installation without drilling a hole in the hull – possibly while
the vessel is still in the water. In-hull transducers are most effective when they can be
installed in areas with less than 5 degrees dead rise. Liquid-filled tank type transducers
shall be used for applications where the dead rise exceeds 5 degrees, but these
transducers also require an installation location with more space.
3617
3618
NOTE: Cored fiberglass, wood, aluminum, and steel hulls are unacceptable for in-hull
transducers.
3619
NOTE: In-hull transducers can only be installed in solid fiberglass hulls
3620
12.1.4 Transducer Location
3621
3622
3623
3624
3625
3626
Transducer mounting locations shall be selected in accordance with the following
criteria.
12.1.4.1 Transom Mount Transducers
Transom transducers shall be mounted in a location selected according to the number
and type of engines. Figure 59 shows transom mount locations for single- and twinengine installations.
3627
3628
3629
3630
3631
Figure 59: Transom Mount Transducer Locations
Transducers should be located on the side of the propeller turning away from the
transducer, unless restricted by other considerations, such as ensuring that the
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3632
3633
3634
3635
transducer is not located in possible turbulence caused by a hull fitting ahead of it. As
Figure 59 shows, in twin-engine installations, such considerations may mean the best
compromise is between the engines.
12.1.4.2 In-hull Transducers
3636
3637
3638
Figure 60 illustrates acceptable in-hull mount locations. Within the illustrated bounds,
transducer mounting location shall be selected in accordance with the following
criteria:
3639
3640
3641
Hull Location – A clear area of the hull in the middle one-third of the hull area and
below the waterline at all speeds shall be selected. The location shall provide access to
the hull inside surface in order to mount the transducer.
3642
3643
Cable Length – Whenever possible, the transducer shall be installed in a location that
will minimize the requirement to extend the transducer cable.
3644
3645
Proximity to Keel – Transducers shall be placed so that the transmitted beam will not
intersect with or be affected by reflection from the keel.
3646
3647
Dead rise – When multiple locations are available, transducers shall be located in the
area of the hull that provides the minimum amount of hull dead rise.
3648
3649
NOTE: If an area with less than 5 degrees of dead rise cannot be identified, a liquid-filled
tank type transducer or a through-hull transducer shall be used.
DISPLACEMENT
WATERLINE
CRUISE
WATERLINE
INSTALL TRANSDUCER IN
THIS REGION OF THE HULL
IN-HULL TRANSDUCER
3650
3651
Figure 60: In-hull Transducer Mounting
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3652
12.1.4.3 Through-hull Transducers
3653
3654
3655
Figure 61 illustrates acceptable through-hull mount locations. Within the illustrated
bounds, the transducer mounting location shall be selected in accordance with the
following criteria:
3656
3657
3658
3659
3660
3661
Hull Location – A clear area of the hull in the middle one-third of the hull area and
below the waterline at all speeds shall be selected. The location shall provide access on
both the inside and outside of the hull and shall be free of other protruding through-hull
fittings forward of the intended transducer location. The transducer shall be placed in a
location that will not interfere with the normal engine water intakes or propeller
slipstream.
3662
3663
3664
NOTE: Transducer location could adversely affect engine temperature by blocking water
flow, or could cause propeller cavitation by creating turbulence in the propeller
slipstream.
3665
3666
3667
NOTE: Transducers should not be mounted aft of hull projections, which are likely to
cause turbulent flow past the transducer, particularly at high speed, and
compromise the transducer performance.
3668
3669
3670
3671
Cable Length – Determination of the transducer cable routing from the transducer to
the depth sounder device shall be made prior to installing transducer. Whenever
possible, the transducer shall be installed in a location that will minimize the
requirement to extend the transducer cable.
3672
3673
Proximity to the Keel – Transducers shall be placed so that the transmitted beam will
not be affected by reflection from the keel.
3674
3675
3676
Access for Service – Through-hull transducers should be sited to allow replacement in
the event of damage. Paddlewheel speed sensors shall be placed so that they can be
accessed for removal and cleaning.
3677
3678
Hull Dead rise – When multiple locations are available, transducers shall be located in
the area of the hull that provides the minimum amount of hull dead rise.
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DISPLACEMENT
WATERLINE
CRUISE
WATERLINE
INSTALL TRANSDUCER IN
THIS REGION OF THE HULL
THROUGH-HULL TRANSDUCER
HULL
FAIRING BLOCK
FAIRING BLOCK
3679
3680
3681
Figure 61: Through-hull Transducer Mounting
12.1.5 Dummy Plugs
3682
3683
3684
3685
3686
If a dummy plug is provided for use with removable insert transducers, it shall be
mounted within easy reach at the transducer location and secured so that it cannot come
loose and cause a hazard. The method of attachment shall allow easy removal without
tools so that the plug can be inserted into the transducer hole in an emergency situation.
12.1.6 Anti-Fouling Paint
3687
3688
3689
At the completion of installation and on an annual service, the faces of all transducers
shall be cleaned with a fine-grit sandpaper (400 grit) and a light coat of water based
anti-fouling transducer paint shall be applied.
3690
3691
3692
NOTE: Metallic based bottom paints shall not be applied to the face of bronze throughhull transducers, but are acceptable for plastic through-hull transducers and the
outside hull where in-hull transducers transmit through.
3693
12.2
3694
3695
Installation Requirements
Transducers shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer instructions and the
following paragraphs.
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3696
3697
3698
3699
3700
3701
3702
3703
3704
3705
3706
3707
3708
3709
3710
3711
12.2.1 Mounting
Transducers shall be mounted so that the transducer face is within 5 degrees of parallel
to the water surface when the vessel is properly trimmed. In addition, mounting shall
be in accordance with the requirements identified in the following paragraphs.
12.2.1.1 Transom Mount
Stainless steel fasteners shall be used for mounting transom mount transducers and
attaching non-metallic cable ties used to secure the transducer cable. Fastener holes
shall be sized properly and countersunk to reduce chipping the gel coat. The holes in
the transom and fastener threads shall be sealed with sealant appropriate for use below
the waterline. Sufficient sealant shall be applied in the holes and on the threads of
fasteners to result in a continuous band completely surrounding the fastener head.
12.2.1.2 In-hull Mount
In-hull transducers shall be mounted in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions,
using sealant or epoxy provided by the manufacturer. Fasteners, if required, shall be
stainless steel with properly sized and countersunk mounting holes.
12.2.1.3 Through-hull Mounts
3712
3713
3714
3715
3716
3717
3718
Low Profile & Tilted Element Style
12° and 20° models—from inside the hull, point the arrow on the
top of the transducer (and the cable exit) toward the KEEL or centerline of the boat.
This will align the angle of the element inside the transducer with the dead rise angle
of the hull.
3719
Through-hull Mount Stem Style with Fairing
3720
3721
3722
3723
3724
3725
3726
A fairing block shall be used whenever the dead rise angle exceeds 5 degrees, or
whenever the inner and outer hull surfaces are out of parallel enough to cause a 1/32inch (1 mm) or greater gap between the transducer flange and hull surface. The
attachment nut shall be tightened to a minimum 20 lb. ft.(3 kg meters) of torque. The
transducer, fairing block if used, and the threads of the transducer to a minimum of 5/8
inch (16 mm) inside the outer hull surface shall be coated with sealant to ensure a
continuous seal.
3727
3728
3729
3730
3731
3732
12.2.1.4 Fairing Blocks
Fairing blocks shall be installed as a mechanical transition for through-hull installations
where the hull dead rise exceeds 5 degrees, as shown in Figure 62. The fairing block is
installed between the transducer and the outside and inside of the hull and is cut to
match the hull dead rise angle using a band saw or similar device so that the transducer
face remains parallel to the water surface.
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3733
3734
3735
3736
3737
3738
3739
3740
Figure 62: Through-hull Transducer / Fairing Block Cross-section
Pre-manufactured fairing blocks designed specifically for the transducer to be installed
are recommended. Permitted materials for fairing blocks shall include high-impact
polyurethane and high-density wood, such as mahogany or oak. If a wood fairing block
is fabricated, it must provide sufficient strength to enable the transducer to be installed
with a minimum of 20 ft. lbs.(3 kg meters) of torque on the attachment nut without
splitting the inner or outer fairing block.
3741
3742
NOTE: StarBoard® material or other petroleum-based materials shall not be used in the
fabrication of fairing blocks, as sealants will not adhere to such materials.
3743
3744
NOTE: Wood fairing blocks or backing blocks shall not be used with plastic or resin
transducers as the swelling of the block could fracture the housing.
3745
3746
3747
3748
3749
3750
3751
3752
3753
3754
3755
Surfaces that mate to the hull shall be sanded after cutting to ensure that all saw ridges
are removed. At completion of cutting and sanding, the minimum outer fairing block
thickness at its narrowest point shall be equal to or greater than 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) for
high-impact polyurethane or equal to or greater than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) for wood
blocks.
12.2.1.5 Cored Hull Construction
Where mounting locations involve cutting into hulls or decks with cored construction,
the core material shall be protected by removing the core in the area surrounding the
mounting location and replacing the core with a solid plug of fiberglass or epoxy that is
larger than the required clearance hole. When the plug has cured, drill through the plug
material to create the clearance hole.(See Figure 63).
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3756
3757
3758
Figure 63: Preparing a cored fiberglass hull
12.2.2 Cable Routing
3759
3760
3761
Transducer cables shall be routed away from other electrical harnesses and away from
receivers such as AM/FM stereo, VHF radio, and SSB radios to reduce interference
noise that would affect depth transducer operation or affect the receivers.
3762
3763
3764
Extending transducer cables should be avoided. If the specific installation requires the
cable to be extended, an approved extension cable supplied by the manufacturer shall
be used.
3765
3766
3767
3768
3769
Transducer cables routed through the boat shall be supported at intervals not to exceed
12 inches (30 cm) in length. Support shall be provided by non-metallic support devices
except in engine spaces, where support shall be provided by metallic clamps insulated
with a material that is resistant to gasoline, fuel oil, motor oil, lubricating oil, and
steering fluid.
3770
12.2.2.1 Transom Cables
3771
3772
Cables from transom mount transducers shall enter the vessel in one of the following
methods:
3773
3774
3775
1. Over the top of the transom - The cable shall be protected in the exposed areas at
the top and within 6 inches (15 cm) of the edge of the transom with spiral wrap
protective sheathing or equivalent.
3776
3777
3778
2. Through a hole drilled through the transom above the waterline - The hole
shall be sealed adequately to make a waterproof seal and limit water intrusion into
the transom.
3779
3780
3781
3782
12.2.3 Fasteners and Sealing
Fasteners used on the transom or in bilge areas for mounting transducers or cable
supports shall be stainless steel and shall be installed in properly sized holes that have
been countersunk to reduce gel coat chipping.
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3783
3784
3785
3786
3787
3788
Fasteners and all holes drilled through the transom or in bilge areas shall be sealed
with a sealant appropriate for use below the waterline that meets or exceeds Federal
specification TT-S-00230C(2), or Federal specification TT-S-227B(1). Sufficient
sealant shall be applied in the holes and on the threads of fasteners to result in a
continuous band completely surrounding the fastener head.
12.2.4 Electrical
3789
3790
Transducers shall meet the following electrical requirements.
12.2.4.1 Frequency
3791
3792
3793
3794
3795
3796
The frequency of the transducer shall exactly match the transmit/receive frequency of
the depth sounder in use. When multi-frequency depth sounders are used, the
transducer shall be capable of operating on both operating frequencies, either by use of
independent internal elements or by a combination element that is capable of resonating
at both operating frequencies.
12.2.4.2 Power
3797
3798
3799
Transducers shall provide a power handling capability that equals or exceeds the
maximum average power output during the pulse of the depth sounder in use.
12.2.4.3 Grounding
3800
3801
3802
3803
3804
3805
3806
On vessels with steel or aluminum hulls, where specific mechanical isolation is
included as part of the transducer installation, isolation of the transducer housing from
the hull shall be maintained. Refer to manufacturer’s instructions.
12.3
Installation Procedures
Transducers shall be installed using the following procedures.
12.3.1 Dry Fitting Before Installation
3807
3808
3809
3810
3811
The transducer assembly and securing nut shall be assembled dry without the use of
adhesive to verify the mechanical fit of the transducer and any required fairing or
backing blocks. This step shall be performed for every installation, as individual hull
sections vary with fabrication and may present different mounting angles on the inner
and outer surfaces of the hull.
3812
3813
3814
3815
After cutting the fairing block, if required, to the hull dead rise angle and sanding the
blocks smooth, drill the clearance hole in the hull to mount the transducer. Be sure that
the hole is oriented vertically with respect to the waterline, rather than perpendicular to
the hull, as it may cause interference with the transducer and fairing block alignment.
3816
3817
3818
3819
Inspect the fit between the transducer and the fairing block, and the fairing block and
the hull. The maximum permissible gap at the dry fit stage is 1/32 inch ( 0.8 mm) at
any point between the transducer, fairing block, and/or hull. If the gap exceeds the
maximum value, the fairing block needs to be adjusted by additional cutting or sanding.
3820
3821
3822
3823
Also inspect the fit between flush-mount and low-profile transducers and the hull. If a
gap greater than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) exists between the hull and transducer at any point,
a tapered backing block may be required to ensure that the flange of the transducer face
is parallel to the outer hull surface.
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3824
3825
3826
3827
3828
3829
3830
3831
3832
3833
3834
When the transducer and any fairing or backing blocks fit without gaps, remove the
transducer from the hull.
12.3.2 Surface Preparation
Prepare the hull surfaces where the transducer or fairing blocks will contact the inside
and outside hull area. All bottom paint shall be removed from the area of the
transducer, with a minimum clearance of 1 inch (2.5 cm), of the outer dimension of the
fairing block. All oil, water, and dust residue on the inside of the hull, in the vicinity of
the inner faring block shall be removed and the inner hull surface cleaned to ensure a
clean and dry mounting surface. All surfaces of the fairing block and transducer
mounting surfaces shall be cleaned of dust and dirt prior to sealing and assembly.
12.3.3 Sealing
3835
3836
3837
3838
3839
3840
A generous amount of one part sealant and bedding compound shall be applied to the
mating surfaces of the transducer, outer fairing block, and inner fairing block at the
time of assembly. In addition, sealant shall be applied on the mounting threads of the
transducer from the base of the transducer to a distance of at least 5/8 inch (15.8 mm)
above the outer fairing block mounting surface to ensure a continuous seal of the
threads. Sealants shall be manufacturer approved for below the waterline use.
3841
3842
3843
3844
NOTE: Certain adhesive sealants with permanent bonding characteristics are not
recommended for transducer installation, as these type of adhesive sealants may
preclude the ability to remove and replace a transducer if the transducer is
defective or damaged.
3845
12.3.4 Final Assembly
3846
3847
3848
3849
3850
The transducer, outer fairing block, and inner fairing block shall be assembled and the
inner securing nut shall be tightened in accordance with manufacturer specifications.
The transducer shall be provided adequate support to eliminate rotation during the
tightening process. All excess sealant shall be cleaned at both the exterior and interior
installation locations.
3851
3852
3853
A minimum cure time of 12 hours at 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21° C) is required before
launching the vessel after transducer installation. At lower temperatures, the cure time
will need to be increased.
3854
3855
3856
3857
If the transducer cable is not immediately routed to the display the transducer cable
shall be adequately secured to ensure that the cable and connector remain above the
level of any bilge water or oil that may be present until final transducer cable
installation is performed.
3858
3859
3860
3861
3862
12.3.5 Checking for Leaks
3863
3864
3865
12.3.6 Transducer Installation Testing
At the time of launch, a visual inspection shall be performed to ensure the watertight
integrity of the installation; appropriate action shall be taken if any leaks are observed.
Also, the transducer locations shall be indicated to the owner at this time, and the
method of cleaning removable transducers shall be demonstrated.
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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3866
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3867
13
3868
3869
COMPASS INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of vessel
heading sensors, which include the following:
3870
•
Magnetic compasses (wet compass)
3871
•
Electronic compasses (fluxgate compasses)
3872
•
Satellite Compass
3873
•
Gyro Compass
3874
3875
3876
3877
3878
3879
13.1
General Considerations
Onboard electronics installed in accordance with these standards shall conform to the
location criteria identified in the following paragraphs in order to minimize their
interference on magnetic steering compasses. Equipment and other materials likely to
present an unusually large magnetic field and produce an unacceptably large deviation
when mounted in close proximity to steering compasses include:
3880
•
Audio Speakers
3881
•
VHF Radios
3882
•
CRT Displays (radar displays, color fish finders)
3883
•
Hailer Horns
3884
•
DC Motors
3885
•
Masses of Ferrous Materials (e.g., steel, iron)
3886
•
Current Carrying Conductors
3887
•
Electrical Distribution Panels
3888
•
Air Conditioner Compressors
3889
3890
NOTE: All magnetic heading sensors, including electronic and fluxgate compasses, are
subject to magnetic interference that will cause heading errors or deviation.
3891
13.1.1 Compass Safe Distance
3892
3893
The installation of electronic equipment in close proximity to a steering compass
should be avoided whenever possible.
3894
3895
Equipment displays and junction boxes shall not be mounted closer than the specified
compass safe distance identified in the manufacturer’s installation instructions.
3896
13.1.2 Pre-Installation Testing
3897
3898
3899
3900
3901
Prior to installation, any electronic equipment that may have an effect on the steering
compass should be checked by temporarily locating the equipment in the desired
position, providing power to it, and operating the equipment in each of its operational
modes. If any operational mode causes a deviation on the steering compass, then an
alternative location shall be considered.
3902
3903
At the completion of the installation, the installer shall again verify that the operation of
any electronic equipment does not adversely affect the indicated magnetic heading
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3904
3905
3906
3907
shown on the steering compass or autopilot compass display. It may be necessary to
make these tests on four different headings equally distributed around 360 degrees,
since the effects can vary with the heading.
13.1.3 Compass Compensation
3908
3909
3910
3911
3912
3913
In installations where compass interference is unavoidable, the vessel owner shall be
advised of the potential for interference before continuing the installation. A qualified
compass installer should be contacted to compensate the compass and/or prepare an
appropriate deviation card (every 15 degrees) to identify the result of the electronics
installation and the change in magnetic heading presented on the steering compass.
13.1.4 Compass Installation
3914
3915
3916
Compasses or other heading sensing and display electronics shall be installed in
accordance with the following paragraphs.
13.2
3917
3918
3919
Magnetic Compass
Magnetic compasses shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines
and the following paragraphs.
13.2.1 Location
3920
3921
3922
3923
3924
A compass shall be positioned on a horizontal or vertical surface where it is visible to
the helmsman and can be aligned so that the compass card is level and the compass
direction is parallel to the vessel’s keel. The orientation of the compass shall remain
within the limits identified by the manufacturer when the vessel is stationary or
underway. The mounting area shall be free from magnetic and electrical interference.
3925
3926
3927
NOTE: A fairing block may be required for horizontally mounted units if the surface is
not level, or for vertically mounted units if the surface is not perpendicular to the
keel.
3928
3929
NOTE: The criteria for testing and calibrating a magnetic compass shall be performed by
a qualified compass adjustor. Refer to manufacturer recommendations
3930
3931
NOTE: The criteria for testing and calibrating a magnetic compass is not covered in this
standard or by NMEA.
3932
3933
13.2.2 Electrical Connections
3934
3935
3936
3937
Any electrical connections that must be run near the compass (e.g., for illuminating the
compass itself) shall be made using twisted-pair wiring. In addition, the connection
wiring polarity specified by the compass manufacturer shall be observed.
13.3
Electronic Compass
3938
3939
Electronic Compasses (including Fluxgate Compasses) shall be installed in accordance
with the manufacturer’s guidelines and the following paragraphs.
3940
3941
3942
NOTE: Such compasses are usually installed in out-of-the-way locations not typically
considered magnetically sensitive. The installed compass location shall be
recorded and reported to the vessel owner, and shall be clearly labeled as follows:
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3943
MAGNETIC COMPASS AREA!
DO NOT INSTALL OR STORE ANY
MAGNETIC MATERIAL WITHIN 3
FEET (1 METER) OF THIS AREA
3944
3945
3946
13.3.1 Location
3947
3948
3949
3950
3951
3952
A electronic compass shall be positioned as near as practical to the pitch and roll center
of the vessel. This location is typically found on the vessel centerline between onethird and one-half of the vessel’s waterline length forward of the transom and
approximately at waterline height. The electronic compass shall be installed in the
orientation specified by the manufacturer and shall remain within the limits identified
by the manufacturer when the vessel is stationary or underway.
3953
3954
3955
Additionally, the electronic compass shall be located a minimum of 21/2 feet (760 mm)
from any other onboard steering compass to ensure that the two compasses don’t cause
deviations in each other.
3956
3957
NOTE: To minimize the effect of roll and heel on measurement errors, mounting locations
on the fly bridge or mast are not recommended for electronic compasses.
3958
13.3.2 Electrical Connections
3959
3960
3961
Electrical connections between the electronic compass and its display head shall be
made using the manufacturer-provided cable.
13.3.3 Mounting
3962
3963
3964
3965
3966
3967
Mounting options will vary with manufacturer. Refer to manufacturer documentation
before mounting. Magnetic compasses and electronic compasses shall be mounted
using nonferrous mounting hardware suitable for the mounting surface. Most quality
stainless steel and solid brass fasteners can be used. If you are unsure, test the fasteners
with a magnet.
13.3.4 Calibration and Compensation
3968
3969
Following installation, magnetic and electronic compasses shall be calibrated or
compensated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
3970
3971
Electronic compasses should be re-calibrated when the vessel has been transported via
truck, rail or yacht transport to a new location.
3972
3973
If the heading sensor is interfaced to an autopilot, turn off the autopilot before aligning
the heading as the autopilot may turn the rudder suddenly.
3974
3975
13.3.5 Compass Testing
3976
3977
3978
3979
3980
3981
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 15 Testing
13.4
SATELLITE COMPASS (GNSS) INSTALLATION
A Satellite Compass, also known as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracks
navigation satellite signals for determining true heading, positioning and velocities. The
compass determines its ranges and azimuths to the satellite from the compass’s
antennas that receive the satellite signals coming from the different satellite
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3982
3983
constellations, and the receivers translate these signals using complex algorithms for
giving accurate heading, positions and velocities.
3984
3985
3986
The antennas’ positions are computed from the measurements of the time delay
between the emission time (satellite) and the reception time (receiver) for at least 4
signals coming from different satellites.
3987
3988
3989
3990
3991
3992
3993
There are no mechanical parts such as rotating motors and gimbles and performance is
not affected by geomagnetism or any magnetic materials. True heading and position is
instantaneous and there is no need for velocity corrections as required with
gyrocompasses. Satellite compasses are affected by multipath, multipath results when
the direct path to your compass is blocked by objects on the vessel and the signals from
the GNSS satellites are reflected by the objects. This will result in heading and position
jumps.
3994
GNSS compasses may come in two main configurations;
3995
3996
3997
3998
3999
1. A complete heading and position system in a single enclosure that requires only one
power/data cable connection. This device is placed outside of the vessel in an
unobstructed location with a clear view of the sky.
4000
4001
4002
4003
2. A main GNSS receiver with at least two or more external antennas, antenna cables,
power/data cables. With this system the GNSS receiver is placed inside the vessel and
the external GNSS antennas are placed outside in an unobstructed location with a
clear view of the sky.
4004
4005
4006
4007
4008
4009
This section identifies recommended installation practices for determining the best
location of GNSS compasses. An optimum location for GNSS compasses requires an
unobstructed view of the sky (to minimize multipath problems), and an adequate
distance from any devices that may cause noise or interference. Taking these
precautions will help ensure your device meets the manufacturer’s heading and position
specifications.
4010
4011
4012
4013
4014
4015
4016
4017
4018
13.4.1 General Considerations
With installation of either GNSS compass above; any onboard electronics installed in
accordance with these standards should conform to the location criteria identified in the
following paragraphs. In order to minimize interference with GNSS compasses,
electronic equipment and other materials likely to present in-band noise interference
(on the same frequency as GPS, GLONASS, COMPASS and Galileo signals) should
not be mounted in close proximity of GNSS compasses. These products include:
4019
o VHF radios;
4020
o Marine radars;
4021
o Satellite phones;
4022
o Weather radars;
4023
o DC motors;
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4024
o Fluorescent ballasts;
4025
o Energy Saving light bulbs (CFLs)
4026
13.4.2 Compass Safe Distance
4027
4028
The installation of electronic equipment in close proximity to a steering GNSS compass
should be avoided whenever possible.
4029
4030
4031
GNSS compasses, displays and junction boxes should not be mounted closer than the
specified compass safe distance identified in the manufacturer’s installation
instructions.
4032
13.4.3 Testing
4033
4034
4035
4036
4037
Prior to installation, any electronic equipment and accessories that produce noise and
in-band interference with the GNSS compass should be checked by temporarily
locating the equipment in the desired position, providing power to it, and operating the
equipment in each of its operational modes. If any operational mode causes a loss in
signal-to-noise on the GNSS compass, then an alternate location should be considered..
4038
4039
13.4.4 Compass Compensation
4040
4041
4042
In installations where compass interference is unavoidable, the vessel owner should be
advised of the potential for interference before continuing the installation. A qualified
compass installer should be contacted to help with finding a suitable location.
4043
4044
13.4.5 Installation
4045
4046
Compasses or other heading sensing and display electronics should be installed in
accordance with the following paragraphs.
4047
4048
13.4.5.1 GNSS Compass
4049
4050
GNSS compasses should be installed by a qualified compass installer in accordance
with the manufacturer’s guidelines and the following paragraphs.
4051
4052
13.4.5.2 Mounting Location
4053
4054
When considering where to mount the GNSS Compass, consider the following
recommendations:
4055
4056
4057
4058
•
Consider GNSS antenna reception, ensuring there is a clear view of the sky available and
GNSS signals, along with differential correction signals such as beacon or Satellite Base
Augmentation System (SBAS), are not masked by obstructions that may reduce GNSS
compass performance;
4059
4060
4061
•
To achieve optimum heading and position performance, mount the GNSS compass or
GNSS antennas as high as possible (considering maintenance and accessibility). If
possible, ensure that the antenna is higher than the highest object on the vessel.
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4062
4063
•
If possible GNSS compasses should be installed above the vessel’s radar antenna and out
of the radar’s beam.
4064
4065
4066
4067
•
Since the GNSS compass computes a position based on a primary antenna, mount the
compass where the reference position is required with respect to the primary antenna.
Refer to the manufacturer’s manual, as different GNSS compasses operate and compute
heading and position differently.
4068
4069
•
Observe the horizontal separation between the GNSS antennas and the masts. Refer to the
manufacturer’s manual. Figure 64 is a general guideline
4070
4071
Figure 64: GNSS Compass Horizontal Separation & Field of View
4072
4073
4074
4075
•
Locate any transmitting (VHF radio or radar) antennas away from the compass by at least
a few meters to ensure tracking performance is not compromised, giving the best
performance possible;
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4076
4077
•
Make sure there is enough cable to route into the vessel to reach a breakout box or
terminal strip, or NMEA 2000 trunk line connector.
4078
4079
•
Do not locate the antenna or compass where environmental conditions exceed those
specified in the manufacturer’s manual;
4080
4081
•
When using beacon as a differential correction source, consider mounting locations away
from ambient noise within the beacon band;
4082
4083
4084
•
Ensure that the beacon antenna is as far away as possible from all other equipment that
emits electromagnetic interference (EMI), including DC motors, alternators, solenoids,
radios, power cables, display units, and other electronic devices.
4085
4086
4087
•
Any electrical connections that must be run near the compass should be made using
twisted-pair wiring. In addition, the connection wiring polarity specified by the compass
manufacturer should be observed.
4088
4089
13.4.5.3 Mounting Orientation
4090
4091
GNSS compasses should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines
and the following paragraphs.
4092
4093
4094
4095
4096
Some GNSS compasses will output heading, pitch, and roll readings regardless of the
orientation of the antennas. However, the relation of the antennas to the boat’s axis
determines whether you will need to enter a heading, pitch, or roll bias. The primary
antenna is used for positioning and the primary and secondary antennas work in
conjunction to calculate heading, pitch, and roll values.
4097
4098
4099
4100
4101
4102
Parallel Orientation: The most common installation is to orient the GNSS compass
parallel to, and along the centerline of, the axis of the vessel. This provides a true
heading. In this orientation if you use a gyrocompass, you can enter a heading bias to
calibrate the physical heading to the true heading of the vessel. You may need to adjust
the pitch/roll output to calibrate the measurement if the compass is not installed in a
horizontal plane.
4103
4104
4105
4106
Perpendicular Orientation: If the GNSS compass is oriented perpendicular to the
centerline of the vessel’s axis, a heading bias of +90° if the primary antenna is on the
starboard side of the vessel and -90° if the primary antenna is on the port side of the
vessel.
4107
4108
13.4.5.4 Mounting Options
4109
4110
GNSS compasses should be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines
and the following paragraphs.
4111
4112
The GNSS compass allows for two different mounting options: flush mount and pole
mount.
4113
4114
•
Flush mount - The bottom of the compass contains screw holes for flush
mounting the unit to a flat surface. Refer to the manufacturer’s guide.
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4115
4116
4117
•
Pole mount - The bottom of the compass contains a mounting hole (1" thread)
for easy pole mounting. Hand tighten until snug (do not over tighten). Refer to
the manufacturer’s guide.
4118
4119
4120
4121
13.4.5.5 Electrical Connections
GNSS compasses electrical connections should be in accordance with the
manufacturer’s guidelines and the following points.
4122
•
Cable must reach an appropriate power source.
4123
4124
•
Cable may connect to a data storage device, display, or other device that accepts
GNSS data.
4125
•
Avoid running the cable in areas of excessive heat.
4126
•
Keep cable away from corrosive chemicals.
4127
•
Do not run the cable through door or window jams.
4128
•
Keep cable away from rotating machinery.
4129
•
Do not crimp or excessively bend the cable.
4130
•
Avoid placing tension on the cable.
4131
•
Remove unwanted slack from the cable.
4132
•
Secure along the cable route using plastic wraps.
4133
4134
•
Electrical connections between the GNSS compass and its display head should
be made using the manufacturer-provided cables.
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
4140
4141
4142
13.4.6 Calibration and Compensation
Following installation, GNSS compasses should be calibrated or compensated in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
13.4.7 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition, to verifying compass-operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the compass has been installed with
minimum deviational error.
4143
13.4.7.1 Dockside Testing
4144
•
4145
13.4.7.2 Sea Trial Testing
4146
4147
4148
4149
Check that compass location is free from interference.
It may be necessary during Sea Trial Testing to make these tests on four different
headings, equally distributed around 360 degrees, since the effects can vary with the
heading.
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4150
4151
•
Display both heading (HDT) and course over ground (COG) from the GNSS
compass;
4152
•
Drive the vessel between 7-10 knots on a straight yaw free course,
4153
4154
4155
4156
•
Observe both the HDT and COG values. They should match but they may not
match because of the wind, tide and current.; the GNSS compass may have to
be adjusted by the difference if there is a delta between unexplainable values;.
Refer to the manufacturer’s instructions.
4157
•
Repeat steps 1 through 3 until HDT and COG match.
4158
4159
•
Check compass for accuracy against any other known references at different
azimuths (0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°).
4160
4161
4162
4163
4164
4165
4166
13.5
Gyrocompass
There are two main types of gyrocompasses used in the marine field. One has a sphere
floating in a fluid. This fluid needs to be changed annually. The other uses a sensitive
element mounted on gimbals.
Gyrocompasses shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines and
the following paragraphs.
4167
4168
NOTE: The criteria for testing and calibrating a gyrocompass shall be performed by a
qualified compass adjustor. Refer to manufacturer recommendations.
4169
4170
4171
NOTE: The criteria for testing and calibrating a gyrocompass is not covered in this
standard or by NMEA.
4172
4173
4174
4175
4176
4177
13.5.1 Mounting Location
4178
4179
4180
4181
4182
4183
4184
4185
4186
4187
4188
4189
4190
4191
4192
The Gyro needs to be mounted on a rigid foundation which is flat, not susceptible to
resonant vibration, and within one degree of level with the ship’s level plane.
The best performance will be achieved when it is mounted as close to the center
line and ship’s center of gravity as possible. Many gyros have slotted mounting holes to
correct for minor misalignment of indicated heading.
NOTE: Make sure there is plenty of room for service, as some gyros need to have their
sphere or sensitive element installed and or serviced with the compass in place.
Older gyros require the binnacle to be aligned with the ship’s centerline, but some current
systems can be orientated in any horizontal direction while others need to be aligned in
one of four quadrants, 0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees.
Some high performance Gyros on the market have more stringent requirements. Refer to
manufacturer documentation.
13.5.2 Data Outputs
Gyrocompasses may have the following data outputs:
• Stepper data
• Synchro data
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4193
4194
4195
4196
4197
4198
4199
•
•
NMEA 0183
NMEA 0183-HS
13.5.3 Compass Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B.
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4200
14
4201
4202
4203
4204
4205
4206
RADAR INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of marine
radar.
14.1
General Considerations
Radar systems shall be installed consistent with the radar manufacturer’s
recommendations for location and radiation safety. Modern radars fall into two
categories:
4207
•
Traditional pulse style radar
4208
•
Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) style radar.
4209
14.1.1 Radiation
4210
4211
4212
4213
Traditional pulse style radar antennas shall be located so that the radar beam is above
the spaces occupied by vessel crew and passengers. A radar beam can be expected to
project from the radiating element up to ± 15 degrees above and below horizontal,
depending on the size and style of the array.(See Figure 65).
4214
Refer to radar manufacturer documentation for exact beam width specifications.
4215
4216
Figure 65: Radar Vertical Beam Widths
4217
4218
4219
4220
Traditional marine pulse radars transmit RF energy in the microwave region of the
frequency spectrum. A pulse radar antenna shall not be mounted in such a manner that
direct exposure to humans at eye level is possible while operating the vessel. . Refer to
radar manufacturer documentation for mounting guidelines and safe distances.
4221
4222
4223
4224
4225
FMCW radars transmit at much lower wattage levels in the microwave portion of the
frequency spectrum than their traditional pulse radar counterparts. FMCW radars
generally have limited mounting restrictions with regards to safe proximity and/or
orientation to humans. Refer to radar manufacturer documentation for mounting
guidelines and safe distances.
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4226
4227
4228
4229
4230
4231
4232
4233
4234
4235
4236
4237
4238
4239
4240
4241
14.1.2 Location
Radar antennas shall be located in a site that is free from reflection from onboard
sources. Any obstruction in the radiated beam may cause shadowing, which is the
inability of the radar to locate targets beyond the obstruction at the same relative
bearing. The extent to which shadowing will occur is a function of the array size, the
cross section presented to the radar beam by the obstruction, and the distance the
obstruction is from the radar antenna. Larger arrays, smaller obstructions, and longer
distances to the obstruction all reduce shadowing. If available mounting options
require the radar to be located near large obstructions, the radar should be mounted
forward of the obstruction so that any shadowing is limited to bearings directly behind
the vessel.
NOTE: Mounting of the radar should be away from the top of exhaust stacks, since the
scanner and cables can be damaged by excessive heat and corrosive effects of
exhaust gases.
14.1.2.1 Spacing
4242
4243
Spacing between the radar antenna and other antenna types shall be maintained in
accordance with Section 9, Antennas.
4244
4245
4246
NOTE: Marine radar transmits a focused energy beam of sufficient power to overload
other receivers. Spacing requirements identified in Section 9, Antennas should be
rigorously maintained.
4247
14.2
4248
4249
4250
Radar Installation
Radar equipment shall be installed in accordance with the provisions identified in the
following paragraphs.
14.2.1 Mounting
4251
Radar displays shall be located and installed in accordance with Section 10, Displays.
4252
4253
4254
4255
4256
4257
4258
The radar antenna shall be mounted in a location that is sufficiently strong enough to
support the radar antenna in all sea conditions that may be encountered. The mounting
surface and supporting structure shall be capable of supporting a minimum of six times
the weight of the antenna without causing damage to the mounting surface or
supporting structure. Doubling or backing plates may be used to distribute the weight
of the radar antenna directly to the supporting structure when the mounting surface
itself is insufficient.
4259
4260
4261
4262
NOTE: Fiberglass radar arches and radar pedestal mounts are frequently constructed
with a hollow or lightweight core without other reinforcements and may not have
sufficient mechanical integrity to support the weight of a large open array radar
antenna.
4263
4264
4265
The radar antenna shall be installed in a well-supported location in accordance with the
following requirements:
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4266
4267
4268
4269
4270
1. The radar antenna shall have a clear line-of-sight view of as much horizon as
practical. Choose a location where masts or other structures do not block the signal
from the radar antenna, as shown in Figure 65. In the event that blockages are
unavoidable, they should be to the aft of the radar antenna.
4271
4272
4273
4274
4275
4276
2. The radar antenna shall be located a minimum of 15 feet (4.5 m) away from other
transmitting antennas (HF, VHF, and AIS) that may generate signals which may
interfere with the radar antenna assembly. Although radio interference is not
common, the farther away the radar antenna assembly is from these other antennas,
the less likely the radar will experience radio interference.
4277
4278
4279
NOTE: If the Radar antenna is installed with a flat vertical metal surface behind it whose
width is equal to or greater than the length of the antenna, A reflected image of
the forward targets may be displayed in the aft sector of the radar display.
4280
4281
4282
4283
NOTE: FMCW radars output significantly less RF energy than the traditional pulse
radars and will have less chance of interference with other antennas. Refer to
radar manufacturer documentation for guidelines with antenna spacing FMCW
radar and other antennas.
4284
4285
3. The radar antenna shall be located so that it is outside the vertical beam width of
any radar array located within 15 feet (4.5 m).
4286
4287
4. The radar antenna shall be rigidly mounted to the boat. If necessary, reinforce the
mounting area to assure that it does not flex due to boat motion or vibration.
4288
4289
4290
NOTE: Motion compensated antennas can be damaged by uncontrolled motion. The
source of power for the radar antenna shall be selected to ensure that it is
available and energized whenever the vessel is underway.
4291
14.2.2 Orientation
4292
4293
4294
4295
The orientation of the radar antenna (upward or downward mounting angle) shall be
adjusted in accordance with the type of vessel on which it is being installed. Refer to
manufacturer-specific documentation for radar orientation recommendations
14.2.3 Processing Unit Installation
4296
4297
When the radar processor is separate from the display/control unit, it shall be mounted
in accordance with Section 11, Black Box Installations.
4298
4299
When the radar processor in integrated within the display/control unit, it shall be
mounted in accordance with Section 10, Display Installations.
4300
4301
4302
4303
4304
4305
4306
14.2.4 Cables
Wherever possible, a single length of manufacturer-provided cable suitable for the
model radar and antenna being installed shall be used.
14.2.4.1 Cable Routing
The radar cable shall be protected from the environment throughout the entire cable
run, with the following exception: within 12 inches (30 cm) of the antenna waterproof
gland, an exposed section of cable may be used, provided that the cable is protected
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4307
4308
4309
4310
4311
where it enters the cabin or support structure with a waterproof fitting to preclude
chafing and water ingress along the cable. Radar cables shall be routed in order to
observe manufacturer-specified minimum bend radius and shall not be routed through
channels or tubes that are in bilge areas or that are in constant contact with bilge water.
14.2.4.2 Cable Extensions
4312
4313
4314
4315
4316
4317
4318
Radar cables shall be extended using only cable supplied and/or cable approved for use
by the radar manufacturer for the specific model radar. If manufacturer-supplied
terminations are not available, junctions shall be made in accordance with Section 2,
AC and DC Wiring. If the cables are Ethernet style, all terminations and junctions shall
be made in accordance with Section 8.4, Ethernet Network Wiring Requirements. All
junctions shall incorporate service loops to allow for future replacement and repair of
junction hardware.
4319
4320
4321
Cable junctions shall be created only in protected locations or weatherproof enclosures
and shall be clearly labeled so that their purpose can be identified without exposing the
location to weather or opening the enclosure.
4322
14.2.5 Interference
4323
4324
Radar equipment shall be installed in a manner to minimize interference from or with
other onboard electronic equipment using the following methods:
4325
1. Power cable extensions shall be made from shielded cables.
4326
4327
4328
2. Display units and metallic antennas shall be grounded to the RF Ground bus using
#8 AWG conductor, in accordance with Section 3, Grounding, Bonding, and
Lightning Protection.
4329
4330
3. Data interface cables shall be installed in accordance with Section 8, Data
Interfacing.
4331
14.2.6 Calculating Radar Range
4332
You can calculate radar range using following formula
4333
D (nautical miles) = 1.22(√h1 + √h2) or D (kilometers) = 2.23(√h1 + √h2)
4334
H1 = Antenna height (feet or meters)
4335
H2= Target height (feet or meters)
4336
4337
4338
4339
4340
4341
4342
Example - If a scanner is 15 ft. (4.5 m) above sea surface and the target is 30 ft. (9.1 m)
then you should be able to see the targets echo on the display when the target is 11.41
miles (XX km) from the radar. Figure 66 illustrates this.
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4343
4344
4345
Figure 66: Calculating Radar Range
4346
4347
4348
4349
14.2.7 Radar Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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4350
15
4351
4352
4353
4354
4355
AUTOPILOTS
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of
autopilot system components and their integration with onboard steering systems.
General information regarding autopilots is provided to aid in selecting the proper
autopilot for a particular installation.
15.1
General Considerations
4356
4357
Autopilots installed in accordance with these standards shall meet the requirements and
testing specified in the following paragraphs.
4358
Autopilot Electronics consist of Four Components
4359
1. Control Head
4360
2. Course Computer
4361
3. Electronic Compass or other heading device
4362
4. Rudder Reference Unit
4363
Autopilot Drive Units come in many different types
4364
•
Reversible Hydraulic Pump
4365
•
Linier Drive, Hydraulic or Electric
4366
•
Engine Driven Solenoids
4367
•
Continuous Running Pump
4368
4369
Figure 67: Typical Autopilot block diagram
4370
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4371
15.2
Autopilot Component Installation
4372
4373
4374
4375
15.2.1 Control Head Installation
4376
15.2.2 Course Computer Installation
Autopilot control head installations shall be installed in accordance with Section 10, Display
Installations.
4377
•
Must be accessible for wiring
4378
•
Processor in central location, connection options, cabling considerations
4379
•
More components are being connected via NMEA 2000
4380
4381
•
Rudder reference unit, compass, and control heads once required direct
connections to the course computer.
4382
•
Now all three are commonly connected through the NMEA 2000 bus.
4383
•
Mounting of course computer shall be in a central location, dry and protected
4384
•
Some manufacturers require vertical mounting due to sensors in the device
4385
•
Most autopilot components terminate here so consider wire runs
4386
4387
15.2.3 Compass Installation
4388
4389
•
The Electronic Compass or Satellite Compass interfaced to the Autopilot shall
be installed and tested in accordance with Section 13.
4390
4391
4392
•
All NMEA 0183 and / or NMEA 2000 compass interfaces to the Course
Computer shall be installed per manufacturer instructions.
4393
15.2.4 Rudder Reference Unit Installation (RRU)
4394
•
The RRU provides direct feedback to the Autopilot on the position of Rudder
4395
•
Identify the type of rudder reference to be used
4396
•
Rotary rudder reference- boats with rudder post. See Figure below
4397
o Geometry is critical (parallelogram)
4398
•
Linear rudder reference-outboards / outdrives. See Figure below.
4399
•
Unit must function with no binding
4400
•
RRU are Delicate units- should be protected
4401
•
Unit should be set to rudder zero when rudder is centered
4402
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4403
4404
Figure 68: Typical Rotary Rudder Reference diagram
4405
4406
4407
Figure 69: Typical Linear Rudder Reference diagram
4408
4409
4410
4411
4412
4413
NOTE: Some manufacturers offer Virtual Rudder Reference (VRR) where the autopilot
compensates with software. Advantages & disadvantages need to be considered as
rudder angle indication is not provided by VRR. Refer to manufacturer-specific
documentation for guidelines and specifications
4414
15.3
Autopilot Drive Types & Installations
4415
4416
4417
4418
4419
This section applies to a wide variety of autopilots with varying steering system
interfaces. Autopilots operate using either a hydraulic or mechanical interface with the
vessel steering system. A wide variety of connection methods, features, and
requirements exist within each of these two basic operational areas. Autopilot Drive
Unit types include the following:
4420
4421
Reversing Hydraulic Pump – Utilizes a hydraulic pump connected in parallel with the
helm pump(s) to drive the steering ram(s) to either port or starboard.
4422
4423
Solenoid Controlled – Usually used only on larger vessels; utilizes a solenoid valve to
drive the steering ram using the vessel’s steering system hydraulic pump.
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4424
4425
4426
4427
Power Assist – Typically used on stern-drive installations; uses a linear actuator to
drive a slave or servo cylinder, which then drives the steering ram. In many steering
systems of this type, there is a mechanical linkage from the helm to the servo cylinder,
and the hydraulic ram is powered from a pump on the engine.
4428
4429
4430
Tiller Pilots – Mechanical autopilots that connect directly between the vessel tiller and
a fixed mounting location, usually in the cockpit. A provision is usually made to
remove and store the tiller pilot when not in use.
4431
4432
4433
Linear Drive – Connects directly to the rudder tiller arm alongside the main steering
system. These autopilots may be electromechanical or have their own independent
hydraulic pump and ram.
4434
4435
Digital Input/Output – Autopilot that outputs a digital signal to control the electronic
steering system on a vessel.
4436
4437
4438
Rotary/Chain Drive- Connects to a driven gear on the rudder post via a chain being
spun by a drive gear on the drive itself. These are also common if the boat has worm
gear style steering.
4439
4440
4441
NOTE: A linear drive ram drives the rudder directly from the tiller arm. Before installing
a linear drive unit, check that the vessel’s steering system can be back driven from
the rudder.
4442
4443
Wheel – Connects directly to the helm and controls the rotation of the wheel in order to
cause the necessary rudder commands.
4444
4445
4446
4447
These descriptions provide only a basic discussion of general autopilot characteristics.
Steering and autopilot systems may combine the characteristics of more than one
system to meet design objectives. Refer to manufacturer-specific autopilot and steering
system documentation for a complete description of the system before installation.
4448
4449
4450
15.3.1 Installation Considerations
Determine the type of steering system is on board before installation.
4451
•
Hydraulic
4452
•
Mechanical
4453
•
Power (Solenoid)
4454
•
Specialty- Verado, Jastrom, C-Drives
4455
Select a drive system that is compatible with the autopilot
4456
Design your drive system to the steering system
4457
Each of these steering system types have different drive system requirements
4458
4459
4460
4461
4462
15.3.2 Hydraulic Drive Unit Installations
Autopilots and the hardware necessary to interface the autopilot with hydraulic steering
systems shall be installed in accordance with the requirements specified in the
following paragraphs. Pumps should be connected in accordance with the steering and
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4463
4464
4465
4466
4467
4468
autopilot manufacturers’ instructions, giving proper care to the interconnection of
reservoirs, suction ports, and check and isolation valves.
NOTE: Absolute cleanliness is essential when working with hydraulic systems. Even the
smallest dirt particle could prevent the steering system check valves from working
properly.
15.3.2.1 Hoses
4469
4470
4471
4472
Flexible pipe or hoses shall be used to connect the steering pump or servo valves to the
vessel’s hydraulic steering system. Hoses shall have a burst pressure rating at least four
times the maximum hydraulic pressure and shall be fitted with a swivel at one end so
that fittings can be tightened without twisting the hose.
4473
4474
4475
4476
4477
4478
Hoses should be of sufficient length that they do not chafe on objects when moving
through their normal range of travel or come under tension at maximum movement.
They shall be installed with sufficient bend radius that they do not kink or block fluid
flow. Wherever possible, hoses should be installed to slope upward toward the
reservoir. Synthetic hose materials shall be compatible with the hydraulic oil used in
the steering system.
4479
4480
4481
4482
15.3.2.2 Fittings
Hose fittings should be designed for use with the hose and rated for a burst pressure
equal to or greater than that of the hose to be used. Autopilot pumps should be
carefully checked to ensure compatibility with the fittings used in the steering system.
4483
4484
4485
4486
NOTE: Fittings used in different autopilot systems may have incompatible thread sizes.
National Pipe Tapered (NPT) threaded fittings (American) shall not be connected
with British Standard Pipe (BSP) threaded fittings (European) without use of an
appropriate adapter.
4487
4488
4489
Tapered pipe threads shall be sealed with pipe sealant to prevent leaks. The first
two to three threads shall be left free of sealant to prevent hydraulic oil
contamination.
4490
4491
4492
4493
4494
4495
4496
4497
NOTE: Teflon (PTFE) tape shall not be used to seal threads. Pieces of tape can enter the
steering system and lead to hydraulic system failures.
15.3.2.3 Isolation Valves
Isolation valves shall be installed in the hydraulic lines connected to all ports entering
the autopilot pump. In case of autopilot pump failure or removal for servicing, the
hydraulic steering system will continue to be available for use by closing the isolation
valves.
15.3.2.4 Check Valves
4498
4499
4500
4501
Check valves, or lock valves, are required in steering systems to isolate the helm pump
from the autopilot pump. Without check valves, the autopilot pump will drive the helm
pump (sometimes referred to as “motoring the wheel” or “back driving”) instead of
moving the steering ram.
4502
4503
4504
Consult the steering gear manufacturer’s documentation to determine whether the helm
pump is fitted with reversing check valves, or add external valves if required. The
autopilot pump will usually be manufactured with check valves.
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4505
4506
4507
4508
4509
4510
4511
4512
4513
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NOTE: If the vessel has two steering positions, it will already have check valves installed
so that the two wheels can operate independently.
15.3.2.5 Fluid Types
Steering systems shall be filled or refilled as required with fluid that meets the steering
or autopilot manufacturers’ recommendations for both oil type and viscosity. Consult
with the manufacturers if a conflict exists between the steering and autopilot
manufacturers’ recommendations for oil type and viscosity.
NOTE: Incorrect steering system fluid can destroy hydraulic system seals. Brake fluid
shall not be used. Oil leaks and spillage during filling must be cleaned up to
prevent running to the bilge and being pumped overboard.
15.3.2.6 Independent Steering Systems
In order to maintain main steering system reliability and safety on vessels with
redundant hydraulic steering control systems, steering system independence shall be
preserved through the appropriate choice and connection of the autopilot system.
Connection of a single output type autopilot must not result in interconnection of the
two steering systems.
15.3.2.7 Testing and Adjustments
At installation completion, all autopilots employing new or modified hydraulic systems
shall be tested and adjusted in accordance with the following paragraphs:
15.3.2.8 Bleeding Air
It is essential that proper bleeding of air be completed prior to running the autopilot
pump and before any operational tests are attempted. To confirm that all air has been
bled from the system, the autopilot may be set to a power steering mode at the dock and
the rudder commanded from full port to full starboard. If the rudder movement is jerky
and slow, the air has not been completely bled out of the system.
15.3.2.9 System Integrity
Test the integrity of connections and fittings by running the steering helm pumps hard
to port and to starboard and applying a very heavy load to the steering wheel in both
directions. If any oil leaks out of any fittings or if any fitting, hose, or piping should
fail, these defects can be more easily and safely corrected at the dock than when
underway.
15.3.2.10 Additional Notes
4537
4538
4539
4540
•
Many power assisted steering gears do not provide a slowing down of rudder speed
as the final position is approached, resulting in overshoot and hunting of the servo
valve. To avoid this instability, these systems must have very slow servo cylinder
speeds set by the autopilot pump.
4541
4542
4543
•
For power assisted steering systems, the rudder feedback, when required, must be
referenced to the servo cylinder and not the rudder in order to eliminate further
overshoot and hunting.
4544
4545
•
Due to the very high steering power that can be developed by solenoid valve
controlled autopilots, rudder limit switches should be properly adjusted.
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15.3.3 Mechanical Drive Unit Installation
Mechanical autopilots shall be installed in accordance with the following paragraphs.
15.3.3.1 Mounting
Mechanical autopilots are capable of developing large forces and shall be securely
mounted using through bolted fasteners with lock nuts or lock washers. Metal backing
plates shall be provided for wooden or fiberglass mounting surfaces where the strength
of the mount is unknown.
NOTE: Lag screws into fiberglass or wooden structures shall not be used to mount
mechanical autopilot drive units. Through bolting with metal backing plates is
required.
15.3.3.2 Protective Covers
Protective covers or shrouds shall be used to prevent damage or binding due to objects
interfering with the normal drive movements, unless the mechanical drive is located in
a closed area where loose objects are not stored. An exception is made for tiller pilots
that are normally clear of obstructions in the cockpit when in use.
15.3.3.3 Accessibility
In case of failure by jamming or failure to disengage, mechanical drives should be
accessible so that they can be disconnected and manual steering regained. They should
also be accessible for occasional inspection and maintenance, as required.
4565
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4567
NOTE: Mechanical drive units often move the wheel when steering the rudder.
Installation and operation personnel should be advised to keep clear during
testing and operation.
4568
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15.3.4 Autopilot Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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16
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ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
This section identifies common sources of electromagnetic interference and provides
techniques for eliminating the effects of interference on electronics operation.
Electromagnetic Interference is also known as RF interference.
16.1
General Considerations
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4582
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is any electromagnetic disturbance that interrupts,
obstructs, or otherwise compromises or limits the effective performance of
electronics/electrical equipment. EMI is of substantial concern onboard a vessel,
because interference-generating equipment and equipment susceptible to interference
are located in close proximity to each other in order to facilitate the vessel’s intended
purpose. EMI can be transmitted from one item of equipment to another through either
or both of the following means:
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4586
Radiated Emissions – Radiated noise may come directly from the interferencegenerating equipment or may come from cables connected to it that act as transmitting
antennas. Radiated emissions can be detected using a radio receiver (search receiver)
with a short antenna, passed in proximity to the interference-generating equipment.
4587
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4589
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4591
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4593
Conducted Emissions – Conducted noise may be passed through electrical
connections in common between the interference-generating equipment and the
susceptible equipment. Conduction through power leads is the most common path of
conducted emissions, but other paths, such as common data connections, can also be
problematic. Conducted emissions may not be detectable using a search receiver,
unless the conducted emissions are also being radiated from the cables the emissions
are conducted on.
4594
4595
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4597
4598
4599
4600
Crosstalk- Crosstalk is a form of EMI and is the undesired effect of a signal from one
conductor getting coupled onto another conductor. Crosstalk is more prevalent if two
conductors are run in parallel and increases as the distance of the parallel run
increases. For this reason it is desirable to avoid long parallel runs of any cables
containing transmitted signals and/or signals containing RF power and switching
voltages. Transducer cables and Single Sideband transmitter cables are two of the
biggest offenders.
4601
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4603
4604
4605
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4607
4608
4609
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4614
The following equipment has been shown to be likely sources of EMI:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Navigation Equipment
Autopilots
Engine Alternators
Radar
Depth Sounders
Integrated Instruments linked by a Network
Computer-Driven Equipment
DC Motors
Inverters
Fluorescent Lamps and Light Dimmers
Engine Ignition
Engine Tachometers
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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4631
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4637
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4639
4640
4641
4642
4643
4644
Battery Chargers
Televisions and Antenna Amplifiers
INMARSAT
Stepper Motors in Satellite TV Antennas
Fans
Air Conditioners
AC Generators
Elimination of EMI is best accomplished by building in protection, rather than adding it
on, through careful application of manufacturer and industry-specified installation
methods. Observance of all EMI elimination methods is recommended when installing
any of the following equipment, known to be susceptible to radiated and conducted
electromagnetic emissions:
• Radio Receivers:
• VHF
• SSB
• Stereo
• Hailer
• Loran
• Computer/Processor-Driven Equipment
• Intercom
• DGPS Beacon Receivers
• Autopilot
16.2
Identification and Elimination of EMI Problems
Even with careful installation, EMI problems may occur when installing equipment
identified above as either an EMI source or as being susceptible to EMI. Early and
efficient detection and elimination of problems depends on thorough testing at each
stage of installation. It is easier to isolate and eliminate a source of interference right
after it has been installed, rather than after all equipment in a commissioning is
completed and the number of possible interference sources is large.
16.2.1 Identifying and Isolating the Interference Source
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4647
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4649
4650
Identification of interference due to EMI may sometimes be difficult and can
sometimes be masked by other symptoms. If EMI is suspected, the best method to
determine if one device is affecting another is to turn off all other electrical and
electronic equipment and operate the affected device to verify that the interference has
disappeared. It may be necessary to shut down and then re-power the affected
equipment in order to set it in a condition prior to the interference effects.
4651
4652
If the above test indicates that EMI is the problem, identification and isolation of the
EMI source is accomplished by process of elimination.
4653
1. Turn off all equipment on the vessel, except for the affected device.
4654
4655
2. Turn on, one by one, the remaining equipment on the vessel, checking each time to
see if the affected equipment exhibits interference symptoms.
4656
3. Repeat until the interference-generating equipment is found.
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4698
When the interference has been isolated to a specific piece of equipment, further testing
may be required to determine if the interference is being radiated or conducted to the
susceptible equipment.
16.2.1.1 Tracking Radiated Emissions
When the noise has been isolated to a specific piece of equipment, an AM radio
receiver (search receiver) with a short antenna may be used to identify if the noise is
being directly radiated from the equipment or the cables connected to it. As the
antenna is moved in the area of the cables or equipment of the suspect device, the noise
will tend to maximize nearest the source. Connecting a small coil of wire as a loop
antenna to the portable search receiver and moving it closer to the noise source can
obtain a more precise location. Interference may be broadband, such as alternator hash,
or narrow band, such as harmonics or inter-modulation products from oscillators;
therefore, different receivers must be swept through various frequencies to identify the
noise source.
16.2.1.2 Tracking Conducted Emissions
If a susceptible receiving device is no longer affected when its antenna is disconnected,
the noise is being radiated and picked up by the antenna. If the noise continues to be
present, it is entering through the power lead or other electrical connections and these
leads will require filtering. It may be possible to disconnect electrical connections for
optional devices or features in order to confirm whether the interference is being
conducted through the power supply cables or through other interface cables in
common with the interference-generating equipment.
16.2.2 Techniques for Eliminating Interference Effects
The following techniques, alone or in combination, may be effective in reducing
interference from interference-generating equipment. When the identity of the
interference-generating equipment is known, the techniques should be applied first to
the interference-generating equipment in order to reduce the overall level of emissions
coming from the equipment.
16.2.2.1 Shielded Cables
Installation of shielded cables in the equipment that is causing EMI interference may
reduce or eliminate the transmission of EMI. Shields shall be connected to the RF
Ground system as identified in Section 3, Grounding, Bonding, and Lightning
Protection. Shield connections shall be made at the end closest to the transmitted signal
source, or as specified for data bus applications with multiple signal sources. The other
end of the shield shall remain unconnected.
16.2.2.2 Grounding
Grounding the equipment display cases and the cases of all the peripheral modules in
the system may need to be performed. Case grounding shall be performed in
accordance with Section 3.1.2, Electronic Equipment and Display Grounding.
NOTE: Flat copper foil provides maximum RF grounding effectiveness, provided a
suitable placement for copper foil can be found between the equipment and the RF
Ground system.
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4709
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4711
4712
4713
4714
4715
4716
4717
16.2.2.3 Filters
Available filter types include alternator filters, noise filters, and capacitors. The filters
may be installed at the noise source or on leads entering the affected device.
16.2.2.4 Ferrites
Ferrite core toroids and split ferrites may be used to reduce conducted and radiated EMI
from a noise generator.
16.2.2.5 Relocating Cable Runs
In certain installations, it may be necessary to relocate the routing of cables to reduce
the coupling of signals from the interfering source cables into the cable of another
device.
16.2.2.6 Relocating Equipment Displays
In certain installations, it may be necessary to relocate the equipment displays or
mainframe to reduce the coupling of signals from the interfering source into the
affected device.
16.2.2.7 Relocating Antennas
In certain installations, it may be necessary to relocate the antenna of either the
interfering source or affected equipment to reduce the coupling of signals from the
interfering source into the affected device.
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17
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4728
VHF & SSB RADIO INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of marine
VHF and SSB Radio Transceivers and supporting equipment.
17.1
General Considerations
VHF and SSB Radio Transceivers provide a vital link within the Global Maritime
Distress and Safety System (GMDSS). GMDSS encompasses a wide range of
communication methods and represents a significant improvement in maritime
communications over the systems of the past. The current GMDSS is designed to
enhance both ship-to-ship and ship-to-shore communications and to provide rapid,
automated distress alerting with vessel identification and position information.
17.1.1 Digital Selective Calling (DSC)
4729
4730
4731
4732
4733
All new fixed mount VHF radio installations within the USA since March 25, 2011 (per
FCC part 80.225) must include full DSC functionality. DSC capability automates the
manual voice hailing process previously conducted on MF frequency 2182 kHz and
VHF channel 16 by digitally encoding information formerly transmitted by voice into a
DSC call sequence for transmission on frequencies now reserved specifically for DSC.
4734
4735
4736
4737
4738
DSC provides the ability for an operator to hail a specific vessel or shore station, to
provide information regarding the nature of the call, and to supply a follow-on voice
communication frequency – all within a short burst of digital data on the assigned DSC
frequency. This reduces the congestion on the assigned hailing frequency and ensures
that the frequency is not misused.
4739
4740
4741
The advantage to the operator is that initiating communications is more like placing and
receiving a text message and does not require a listening radio watch on Channel 16 or
2182.0 kHz.
4742
A DSC call sequence includes the following information:
4743
•
Nature of call (Distress, Urgency, Safety, Routine)
4744
4745
•
Identity of transmitting vessel (per Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI)
number)
4746
4747
•
Identity of receiving vessel or shore station (receiving identification can include
vessel groups, vessels within a specific geographic area, or all vessels)
4748
4749
•
Additional information as required, including geographic location of transmitting
vessel (position information per GNSS processor).
4750
4751
4752
4753
4754
The preceding information set supports specific features of DSC calling sequences that
provide innovative capabilities, including the automated distress call, complete with
vessel identification and present position. These new capabilities are dependent on a
global identification number that provides a unique ID for each vessel with equipment
incorporating DSC capabilities
4755
4756
4757
4758
17.1.2 Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) Number
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) oversees assignment of MMSI
numbers and delegate’s responsibility for assignment within sub-ranges to member
countries. Each ITU member country is responsible for regulating assignments within
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4760
their assigned ranges. Refer MMSI requests to the appropriate local regulatory agency
based on your specific country / region.
4761
More information can be obtained at http://www.itu.int/en/pages/default.aspx
4762
There are four kinds of maritime mobile service identities:
4763
•
Ship station identities
4764
•
Group ship station identities
4765
•
Coast station identities
4766
•
Group coast station identities
4767
4768
The U.S. Coast Guard group ship station call identity is 036699999; the group coast
station call identity is 003669999.
4769
4770
4771
4772
4773
4774
4775
4776
4777
4778
4779
NOTE: MMSI numbers are assigned by local authorities in each specific country/region
NOTE: In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) normally
assigns non-federal MMSIs as part of the ship station license application (Form
506).
The application can be made online at:
http://wireless.fcc.gov/uls/index.htm?job=home
NOTE: Voluntarily equipped non-commercial and recreational boaters that remain
within U.S. waters and don’t require ship station licenses can obtain an MMSI
through the following sources:
4780
4781
4782
BOAT US (http://www.boatus.com/mmsi/)
Sea Tow (http://www.seatow.com/boating_safety/mmsi.asp)
U.S. Power Squadrons (http://www.usps.org/php/mmsi).
4783
4784
Further information about MMSI numbers and DSC can be found on the US Coast
Guard Website:
4785
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=AboutDSC
4786
17.1.3 DSC Interfacing to GPS via NMEA 0183
4787
4788
GPS and VHF / SSB interfacing for DSC operation shall be performed in accordance
with Section 8, Data interfacing.
4789
4790
Please refer to NMEA 0400 Appendix I for manufacturer specific wiring information
and color codes when interfacing DSC VHF radios to
on- board GPS equipment
4791
4792
Both the NMEA and U.S. Coast Guard websites provide additional information
regarding DSC and VHF requirements.
4793
Please refer to the following websites for updated information.
4794
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=mtDsc
4795
http://www.nmea.org/content/technicalnot/technicalnot.asp
4796
http://www.nmea.org/content/vessel_inspect/vessel_inspect.asp
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4798
17.1.4 DSC Interfacing to GPS via NMEA 2000
4799
4800
GPS and VHF / SSB interfacing for DSC operation shall be performed in accordance
with Section 8, Data interfacing.
4801
4802
Both the NMEA and U.S. Coast Guard websites provide additional information
regarding DSC and VHF requirements.
4803
Please refer to the following websites for updated information.
4804
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=mtDsc
4805
http://www.nmea.org/content/technicalnot/technicalnot.asp
4806
4807
http://www.nmea.org/content/vessel_inspect/vessel_inspect.asp
4808
4809
17.2
Prerequisite Equipment
4810
4811
VHF and SSB Radio Transceivers installed in accordance with this standard shall only
be installed when in conformance with the following provisions:
4812
4813
4814
•
SSB Radio Transceivers shall be installed only when either a VHF Radio
Transceiver is already installed, or when a VHF Radio Transceiver is installed
concurrent with the SSB Radio Transceiver.
4815
4816
4817
4818
4819
•
VHF and SSB Radio Transceivers shall be connected to a position-reporting
navigational instrument such as a GPS, whenever such a navigational instrument is
either already installed or installed concurrent with the VHF or SSB Radio
Transceiver. Data connection shall use either NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® as
appropriate.
4820
4821
•
SSBs and VHFs that have a built-in watch receiver will require 2 antennas. One for
operations and one for the watch receiver.
4822
4823
4824
•
VHF and SSB Radio Transceivers shall be programmed with the vessel’s MMSI. If
the vessel has not been assigned an MMSI, one shall be applied for in accordance
with the owners intended vessel use.
4825
4826
4827
•
After the MMSI has been stored, it shall not be possible to change the identity
number using any combination of operator controls. The radio’s MMSI shall be
accessible to the user.
4828
4829
4830
•
Facilities shall be included in the radio to permit a manufacturer, dealer or service
agent to delete the MMSI stored in the radio, so that a new MMSI can be entered in
the radio.
4831
4832
•
The equipment shall be capable of permanently storing one or more Group MMSI
numbers, the user shall be able to store and erase these numbers as required.
4833
4834
4835
17.3
VHF Radio Transceiver Installation Requirements
VHF Radio Transceivers shall be installed in accordance with the provisions identified
in the following paragraphs.
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Power Source
4837
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VHF equipment shall be connected to a power source suitable for emergency use in
accordance with Section 4.1.2, Emergency Communications Battery. Most VHF’s
(except GMDSS) are 12vdc and draw about 6 amps in transmit. Power cable should be
sized accordingly.
4841
4842
17.3.1 Equipment Location
4843
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4845
4846
4847
A VHF Radio Transceiver having integral display or controls shall be located and
installed in accordance with Section 10, Displays, provided the following additional
requirements are met. VHF Radio Transceivers with separate control heads, or with
control heads integral to the microphone, may be mounted in any convenient location
provided the following requirements are met.
4848
4849
4850
4851
4852
The VHF Radio Transceiver shall be located no closer than 3 feet (0.9 m) from any
antenna. Further information on RF exposure and safety along with evaluating
compliance with these limits can be found in the following documents:
4853
4854
4855
•
FCC’s website, specifically FCC's OST/OET Bulletin Number 65, “Evaluating
Compliance with FCC-Specified Guidelines for Human Exposure to
Radiofrequency Radiation.”
4856
•
IEEE/ANSI C95,1-1992; USCG 47 CFR 1.1310; 47 CFR 80.227
4857
4858
4859
4860
4861
•
The VHF Radio Transceiver, external speaker, if any, and microphone clip shall be
located no closer to a magnetic and/or gyro compass than the greater of 3 feet (0.9
m) or the compass-safe distance identified by the compass manufacturer to avoid
unintended operation by strong Radio Frequency or magnetic field, thus causing
compass interference.
4862
4863
4864
4865
17.3.2 VHF Transmission Line Requirements
Coaxial cables used to connect VHF Radio Transceivers to antennas shall be installed
in accordance with Section 7, Coaxial Cables.
17.3.3 VHF Antenna Requirements
4866
4867
VHF antennas shall be installed in accordance with Section 9, Antennas. The antenna
shall be selected based both on the vessel type and the owners intended use.
4868
4869
4870
4871
4872
Because electromagnetic energy at VHF frequencies does not readily bounce off the
earth or ionosphere, marine VHF communication is limited to line-of-sight
transmissions. For this reason, more than anything else, antenna height affects effective
range. The second most important consideration is the radiation pattern of the antenna,
which is a factor of its construction.
4873
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4875
4876
4877
As an antenna increases in length, its radiation pattern becomes more horizontally
focused, meaning that more energy is directed perpendicular to the antenna, and less
energy is directed above and below horizontal. Shorter antennas radiate energy
uniformly above and below horizontal, resulting in less energy radiated perpendicular
to the antenna. Antennas are rated by dB gain to reflect the relative increase in energy
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realized from a more focused radiation pattern. A VHF 3-foot antenna may only be
rated as a 3dB antenna, while a 9 dB antenna may be 19 feet (5.8 m) or more in length.
4885
4886
Figure 70 depicts exaggerated illustrations (a&b) to demonstrate how the difference in
radiation pattern due to antenna length affects antenna performance.
In a stable vessel condition, the higher gain antenna effectively puts more of the
transmitter’s power where the receivers are – on the water. In cases of larger vessels
that don’t typically roll and pitch to a large degree, the higher gain antenna works well.
High gain antennas on sailboats can be a communication range disadvantage.
4887
4888
(a) High-gain Antenna
4889
4890
4891
(b) Low-gain Antenna
4892
4893
Figure 70: Effect of Antenna Radiation Pattern on Range When Heeling
4894
4895
4896
4897
4898
4899
4900
The top diagram (a) illustrates a high-gain antenna on a vessel with a 20-degree heel
angle. The narrowly focused pattern causes the signal to be focused over the top of the
neighboring vessel, resulting in lower signal strength. The bottom diagram (b)
illustrates how the broader radiation pattern of a lower gain antenna actually delivers a
stronger signal to the neighboring vessels when the transmitting vessel is heeled. There
is also a reciprocal function on receive, so if both vessels are heeling, the effect is more
dramatic.
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4903
NOTE: At long distances, the ability to receive a signal is more dependent on the line-ofsight between transmitter and receiver, and the relatively lower gain of the shorter
antenna is not a factor.
4904
4905
4906
4907
4908
4909
4910
4911
4912
4913
Sailboats and small vessels have relatively large variations in angle with respect to the
horizon, due to heeling and/or trim angle while underway. Therefore, shorter antennas
with a broader radiation pattern should be selected to maximize the effective signal
when pitched or heeled. Larger vessels are more stable; they pitch and roll less in a
given sea state and can take better advantage of the focused radiation pattern because
they are less likely to overshoot their intended receiver. In either case, put the antenna
as high as practical and avoid any conductive obstruction on the horizontal plane within
2 meters.
4914
4915
4916
4917
17.4
MF/HF SSB Transceiver Installation Requirements
SSB Radio Transceivers shall be installed in accordance with the provisions identified
in the following paragraphs.
17.4.1 General Requirements
4918
4919
The installation of a SSB Radio Transceiver onboard a vessel will require locating,
mounting, and interconnecting the following components:
4920
4921
Transmitter/Receiver – This is the heart of the SSB installation. It transmits a high
power RF signal and receives and demodulates incoming RF signals.
4922
4923
4924
Antenna Coupler – A device used to match the impedance of the transmitter/receiver
to the antenna in order to provide maximum power transfer at the specific frequency in
use.
4925
4926
Antenna – The antenna collects and radiates electromagnetic waves by converting RF
electrical energy into electromagnetic energy, and vice versa.
4927
4928
4929
4930
Ground System – The counterpoise to the antenna that provides the sink, or ground
path, for the RF current impressed on the antenna. The ground system including the
connecting wire from the coupler is one half of the antenna system and should be
considered carefully.
4931
4932
4933
Other Components – Optional components as provided by a specific manufacturer or
required by the vessel owner, such as a remote control heads, speakers, a weather fax
printer, or a modem.
4934
4935
4936
4937
4938
Basic component interconnections and relationships are shown in Figure 71, which
identifies each component and the required connections between them and other vessel
resources. As the figure indicates, some variation on interconnection is expected,
depending on the manufacturer, such as providing power for the antenna coupler via a
control cable run between the transceiver and coupler.
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4939
4940
Figure 71: Basic SSB Components
4941
4942
17.4.2 Equipment Locations
4943
4944
4945
4946
4947
The number and complexity of components involved in an SSB installation, as well as
the power levels involved, means that every installation may involve compromises to
get the most efficient transmitting capability within the constraints of the vessel on
which it is installed. Ideally, the identified components should be installed with
interconnections that are as short as possible to avoid excessive signal losses.
4948
4949
4950
4951
4952
An SSB Radio Transceiver having integral display or controls shall be located and
installed in accordance with Section 10, Displays. If a separate control head is
provided, then the control head shall be installed in accordance with Section 10,
Displays, and the transceiver may be mounted in a more ideal location adjacent to a
power source and the antenna coupler, in accordance with manufacturer requirements.
4953
4954
A 12vdc SSB can draw as much as 25 Amps in transmit so the power cable should be
sized accordingly.
4955
4956
4957
The antenna coupler shall be installed at the base of the antenna and connected directly
to the antenna and counterpoise. In fact, the antenna starts at the output of the antenna
coupler, and the lead-in wire is actually part of the antenna itself.
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4958
4959
4960
4961
4962
4963
4964
4965
4966
4967
4968
4969
4970
17.4.3 SSB Transmission Line Requirements
The RF transmission line connecting the SSB Radio Transceiver to the antenna coupler
shall be installed in accordance with Section 7, Coaxial Cables.
17.4.4 SSB Antenna Requirements
Ideally, an HF antenna is equal in length to 1/4 the wavelength of the signal being
transmitted. The HF band ranges from 2 MHz to 22MHz, corresponding to an antenna
about 11 feet (3.3 m) long at 22MHz and 120 feet (36.5 m) long at 2MHz. Clearly, any
antenna chosen will be a compromise at some operational conditions. The antenna
tuner matches the impedance of the antenna at the antenna end to the 50 ohm
impedance at the transmitter end. Frequency in use to the impedance of the transmitter
and transmission line. Each manufacturer has a specification for the antenna length that
its coupler will work with. As a rule of thumb, the longer the antenna, the more
efficient the lower frequency radiation will be (less power lost inside the coupler).
4971
4972
4973
4974
4975
4976
4977
4978
4979
4980
4981
17.4.4.1 Lead-in Wire
The lead-in wire is actually part of the antenna itself, and it must be installed so that
signals radiated from the lead-in wire are not blocked or shunted to ground. The leadin wire connecting the antenna coupler to the antenna shall be of type GTO-15 or
equivalent marine grade high Voltage cable, and shall be kept to the minimum length
necessary to route the wire from antenna coupler to antenna without excess coils or
looping of the wire back on itself. A minimum separation of 3 inches (8 cm) shall be
maintained between the lead-in wire and any metallic objects that may be grounded.
Figure 72 shows a typical standoff arrangement made from PVC electrical conduit and
black tie-straps.
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4982
4983
Figure 72: Typical Standoff Construction
4984 NOTE:
4985
4986
4987
4988
4989
4990
4991
4992
Be sure to use UV resistant materials for standoffs. PVC water pipe and untreated
tie-straps do not hold up under constant UV exposure to the elements, and will fail
more frequently.
17.4.4.2 Whip Antennas
Where a long wire antenna is impractical due to the size of the vessel or other aesthetic
considerations, a whip antenna may be used. Whip antennas shall be installed in
accordance with Section 9, Antennas. For long wire installations, refer to
manufacturer-specific documentation.
17.4.4.3 Backstay and Other Rigging Antennas
4993
4994
4995
4996
4997
The most effective antenna that may be found onboard vessels is the long wire antenna,
frequently configured as a backstay or other rigging member of a vessel’s
superstructure. Choose a rigging member that is outside the envelope formed by masts
or other rigging. Backstay or rigging antennas shall be installed in accordance with the
following requirements:
4998
4999
1. Rigging used as an antenna shall be insulated at both ends from other metallic
objects, such as masts, booms, or other rigging.
5000
5001
5002
5003
2. Exposed rigging used as an antenna shall be protected from contact by the vessel
crew either by installing the lower insulator at least 7 feet (2.1 m) from the deck or
by shrouding the rigging where the lower insulator is less than 7 feet (2.1 m) from
the deck.
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5004
5005
5006
5007
5008
5009
5010
5011
The following figures illustrate some of the alternatives that may be encountered when
installing a backstay or rigging antenna. Figure 73 shows a typical installation on a
ketch or large powerboat. The rigging used as an antenna is insulated 3 feet (0.9 m)
from each mast, and the GTO-15 lead-in wire is allowed to form a drip loop before
being attached to 3-inch (7.6 cm) or larger standoffs on the mast. Remember, the GTO15 is also part of the antenna and contributes to the overall length.
Figure 73: Typical Ketch or Powerboat Antenna
5012
5013
5014
5015
5016
5017
5018
A typical backstay installation is shown in Figure 74 with one insulator 3 feet (0.9 m)
from the mast and one insulator positioned so it is at least 7 feet (2.1 m) from the deck.
If the chain-plate is not grounded to the vessel’s ground system, an insulator is not
required at the lower location, provided that the backstay is shrouded using an
insulating material up to 7 feet (2.1 m) high. In this case, the GTO-15 lead-in wire may
also run directly against the backstay without standoffs.
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5019
5020
5021
5022
5023
5024
5025
5026
5027
Figure 74: Typical Backstay Installation
For a split-backstay configuration, either the insulator should be installed above the
split, or an additional insulator should be installed on one leg of the split, as shown in
Figure 75.. The additional insulator is installed just below the split on the leg not being
used as an antenna. The unused leg should be insulated even when the chain-plates are
not grounded to avoid creating an inefficient antenna configuration.
Figure 75: Typical Split Backstay
5028
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5029
17.4.5 SSB Counterpoise (Ground) System
5030
5031
5032
5033
5034
5035
5036
The SSB Ground system connects the SSB antenna to its counterpoise. It is critical to
SSB performance and is the most complex ground system with regard to measurement
and being able to describe an optimal installation aboard the many varied sizes and
types of vessels. The primary purpose of the counterpoise is to provide the SSB system
the means to radiate the maximum amount of RF energy from the antenna at the
maximum efficiency. SSB performance is directly related to the layout, materials,
equipment, and installation techniques used.
5037
5038
Two major considerations will affect the installation of the MF/HF SSB Ground
system:
5039
5040
5041
5042
5043
Whether or not the vessel hull is metal – Metal hull vessels work reasonably well in
either salt or fresh water because the metal structure generally provides an adequate
counterpoise and has a large contact area with the water. Usually a short ground strap
from the coupler to the metal structure is all that is needed. Non-metallic hulls require
construction of a good counterpoise, especially for freshwater operation.
5044
5045
5046
5047
5048
Whether the vessel will be used primarily in salt or fresh water – Salt water
provides better conductivity than fresh water. Vessels operated primarily in fresh water
or vessels that traverse between fresh and salt water may require additional water
contact or additional counterpoise material to reduce the impedance of the SSB Ground
system and improve system efficiency.
5049
5050
5051
5052
A good counterpoise in a vessel operating in salt water can improve the performance
from fair to excellent if properly planned and installed. If the SSB Ground system will
incorporate or be part of the Lightning Ground system, then the SSB Ground system
will also need to meet Lightning Ground system requirements.
5053 NOTE:
5054
5055
Multi-strand copper cable, as specified for general-purpose vessel wiring in ABYC
E-11, will reduce SSB transceiver and antenna efficiency and should not be used in
an SSB Ground system. See conductor requirements below.
5056
17.4.5.1 Installation in Metal Hull Vessels
5057
5058
5059
On metal hull vessels, the vessel hull provides the counterpoise and shall be considered
the SSB Ground system. The SSB transceiver and antenna shall be connected to the
vessel hull in accordance with the following provisions:
5060
5061
5062
5063
•
The SSB antenna coupler shall be connected to the vessel using copper strap with a
minimum width of 2 inches (5 cm) and minimum thickness of 3 millimeters or with
an equivalent conductor (#4 AWG or larger copper wire with no more than seven
strands, or 3/8 inch (10 mm) or larger copper tubing).
5064
5065
•
The antenna coupler should be placed on the outside of the metal structure in a
sheltered area, if available.
5066
5067
•
The antenna coupler and control head may require ground isolation if the vessel’s
DC power system is floating (DC Negative is not connected to ship’s ground).
5068
5069
5070
If a metal tower is present as part of the vessel construction, and the antenna and
antenna coupler are mounted on the tower, the tower shall be used as the ground plane
and shall have at least two suitable ground conductors run to the ship’s ground system.
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5071
5072
5073
5074
5075
NOTE: Copper strap or copper wire shall not be directly connected to aluminum hulls or
to other aluminum structures in order to prevent galvanic corrosion from
occurring where the dissimilar metals come in contact. Connections shall be made
using isolating connectors made specifically for that purpose.
17.4.5.2 Non-metal Hull Vessels
5076
5077
On non-metal hull vessels, the SSB Ground system shall consist of the following
minimum features, illustrated in Figures 76 and 77 below.
5078
5079
5080
5081
•
5082
5083
5084
5085
5086
5087
5088
5089
The SSB counterpoise shall be created by either a ground plate external to the hull
in contact with the water or a hull ground plane typically consisting of wire mesh
molded into the hull below the waterline in accordance with either of the following
guidelines:
Ground Plate – A ground plate counterpoise shall have a minimum surface area in
contact with the water of 2 square feet (0.2 m2).
Hull Ground Plane – A mesh ground plane counterpoise shall be molded into the
hull below the waterline and shall be located so that the hull in which it is molded
will remain below the waterline at all anticipated angles of pitch and heel. The area
of the ground plane should be as large as possible, but shall not be less than 100
square feet (10m2).
5090
5091
5092
5093
•
Where the SSB tuner is displaced more than 10 feet (3 m) from a ground plate
counterpoise, copper mesh shall be installed in the cabin overhead to serve as the
counterpoise. A counterpoise installed in a cabin top shall have a minimum area of
100 square feet (10m2).
5094
5095
5096
5097
5098
•
The ground plate or hull ground plane, upper ground plane (if required), and the
SSB antenna tuner shall be connected using copper strap with a minimum width of
2 inches (50 mm) and minimum thickness of 3 millimeters, or an equivalent
conductor (#4 AWG or larger copper wire with no more than seven strands, or 3/8
inch (10 mm) or larger copper tubing).
5099
5100
•
In some cases, it may be necessary to connect the mesh counterpoise to the hull
ground plate to reduce capacitive effects between the counterpoise and sea surface.
5101
5102
5103
5104
•
Due to boat construction, or electronics re-fits, a less efficient alternative is a
network of copper strap, copper wire, or copper mesh connecting the SSB Ground
system to the engine block(s), as well as connecting it to as many available bronze
through-hull fittings as practical to increase the effective counterpoise.
5105
5106
5107
5108
•
Leads from other ground systems shall be connected from the open end back to its
basic ground bus to reduce spurious radiation, decrease the SSB Ground system
impedance, and reduce RF interference. A well designed and properly installed
system should not produce spurious noise.
5109
5110
5111
•
If the vessel has mechanical clutch and throttle controls and the steering is
mechanical or hydraulic with copper tubing, all helm station controls shall be
grounded to the SSB Ground system.
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5112
5113
Figure 76: SSB Ground System Example 1
5114
5115
Figure 77: SSB Ground System Example 2
5116 NOTE:
5117
The effectiveness of the SSB counterpoise is dependent on both the size of the
counterpoise and the distance between the counterpoise and the antenna tuner.
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5118
5119
5120
5121
5122
The smaller the counterpoise, or farther the counterpoise is from the antenna
tuner, the less effective the antenna will be, especially at lower frequencies.
17.4.6 VHF & SSB Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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5123
18
5124
5125
5126
COMPUTER SYSTEM INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installation of
computers used for navigation and other applications onboard vessels.
18.1
General Considerations
5127
5128
5129
5130
5131
Computer capabilities and environmental toughness must be matched to the operational
tasks to be performed and/or location where the computer will be used. This section
focuses on computers that are permanently installed on vessels to perform navigational
and other tasks. These tasks fall into one of the following categories and are supported
by specific application programs installed on the computer.
5132
5133
5134
Primary Navigation/Display – an application providing navigation or other data
critical to the safe operation of the vessel, and for which there is no readily available
second source.
5135
5136
Secondary Navigation/Display – an application providing navigation or other data,
which duplicates data also provided on at least one other dedicated navigation device.
5137
5138
5139
Auxiliary Operations – an application providing other services used for vessel
operation that are not critical to safe operation, such as power management, area
surveillance, or heating/air-conditioning/lighting control.
5140
5141
5142
5143
5144
Administrative Management – an application related to administrative activities, such
as vessel manifest, accounting, or other vessel management activities. Administrative
applications include office applications such as word processing, spreadsheets,
electronic communications such as e-mail, Web browsing, and file downloading, and/or
other functions necessary to support administrative tasking.
5145
5146
5147
5148
5149
5150
5151
5152
5153
5154
5155
5156
5157
5158
5159
5160
18.1.1 Computer Types
To readily identify computers that should be used for different task categories and in
particular environments, these Installation Standards define a range of computer types
and lists characteristics usually exhibited within those computer type definitions. The
defined computer types in the following subsections do not specify marine computer
requirements, but rather identify minimum environmental toughness thresholds
exhibited by computers of the same type. Specific computer requirements are
identified by software application manufacturers and include processor type and speed,
memory, and any display or other port requirement.
18.1.1.1 Rugged Marine Computer Device
A Rugged Marine Computer is any computer, display, or component thereof that has
been built for the marine environment and designed to meet or exceed requirements
identified in Table 37.. Devices meeting these requirements may include dedicated
purpose electronics sold for a specific marine function or use, such as multi-function
displays or instruments.
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5161
Table 377: Minimum Environmental Protection
Requirement
Ambient Temperature
(non-operational)
Humidity (operational)
Vibration
Protected
-15º to 55ºC
Exposed
-25º to 55ºC
93 % @ 40ºC
IEC 60068-2-6
(2-13.2Hz @ 1mm., 13.2-100Hz @
7m/s)
N/A
IEC 60529 (IPX6)
Rain and Spray
Corrosion
Note: Requirements identified are an applicable subset of IEC 60945
5162
5163
5164
5165
5166
5167
5168
5169
5170
5171
5172
18.1.1.2 Portable Computer Devices
A Portable Computer is a computer not specifically intended for marine use but because
it is intended for frequent transportation, is nonetheless built to withstand frequent and
extended motion and vibration. These devices are not designed to prevent water, dust,
or other harmful ingress and should not be used except in protected environments.
18.1.1.3 General Purpose Computer Devices
General Purpose Computers include all other computers, displays, or components
thereof that do not meet the requirements of either Rugged Marine Computers or
Portable Computers. These devices should be used only in protected environments
and/or only for administrative applications.
18.1.2 Selection and Application
5173
5174
5175
5176
5177
5178
5179
5180
5181
5182
Selection and application of onboard computers involves consideration of both the type
of application to be supported and the relative exposure of the intended operating
location to the marine environment. Exposed locations are those where the computer or
its peripherals are open to the marine environment, and also those normally sheltered
locations where regular opening of a door or hatch during normal operations could
result in spray or other environmental infiltration into the compartment. Sheltered
locations are those that are fully enclosed and isolated from the elements under all
operational conditions. A fully enclosed equipment cabinet located in an otherwise
exposed location can be considered a sheltered location, provided it remains sealed
under all operational conditions.
5183
5184
5185
5186
5187
5188
5189
5190
5191
Table 38. provides a matrix that shows what computer types are appropriate for which
application areas, depending on whether the computer will be installed in an exposed
location. The most critical applications and most rugged computer types occupy the
upper left-hand corner, progressing to less critical applications going right across the
columns, and less rugged equipment going down the rows. To use the table, consider
the most critical application planned to be hosted on the computer, and read off the
applicability code corresponding to the planned computer type and environment. The
applicability code is identified as Satisfactory, Removable Only, or Unsatisfactory.
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5192
Table 388: Computer Application Matrix
Computer
Type
Rugged
Portable
General
Purpose
Primary
Secondary
Auxiliary
Administrative
Navigation
Navigation
Operations
Management
Exposed Sheltered Exposed Sheltered Exposed Sheltered Exposed Sheltered
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
U
S
R
S
R
S
S
S
U
U
U
U
U
S
U
S
S = Satisfactory
R = Satisfactory when a removable mounting is provided and when the connections remaining when
the computer is removed are watertight
U = Unsatisfactory
5193
5194
5195
5196
5197
18.2
Installation Requirements
Permanently installed computers and peripherals shall be installed in accordance with
Section 10, Displays, and the requirements identified in the following paragraphs.
18.2.1 Uninterruptible Power
5198
5199
5200
5201
5202
5203
Computers installed in accordance with this section shall be provided power from a
distribution system that includes a minimum of two power sources with manual or
automatic means to switch between the primary and secondary sources. A maximum
transfer time of 10 milliseconds or less is required to ensure that the computer remains
functional without rebooting. Examples of multiple power sources include, but are not
limited to:
5204
5205
5206
5207
1. For computers that operate from DC power, the two sources may include an
alternator and a battery. Since there is no need to actively switch to battery
power when the alternator is no longer producing power, the maximum transfer
time is met.
5208
5209
5210
5211
2. For computers that operate from AC power, the two sources may include a
generator and an inverter. An active switch, usually within the inverter,
typically requires more than 10 milliseconds to transfer power when the
generator stops.
5212
5213
5214
5215
5216
5217
5218
5219
5220
5221
In the event that transfer between primary or secondary is performed manually, or that
automatic transfers take place in more than 10 milliseconds, an Uninterruptible Power
Supply (UPS) suited to marine applications shall be connected immediately upstream of
the computer and its peripherals. A UPS shall be sized to maintain 125% of the power
required by the computer and all its peripherals for the time required to execute a
transfer, or five minutes, whichever is greater.
18.2.2 Interfaces
Interfaces employed to connect to peripherals and other systems shall be connected in
accordance with this paragraph. Table 39 identifies common computer interfaces and
operational limitations of each.
5222
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5223
Table 39: Common Computer Interfaces
Interface
Type
Recommended
Maximum
Cable Length
Maximum
Devices per
Connection
Speed
Ethernet
Bus
See Section 8.4
NMEA 0183
PtoMP
See Section 8.2
NMEA 2000®
Bus
See Section 8.3
Parallel (IEEE-1284)
Bus
7.5 meters
Up to 2 MBps
PS/2
PtoP
30 meters
N/A
Serial (EIA/TIA RS-232-C)
PtoP
15 meters
1
19.2 kbps
USB 1.1
Bus
3 meters
127
12 Mbps
USB 2.0
Bus
5 meters
127
480 Mbps
USB 3.0 (current version)
Bus
3 meters
127
5Gbps (625MB/sec)
VGA/SVGA
PtoP
30 meters
1
N/A
Bus = Bi-directional communication between multiple devices, may use bus master.
PtoMP = Point-to-multipoint – unidirectional communication between a single talker and multiple
listeners.
PtoP = Point-to-point connection between two, and only two, devices.
5224
5225 NOTE:
5226
5227
5228
5229
5230
5231
5232
5233
5234
5235
When extending computer interfaces to the recommended maximum length, a
single high-quality cable should be used rather than connecting multiple shorter
cables together to create a longer length.
18.2.2.1 USB Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus (USB) devices are connected in a hierarchical tree with the bus
controller at the root of the tree, hubs forming the branches, and peripherals at the ends
of each branch. A maximum of five hubs may lie between the root controller and any
peripheral, thus the maximum distance between a root controller and a peripheral is 30
meters, as illustrated in Figure 78 and Table 40.. Note that if the peripheral only
supports USB 1.1, the link to the peripheral is limited to 3 meters, limiting the total
distance to 28 meters.
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5236
5237
5238
5239
Figure 788: USB System Diagram
5240
Table 40: USB Length Considerations by Version
5241
5242
5243 NOTE:
5244
*The USB 3.0 specification does not detail a maximum cable length, but 3.0 meters
or 9.8 feet has been recommended
5245
5246
18.2.2.2 USB Hubs
5247
5248
5249
5250
5251
USB Hubs may be self-powered or may be bus-powered, drawing their power from the
hub located between them and the root. A self-powered USB hub generally uses an
external power supply and can provide up to 500 mA to devices connected to each port.
However, a bus-powered hub is limited to providing only 100 mA to devices connected
to each of its ports. This imposes two practical limitations on USB bus layout.
5252
5253
•
A bus-powered hub will have a maximum of four ports, as it will draw 100 mA for
each of its four ports plus 100 mA to power its own electronics.
5254
5255
•
A bus-powered hub may not be connected to another bus-powered hub with other
ports, as insufficient power will be available for any downstream devices.
5256
5257
5258
•
A total of six cables can be strung together using five hubs to achieve the maximum
total length. In practice, the cable to the USB device counts as one of the six cables,
reducing the maximum total length.
5259
5260
As Figure 79. shows, these limitations have an impact on extended chains, as some of
the hubs farther from the root hub will need to be self-powered as well.
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5261
5262
5263
5264
5265
5266
5267
5268
5269
5270
5271
5272
5273
5274
5275
5276
5277
5278
5279
5280
5281
5282
5283
5284
5285
5286
Figure 79: USB Layout Considerations
Power, Input/Output, and other electrical connections shall be secured using captive
fasteners, such as retaining clips or screws, whenever possible. Other methods of
retention, such as cover plates, Velcro straps, or nylon tie-straps, should be used for all
connectors that do not incorporate captive fasteners in their construction.
18.2.3 Purpose-built Equipment Configuration
All computers intended for use in primary navigation applications shall be purposebuilt and optimized for the intended applications. Means shall be provided to control
access to hardware and software used to install/modify software, to change
configurations, or to read and write data in accordance with the provisions contained in
the following paragraphs.
18.2.3.1 Physical Access Control
Removable storage devices, such as CD-ROM, DVD, Zip, or other drives, and all
interface connections shall be protected from casual use or connection. Protection may
be provided by installing secured doors or removable panels that require the use of
tools or keys to gain access to the drive or interface.
18.2.3.2 Passwords
Where general access is provided through user accounts, a password-protected
Administrator account shall be created. The Administrator account shall have access
privileges to all operating system resources for the purpose of installing and modifying
software, changing configurations, and reading or writing data to/from sources other
than built-in or permanently attached storage. A separate operational account shall be
created for default operation. The operational account shall have the minimum access
privileges necessary to correctly operate all intended applications. The operational
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5288
5289
account also may have a blank password and/or be configured to auto-login on powerup.
18.2.3.3 Software Installation and Configuration
5290
5291
5292
5293
5294
5295
5296
Computer hardware shall meet or exceed all system requirements and recommendations
specified for each installed software application. Computers should have installed only
the software necessary to perform the intended functions. Where a supplier has
previously installed software prior to final configuration by the dealer, including but not
limited to an operating system, trial software, and/or system utilities, unnecessary
software should be removed and unnecessary services should be disabled prior to
installing navigational software and data.
5297
5298
5299
5300
Software installation should follow a logical prescribed order known to be free of
conflicts between software applications and the operating system, or between software
applications. As each software module is installed, available software patches should
be applied in accordance with known version compatibility for installed software.
5301
5302
5303
5304
Other configuration settings, such as user preferences, start-up scripts, and network and
interface settings, should also follow a prescribed order to ensure that no configuration
item is overlooked, and to verify the operation of each configuration change as it is
made.
5305
5306
5307
5308
5309
5310
5311
5312
Whenever possible, computers should be installed as part of a closed, dedicated
navigation system and should only be interconnected with other computers and devices
similarly configured. The requirements of this section serve to lock down the
configuration to prevent installation of software and/or access by other systems except
under controlled circumstances. When connections are required to devices outside the
closed navigation system, additional measures to firewall the system and provide virus
and spyware scanning on the external interface are required. These measures are not
addressed in these Installation Standards.
5313
5314
5315
5316
5317
5318
5319
5320
5321
18.2.3.4 Data Backup
Computers with installed applications that save user-entered data, such as preferences,
waypoints, or other operational data, shall be provided with a secondary means of
storing such data that is automatically updated periodically. Backup data may be made
available for off-vessel storage at the discretion of the installing dealer.
18.2.4 Documentation and Restoration
The following documentation shall be provided to the vessel owner for each installed
computer and, when possible and appropriate, shall be kept on file by the installing
dealer for future reference:
• Operating system and installed software distribution disks.
5322
5323
5324
•
Installation and upgrade list identifying versions, authorization codes, and
installation order for all installed software, drivers, and upgrades.
5325
5326
•
Password list for all administrative and operational accounts, and any service
provider accounts accessible from the installed computer.
5327
•
Connection diagram showing all interfaces and connected peripherals.
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5328
5329
5330
•
Baseline configuration information as required, including start-up scripts, network
and interface settings, or any other user interface settings that are altered from their
installed defaults.
5331
5332
5333
5334
5335
•
Ghost or other image of the computer hard disk for restoring the computer to its asdelivered state.
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5336
19
5337
5338
5339
5340
5341
5342
5343
5344
5345
5346
5347
5348
5349
AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (AIS) INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installing Automatic
Identification Systems (AIS) and the necessary interfaces to receive required
information.
19.1
General Considerations
Automatic Identification Systems are used to exchange navigation information between
participating vessels and between participating vessels and shore-based vessel traffic
control systems in order to improve vessel traffic safety while reducing vessel-to-vessel
and vessel-to-shore voice radio traffic. Navigation information is exchanged
automatically, in near-real time, by AIS transceivers operating in the VHF band. Each
AIS periodically broadcasts information about the vessel it is installed on, including the
vessel name, call sign, position, course, speed, heading, navigation status, dimensions,
type, and other important parameters. The information is received by all AIS-equipped
stations in the vicinity and is made available for review by vessel operators.
5350
5351
5352
5353
NOTE: AIS data can be invaluable; however, as with any source of navigation
information and owing in part to improperly installed AIS equipment on other
vessels, it should not be solely relied upon in making navigational and collisionavoidance decisions.
5354
19.1.1 AIS Classes
5355
5356
Two different classes of AIS are defined, differing in both the data parameters
exchanged and the frequency of that exchange. The two classes are:
5357
5358
5359
5360
Class A – Broadcasts navigation data at 2- to 10-second intervals when underway
depending on the vessel’s speed, or every 3 minutes while at anchor. Supplemental
data is transmitted at 6-minute intervals when underway and while at anchor. Class A
transmit power is capable of up to 12 Watts.
5361
5362
5363
5364
Class B – Same as Class A, except that the navigation data is broadcast every 30
seconds when underway, or every 3 minutes when moving less than 2 knots, and some
parameters are not required. Supplemental data is transmitted at 6-minute intervals at
all times. Class B transmit power is 2 Watts.
5365
5366
5367
5368
5369
5370
5371
Table 41 identifies the data parameters transmitted or received by Class A and Class B
devices. In addition to the AIS Classes, which are designated to satisfy specific
carriage requirements, vessels not required to carry AIS may be equipped with AIS
receivers that only receive navigation data from other vessels and do not broadcast their
own vessel information. Refer to manufacturer-specific documentation for further
information on what information is received and available to the vessel operator.
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5373
Table 41: Vessel Navigation Parameters for AIS Class A and Class B
Parameter
Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) Number
COLREGS Navigation Status
Rate of Turn
Speed Over Ground
Position (Longitude and Latitude)
Position Accuracy (indication of differential GPS or
other correction applied)
Course Over Ground
True Heading
Time Stamp (UTC time when parameters generated)
Supplemental Parameters (6 Minutes)
International Maritime Organization (IMO) Number
Radio Call Sign
Vessel Name
Vessel Type
Vessel Dimensions
Position Reference (Location of GPS or other on
vessel)
Position Type (GPS or other)
Vessel Draft
Vessel Destination
Viewing Vessel on the internet
Estimated Time of Arrival
Class A
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Class B
Y
N
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N
N
N
N
N
5374
5375
5376
5377
5378
In addition, Class A AIS devices have a built-in or dedicated GPS receiver and also
have the ability to transmit and receive text safety messages and binary messages. Class
B AIS devices also have a built-in or dedicated GPS receiver, and are required only to
receive text safety messages, but some models may support sending pre-formatted text
safety messages.
5379
5380
5381
5382
Class B AIS devices must include a built-in GPS receiver and may not accept GPS data
from another source. If an external GPS antenna is required, you must use the
manufacturer specified GPS antenna. You cannot connect a Class B AIS to an existing
GPS receiver or share an existing GPS antenna.
5383
19.1.2 AIS Installation Documentation
5384
5385
5386
The following documentation shall be provided to the vessel owner for each AIS
installed in accordance with this standard and is required for classification approval of
the installation.
5387
5388
5389
1. Antenna Layout and Arrangement – showing the location of the GPS and VHF
antenna, as well as the distance to other vessel antennas, in accordance with Section
9, Antennas.
5390
5391
5392
2. Battery Calculation – listing all equipment, including the AIS, connected to the
emergency communications battery, in accordance with Section 4.1.2.1, Emergency
Communications Battery Capacity.
5393
5394
3. Block Diagram – showing all connected interfaces and the location of connected
equipment.
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4. Type Approval Certificate – from the AIS manufacturer’s documentation.
5396
5. Confirmation of proper MMSI programming-
5397
a. Vessel type
5398
b. Nav receiver interfaced
5399
c. GPS antenna(s) position relative to the bow/stern & port/starboard sides.
5400
5401
5402
5403
5404
19.2
Installation Requirements
AIS equipment and antennas installed in accordance with this standard shall be located
and interfaced in accordance with the following paragraphs.
19.2.1 Antenna Location
5405
5406
5407
5408
The AIS VHF antenna shall be selected in accordance with Section 17.2.3, VHF
Antenna Requirements, and shall be installed in accordance with Section 9, Antennas.
Digital transmissions as used by the VHF data link are more susceptible to interference
created by reflections from masts and booms than normal analog/voice transmissions.
5409
The following additional guidelines are provided to minimize such interference:
5410
1. The proper AIS / VHF antennas should be in the 3 - 4.5dB range
5411
5412
2. The AIS VHF antenna should be located a minimum of 6 feet (1.8 m)
horizontally from any construction made of conductive materials.
5413
5414
5415
3. The AIS VHF antenna should be located directly above or below the vessel’s
main VHF antenna, with no horizontal separation and a minimum of 6 feet (1.8
m) vertical separation.
5416
5417
5418
4. The AIS data transmit frequencies are on the high end of the VHF-FM band @
162 MHz This differs from the VHF voice transmit frequencies centered at
156.800 MHz.
5419
5. Class A AIS systems require a dedicated AIS / VHF antennas
5420
5421
6. It is recommended that Class B AIS systems use the Manufacturer’s
recommended antennas for proper VHF and GPS operation
5422
5423
5424
7. Class B and Receive only AIS systems can be fitted with a VHF antenna splitter
but some reduction of VHF reception will occur unless the splitter has a preamplifier to negate the 3dB attenuation of feeding two units from one antenna.
5425
5426
8. Class B AIS should only be fitted with a splitter designed for Transceiver use
that can switch both the VHF and AIS feeds.
5427
9. Class A must be connected directly to the antenna and not through a splitter.
5428
5429
10. The U.S. Coast Guard recommends that all AIS systems must remain
transmitting at all times when the vessel is underway.
5430
5431
11. When so equipped, the AIS transceiver’s GPS antenna shall be installed in
accordance with Section 9, Antennas.
5432
5433
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5434
5435
5436
Figure 80: AIS Antenna mounting and spacing considerations
5437
5438
5439
5440
5441
5442
19.2.2 Power Source
AIS equipment shall be connected to a power source suitable for emergency use in
accordance with Section 4.1.2, Emergency Communications Battery. Some Class A
AIS’s are 24vdc only. Power consumption can be as much as 7-8 amps on 12 volt units.
Wires should be sized accordingly.
5443
5444
5445
5446
5447
5448
5449
5450
19.2.3 Equipment Location
AIS equipment shall be installed in a manner that permits normal operation of the
minimum keyboard and display, if supplied, without the user having to leave the helm
or other normal watch keeping position. Operation may be provided from the AIS
built-in keyboard and display if supplied, or by the equivalent functionality of another
display system.
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5451
5452
5453
5454
5455
5456
5457
5458
5459
5460
19.2.3.1 Pilot Plug
Class A AIS installations shall provide a pilot input/output port near the pilot’s normal
watch keeping position to facilitate the connection of a Personal Pilot Unit (PPU),
which communicates using an NMEA 0183-HS interface. The input/output port shall
be an AMP/Receptacle (Square Flanged or Free-Hanging), Shell size 11, 9-pin, Std.
Sex 206486-1/2 or equivalent, terminated as shown in Table 42 below.
Table 42: AIS Pilot Plug Input/output Port Pin Out
Pin
1
4
5
6
9
5461
5462
5463
5464
5465
5466
5467
5468
5469
5470
Signal
Transmit A
Transmit B
Receive A
Receive B
Shield
19.2.4 Data Interface
AIS equipment communicates with other equipment over either NMEA 0183 or NMEA
2000® interfaces for the purposes of displaying received data from other vessels and
acquiring own-ship data from equipment to send to other vessels. These two interfaces
are depicted in Figure 81, which also shows in (a) that when NMEA 0183 interfaces
are used, several interfaces are required to facilitate connecting multiple inputs. Due to
the bus-oriented nature of NMEA 2000® shown in (b), only a single interface is
required and the necessary sensors and displays all attach to the NMEA 2000®
backbone. A single NMEA 0183 interface may be provided to support the Pilot
input/output port, or other legacy displays.
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5471
5472
Figure 81: AIS Interfacing Options
5473
5474
5475
5476
5477
5478
In general for a Class A installation, equipment installed onboard that provides the
information identified by the parameters in Table 43 should be connected to the AIS.
The equipment and inputs selected should be the same as selected and displayed for
vessel navigation. Table 43 identifies the preferred navigational data formats used by
the interface. The installer should ensure that equipment connected to the AIS supports
the data formats identified, and if necessary has been configured to use those formats.
5479
5480
5481
For a Class B installation, no external sensors are required. However, some Class B
devices with built-in displays may make use of a vessel heading sensor, if available.
Check the manual for the Class B AIS device to verify.
5482
5483
5484
5485
5486
5487
NOTE: The Geodetic Datum for navigation position data should be WGS 84. In addition
to confirming that a datum message is available on the interface, the installer
should confirm that WGS 84 is selected. This does not apply to Class B devices,
since they cannot accept GPS data from an external GPS receiver. Their built-in
GPS always uses WGS84.
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5488
5489
Table 43: AIS Navigation Data Formats
Data
Reference Datum
Positioning system:
Time of position
Latitude / Longitude
Position accuracy
Speed Over Ground (SOG)
5490
5496
5497
5498
VBW
VTG, OSD,
RMC
Course Over Ground (COG)
RMC
VTG, OSD
Heading
HDT
OSD
RAIM indicator
Rate of Turn (ROT)
GBS
ROT
NMEA 2000® Parameter Group
129044 Datum
129029 GNSS Position Data
128259 Speed
129028 COG & SOG, Rapid Update
130577 Direction Data
129028 COG & SOG, Rapid Update
130577 Direction Data
127237 Heading/Track Control
127250 Vessel Heading
130577 Direction Data
129029 GNSS Position Data
127251 Rate of Turn
19.2.5 Long-Range Option
5491
5492
5493
5494
5495
NMEA 0183 Sentence Format
Preferred
Optional
DTM
GNS
GGA, RMC
GLL
A long-range interface is available on Class A AIS units. The interface is intended to
be connected to compatible long-range communications systems, such as Inmarsat-C or
MF/HF Radio Transceivers. If available, connect the AIS to the long-range
communications system in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
19.3
Configuration
AIS installed in accordance with this standard shall be configured with vessel and
operational information in accordance with the following paragraphs.
19.3.1 Vessel Data
5499
5500
5501
5502
5503
5504
AIS depends on accurate information about the vessel and its operational status to
fulfill its safety critical role. The following information shall be entered both into the
AIS and on the vessel commissioning checklist. Electronic entry is accomplished with
the AIS manual keyboard or other configuration tool using the appropriate data format.
Configuration information should be password protected to prevent inadvertent
alteration.
5505
5506
5507
5508
5509
5510
5511
5512
5513
Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) Number (Class B devices only allow the
MMSI number to be entered once. Enter it carefully. If it is necessary to change the
MMSI, you must contact the manufacturer for assistance)
IMO Vessel Number (Does not apply to Class B)
Radio Call Sign
Vessel Name
Vessel Type, in accordance with Table 44.
GPS or other electronic position fixing antenna location/reference position, in
accordance with Section 19.3.2
5514
5515
Two-digit Vessel Type identifiers are constructed by selecting the appropriate first and
second digits from Table 44. For example, a cargo ship not carrying dangerous goods,
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5516
5517
5518
harmful substances, or marine pollutants would use identifier 70. Pleasure craft would
use identifier 37.
Table 44: Vessel Type Identifiers
First Digit Meaning
1 – Reserved
2 - WIG
4 - HSC
6 - Passenger Vessels
7 - Cargo Vessels
8 - Tankers
9 - Other Vessel Types
3 – General
5 - Special Craft
Second Digit Meaning
0 - Vessels of this type not carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances,
or marine pollutants
1 - Carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances, or marine pollutants;
IMO hazard or pollutant category A
2 - Carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances, or marine pollutants;
IMO hazard or pollutant category B
3 - Carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances, or marine pollutants;
IMO hazard or pollutant category C
4 - Carrying dangerous goods, harmful substances, or marine pollutants;
IMO hazard or pollutant category D
5 - Reserved
6 - Reserved
7 - Reserved
8 - Reserved
9 - No additional information
0 - Fishing
1 - Towing
2 - Towing and length of the tow exceeds 200 m or breadth exceeds 25 m
3 - Engaged in dredging or underwater operations
4 - Engaged in diving operations
5 - Engaged in military operations
6 - Sailing
7 - Pleasure Craft
8 - Reserved
9 - Reserved
0 - Pilot vessel
1 - Search and rescue vessels
2 - Tugs
3 - Port tenders
4 - Vessels with antipollution facilities or equipment
5 - Law enforcement vessels
6 - Spare, for assignments to local vessels
7 - Spare, for assignments to local vessels
8 - Medical transports (as defined in the 1949 Geneva Convention and
Additional Protocols)
9 - Ships according to IMO Resolution No 18 (Mob-83)
5519
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5520
19.3.2 Reference Point
5521
5522
5523
Vessel dimensions and the location of the electronic position fixing antenna in meters
are determined using four values entered into the AIS. Figure 82 shows how to
determine the four values in accordance with the following definitions:
5524
5525
A
The distance between the reference electronic position fixing antenna and the
bow of the vessel (up to 511 meters)
5526
5527
B
The distance between the reference electronic position fixing antenna and the
stern of the vessel (up to 511 meters)
5528
A+B
The vessel’s length
5529
5530
C
The distance between the reference electronic position fixing antenna and the
port side of the vessel (up to 63 meters)
5531
5532
D
The distance between the reference electronic position fixing antenna and the
starboard side of the vessel (up to 63 meters)
5533
5534
5535
5536
C+D
The vessel’s beam
Use the maximum value of 511 or 63 meters for length and beam dimensions, respectively, when
the actual values exceed those maximums.
5537
A
B
A
C
GPS/Reference
Location
D
B
a)
b)
C
5538
D
Distance (m)
0 – 511 m
511 m = 511 m or Greater
0 – 511 m
511 m = 511 m or Greater
0 – 63 m
63 m = 63 m or Greater
0 – 63 m
63 m = 63 m or Greater
When reference location and vessel
dimensions are unavailable use A = B = C =
D = 0.
When reference location is unavailable but
vessel dimensions are available use A = C =
0, B ≠ 0, D ≠ 0.
Figure 82: Determining Reference Electronic Position Fixing Antenna Location
5539
5540
5541
5542
19.3.3 AIS Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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5543
20
5544
5545
5546
SATELLITE TV & COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM INSTALLATION
This section identifies recommended standards and practices for installing satellite
communications and entertainment systems.
20.1
General Considerations
5547
5548
5549
5550
5551
5552
5553
5554
Satellite communications systems are used for a wide variety of marine
communications needs – voice, video, data, fax, e-mail and, Internet. The increasing
number of applications leads to a wide variety of equipment and options available,
resulting in a range of installation requirements. While some low-bandwidth
applications are possible with fixed antenna arrays, a number of satellite applications
require the use of a motion compensated antenna, where the antenna position is
controlled to compensate for the vessel’s motion while underway. The antenna arrays
are usually enclosed in a Satellite Dome for protection.
5555
5556
5557
5558
5559
5560
5561
A typical block diagram that illustrates the variations in configuration likely to be
encountered is shown in Figure 83. The block diagram shows the Satellite Dome
housing the satellite antenna array, which is connected to a controller located below
deck in a protected space. The controller serves as the configuration interface with the
Satellite Dome and may provide power to the Satellite Dome. It is connected to the
Satellite Dome by a multi-conductor cable supplied by the manufacturer, or by using a
length of coaxial cable, which combines both power and signal in one cable.
5562
5563
Figure 83: Typical Satellite System Block Diagram
5564
5565
5566
5567
An operator interface is provided for configuration and control. It may be integral to
the controller or may be provided in a separate display (not shown) that can then be
located where it is more convenient for the operator. Figure 76 also shows a number of
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5568
5569
5570
5571
5572
5573
5574
other possible connections to equipment that may be required depending on the specific
satellite system installed. Other equipment, only some of which is depicted in the
figure, includes receivers and televisions, signal splitters, selection/matrix switches,
laptops, phone systems, and/or vessel motion sensors, such as a compass or gyro
controller. Refer to manufacturer-specific documentation to determine what additional
equipment is recommended or required, and how to attach that equipment to the
controller or the Satellite Dome.
5575
5576
5577
5578
5579
5580
Manufacturer documentation may refer to “above deck” units or equipment (ADU or
ADE) and “below deck” units or equipment (BDU or BDE). When used, these terms
generally refer to all the equipment provided by the manufacturer for installation either
“above deck” in an exposed location, or “below deck” in a sheltered location. It is
important to ensure that any equipment designated as BDU or BDE by the
manufacturer is installed in an appropriately sheltered location.
5581 NOTE:
5582
5583
5584
TVRO, VSAT, GPS, and Satellite Radio systems are examples of special purpose
satellite communications systems where the control unit and end user interface are
sometimes integrated into a single enclosure. Satellite Dome/antenna mounting
for these units follows the same restrictions and guidance given below.
5585
20.1.1 Satellite Dome Basics
5586
5587
5588
5589
Satellite communications systems depend on line-of-sight radio transmissions to and
from satellites that orbit the earth in well-defined patterns and schedules. Depending
on the service in use, the required satellites may be geostationary, Low Earth Orbit
(LEO) or Medium Earth Orbit (MEO).
5590
5591
5592
5593
5594
Geostationary satellites orbit at an altitude of 22,753.2 Statute Miles positioned directly
above the equator. Their orbital velocity matches the Earth’s rotational speed and
therefore, each satellite always appears in the same relative position in the sky. In order
to maintain view of a satellite, the vessel antenna continuously repositions as the vessel
position changes.
5595
5596
5597
5598
5599
5600
5601
5602
5603
5604
LEO and MEO satellites generally cross from one horizon to the other while in use. In
some applications, LEO and MEO satellites are distributed so that there are at least two
satellites above the horizon at any time. Regardless of satellite orbit type, continued
system function is dependent on an unobstructed line-of-sight to the selected satellite at
all times. Figure 84 shows the typical sweep range and impact of nearby obstructions to
the line-of-sight between the Satellite Dome and satellites in orbit. In the situation
shown, line-of-sight to a satellite near the horizon has been obstructed by a mast or
cabin that projects into the required signal path, even though the height of the mast or
cabin is not higher than the Satellite Dome height. The system will not be able to
communicate with the blocked satellite under this condition.
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5605
5606
5607
Figure 84: Line-of-Sight Interference
5608
5609
5610
5611
5612
5613
Potential obstructions may not be readily apparent when the system is being installed,
due to the fact that the relative position of the required satellites will be different when
the vessel is underway than the relative position when in port. Communication with
geostationary satellites is sometimes found to be obstructed only when the vessel
maintains a certain heading. When such a heading occurs in a heavily used route, the
equipment is essentially inoperative during that entire leg of the voyage.
5614
5615
5616
5617
Potential obstructions are not always located on the vessel, but may be located near the
vessel when in port. The installer should inquire about regularly used routes and ports,
and check the relative bearings from the planned Satellite Dome location to ensure that
no unanticipated obstructions will be discovered.
5618
5619
There are several applications that are now available for Smartphones and Tablets that
can help troubleshoot signal issues.
5620
20.1.2 Satellite System Installation Documentation
5621
5622
The following documentation shall be provided to the vessel owner for each satellite
communications system installed in accordance with this standard.
5623
5624
5625
1. Antenna Layout and Arrangement – showing the location of the GPS and VHF
antennas, as well as the distance to other vessel antennas, in accordance with
Section 9, Antennas.
5626
5627
2. Block Diagram – showing all connected interfaces and the location of connected
equipment.
5628
5629
3. Configuration Parameters – listing all configured satellite identifiers and access
codes.
5630
5631
5632
4. Photographs- pictures of antenna locations from multiple angles for future
reference. This can assist in troubleshooting if a vessel is at sea or away from the
local port. See Figure 85.
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5633
5634
5635
5636
5637
5638
5639
Figure 85: Satellite System Installation Photograph
20.2
Installation Requirements
Satellite communications equipment installed in accordance with this standard shall be
located and interfaced in accordance with the following paragraphs.
20.2.1 Satellite Dome Location and Mounting
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5641
The Satellite Dome shall be installed in a well-supported location in accordance with
the following requirements:
5642
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5644
1. The Satellite Dome shall have a clear line-of-sight view of as much of the sky as is
practical. Choose a location where masts or other structures do not block the
satellite signal from the antenna, as shown in Figure 84..
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5646
2. Avoid placing in locations where people could potentially be radiated. Refer to
manufacturer-specific documentation and recommendations.
5647
5648
5649
5650
5651
3. The Satellite Dome should be located a minimum of 6 feet (1.8 m) away from other
transmitting antennas (HF, VHF, and AIS) that may generate signals which may
interfere with the Satellite Dome Assembly. Although radio interference is not
common, the farther away the Satellite Dome Assembly is from these other
antennas, the less impact their operation could have on it.
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5653
4. The Satellite Dome shall be located so that it is outside the vertical beam width of
any radar array located within 6 feet (1.8 m), as shown in Figure 86..
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5. The Satellite Dome shall be rigidly mounted to the boat. If necessary, reinforce the
mounting area to assure that it does not flex due to boat motion or vibration.
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Figure 86: Radar Vertical Beam width
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5665
NOTE: Motion compensated antennas can be damaged by uncontrolled motion. The
source of power for the Satellite Dome shall be selected to ensure that it is
available and energized whenever the vessel is underway. If power cannot be
applied while underway the antenna mechanism should be restrained in accordance with
the manufactures guidelines.
5666
5667
5668
5669
NOTE: If the antenna must be placed within the vertical beam width of the radar antenna
a no transmit zone should be programmed into the radar to avoid damage to the
satellite dome antenna.
5670
20.2.2 Control Unit Installation
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5673
The control unit is not usually used by the vessel operator while piloting the vessel. It
may be installed in any convenient location that meets all manufacturer requirements
for protection from the environment and grounding.
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20.2.3 Satellite Communications System Grounding
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The satellite communications system should be grounded in accordance with the
manufacturer’s ground connection guidelines. All manufacturer-identified ground
connections shall be connected to the vessel RF ground system.
5678
5679
5680
5681
5682
5683
The Satellite Dome assembly shall be grounded by making a connection using a
suitably sized ring terminal to one of the Satellite Dome mounting bolts or, if the
Satellite Dome housing where the bolts connect is non-conductive, to a suitable
connection to the Satellite Dome internal assembly. Serrated washers will ensure a
good connection and should be sealed after assembly to prevent the connection from
corroding.
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NOTE: Television Receive Only (TVRO) satellite Domes are usually not grounded in
order to prevent creating a ground loop by interconnecting the RF ground system
with the AC grounding system via the television receiver. Refer to manufacturerspecific documentation..
5688
20.2.4 Connections
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5690
5691
•
Connections from the Satellite Dome to the control unit and/or other
transceivers are made using either coaxial cable or multi-conductor cable
provided by the manufacturer.
5692
5693
5694
5695
•
Coaxial cables shall be installed in accordance with Section 7, Coaxial Cables.
Where multi-conductor cables must be cut and reconnected to facilitate fishing
cables through towers, arches, and behind cabin walls, splicing shall be
provided using crimp-type ring-lugs and suitably sized terminal strips.
5696
5697
5698
•
The location of such terminal strips shall be either within a protected area of the
vessel or contained within a waterproof enclosure, and shall be noted in the
system documentation
5699
5700
•
All outdoor connections shall be sealed with dielectric grease, self-vulcanizing
tape or rubber boots to prevent water ingress and corrosion.
5701
•
Maintain all bend radii and be sure to include service loops on all cables.
5702
•
Strain relief and label all cables
5703
5704
•
Note all system documentation.
5705
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5707
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20.2.5 Satellite System Installation Testing
For testing, troubleshooting and commissioning, refer to Section 22 and Appendix B
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21
SECURITY, TRACKING, AND VIDEO / CAMERA INSTALLATION
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21.1
Purpose and Scope
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Given the inherent nature of security equipment onboard, it tends to be more of a
personalized job between the installer and owner/crew. The panels, sensors, cameras,
and antenna locations should be thoroughly reviewed with the owner or responsible
crew ahead of time. The installer may find themselves in a position where adjustments
need to be made to normal installation locations, as they do not want security
equipment to be easily compromised. That being said, it is imperative that installation
safety and basic accessibility is not sacrificed to meet location security. Security
devices are usually installed completely independent of any other Marine Electronics
onboard. When the install is tested out and complete, customer tutorial of how to use
and maintain the equipment is imperative. As with all Marine Electronics, The installer
should thoroughly read the complete Installation and User guide for the system for all
equipment specifics.
21.2
Terminology
Panel- This is the device on board that interprets sensor inputs and can control relay
outputs, while initiating alerts and events to responsible parties. It will harness
hardwired or wireless entities and provide a user interface for boarding/ de-boarding
control.
Sensors- This defines any hardwired or wireless “Zones” onboard. It includes but is
not limited to door contacts, hatch contacts, motion detectors, beam sensors, deck
sensors, high water switches, DC battery low voltage detectors, AC power loss
detectors, and smoke detectors; to name a few of the most common examples.
Outputs- This defines a switch that can control a variety of functions of panel events
such as alarms and other events. Output control is used for lights, strobes, sirens,
horns, and a variety of other options that draw attention to the boat when an alarm
happens.
Cameras- Analog or IP cameras often have multiple functions on a boat. They assist
in providing situational awareness for the crew when running the boat or when at the
dock via on board monitors. Additionally, many systems provide offsite view ability of
the cameras to a secure website login.
Communicator- This is the device that communicates specific alarm panel events off
the vessel. The three most common examples of this device are a GSM communicator,
Satellite Phone, or VSat. Depending on the level of boat you are installing on these
communication methods may be all used in unison.
Tracking Antenna – This is the device that transmits / receives GPS tracking
coordinates and data. For most legitimately sized boats being used offshore, this
antenna communicates via satellite. When the boat is operating inside GSM coverage
most of the time, they can communicate off via this method as well. But know that
antenna locations suggested in this guide are specified for satellite tracking.
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5757
Users- This is someone who is authorized to access the security system. One who has
an access code and/or Key Fob remote to arm/disarm.
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5762
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21.3
5770
21.3.1 Battery Backup
In most instances DC power 10-32VDC should be powering the Panel, Sensors,
Outputs, Cameras, Communicator, and Tracking Antenna. When the vessel is virtually
always receiving AC power via Shore or Generator, some manufacturers suggest
powering the Panel off AC. This is to alert recipients if the boat loses AC Power. The
panel is powered by DC when the boat is usually left without shore power, the boat
lives on an anchor, or the boat is consistently run without AC power.
It will likely be necessary to run a hot Positive wire off the battery bank to the Security
equipment. Assure that this wire is of the proper rated gauge and breaker/ fuse
protected to ABYC/ NMEA Standards. This is going to cause a constant current load
on the battery bank; therefore proper charging from a trickle charger, shore chord, or
rated solar charger needs to sustain the battery bank when the boat is not in use.
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5775
Power
A proper security system should have a full battery backup installed that supports the
system in the event that the AC/DC power supply is denied and/or cut. It should be
done in such a way that the battery backup instantly takes over in the event of a power
loss.
21.4
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5778
Equipment Installation Considerations
This section reviews the most common examples. Keep the items below in mind before
choosing a final location. Also assure that the location meets the expectations of the
owner/crew.
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5792
21.4.1 Panel
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21.5
•
Interior of boat, away from any direct moisture
•
Common areas such as the salon, interior helm, or similar primary
entry areas of the vessel.
•
Easy accessibility for someone boarding the boat to disarm with code.
•
On larger vessels greater than 100ft (Approx. 30 meters) try to keep
the head unit towards amidships to limit wire runs and maximize wireless range
•
Accommodate for wire run accessibility from rear of panel to power source
and GSM/Satellite phone*.
Sensors
Determine if the system you are installing is a wireless or hardwired system. If it is a
hardwired system two or four conductor wires will need to be run to each individual
sensor. This often requires running these wires to detect Normally Open (N.O.)
sensors, Normally Closed (N.C.) sensors, and/or power wires. Assure all wiring
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adheres to NMEA and ABYC Standards. If it is a wireless system, the sensors will
only need batteries to transmit the sensor conditions.
Normally Closed (N.C) – The state of a sensor input that continually keeps a circuit
complete (closed) until forced by an event to open that circuit.
Normally Open (N.O) – The state of a sensor input that continually keeps a circuit
incomplete (open) until forced by an event to close that circuit.
5806
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5808
5809
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21.5.1 Sensors - Security Zones- Exterior
5836
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5838
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5841
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5843
21.5.2 Sensors - Security Zones- Interior
These are zones around the boat that protect the boat from theft intrusion in both the
exterior and interior areas. Typical exterior applications include but are not limited to
motion sensors, cockpit beam sensors, electronics cabinets, Lazzerette hatches, and Rod
Storage lockers.
•
Assure that these zones are IP rated and resist water spray
•
Do not install hatch and door contacts where they are constantly rubbed against
and/or used as a handle by unknowing guests and/or crew.
•
Do not install a zone where water runoff from assorted gutters of the boat
constantly flows over it or collects.
•
Whenever possible, use wide gap extension sensors that allow for a bit of magnetic
contact tolerance as many doors and hatches have gasket seals that cause wider
areas to cover between sensor and magnet.
•
Do not place sensors where they are easily visible to potential thief or a yacht owner
who does not want to see it.
•
Do not place motion sensors in places where they focus on dock traffic. If
protecting a cockpit with a motion detector, keep it lower rather than higher.
•
Exterior sensors may be defined as “instant” zones. This definition means that in
the event the system is armed and this zone is breached, the alarm will go off
immediately.
•
Entry way sensors should have a programmable delay so that the crew and/or vessel
owner can disarm or arm the security system when entering or exiting the vessel.
These are zones on the interior of the boat that protect entry doors/ hatches, interior
motions, safes, private cabinets, and staterooms. This is a broad definition as installers
can be asked to protect many private areas of the modern yacht.
•
Review all location and operation with the owner/crew and test operation before
drilling any holes on Metal doors or fine teak. Thus, a great tool is removable
double sided tape. It allows you to demonstrate and test placement prior to final
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5877
installation.
21.6
•
Assure that door sliding functionality is not inhibited by the magnet or switch.
•
Keep it Hidden out of site if possible as most owners/crew do not want to see it and
more importantly a thief should not see it.
•
Interior perimeter “primary entry” door sensors are usually defined as a “delay”
zone. This definition means that in the event the system is armed and this zone is
breached, a delay timer will allow a defined period of time prior alarm will go off
immediately. This allows the user to disarm at the panel.
•
Interior perimeter “not primary entry” door sensors are usually defined as “instant”
zones. This definition means that in the event the system is armed and this zone is
breached, the alarm will go off immediately.
•
Interior motions are usually defined as “follow” zones. This definition means that
if an entry delay zone is engaged first it will follow that timer; else it will go off
instantly.
Outputs
Also referred to as PGMs, Outputs are used to bring attention to a boat in distress.
These devices can be hardwired to the Panel or with some systems; they communicate
the switching condition wirelessly. They trigger a switch closed in most instances.
This switch will drive a variety of devices such as sirens, strobes, or deck lights. In
most instances the Output will be completing the circuit and the switched device should
be between “COM” and “Normally Open (N.O)”. The “COM” is the feed (Positive or
Negative) and the “N.O” is connected to the device to be triggered.
•
Assure that the output you are using is properly current rated for the device you are
driving. Refer to manufacturer-specific documentation.
•
Make sure the power feed to the device is constant even if the battery switches are
turned off. Also assure proper breaker or fuse protection
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5901
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5908
21.6.1 Outputs-Programming
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5920
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5922
5923
5924
21.7
Follow Bell- This event allows the Output to activate following the Bell cut-off delay.
The event scares away would be thieves while shutting off after a period of time as to
not annoy your fellow dock mates. The unit stays in alarm and will re-initialize if a
zone is breached again. It is most commonly used on Sirens.
Alarm activation- This event allows the Output to activate upon alarm in a variety of
ways. These methods include follow entire duration while in alarm, pulsing while in
alarm, or for a specific timed duration. This is often used with strobes and Deck
Lights.
Follow arm- The Output will activate whenever the system is armed. Common
examples of triggered devices may be visible red LEDs on the exterior of the vessel to
alert users of armed status.
Communicator
Fixed cellular modules, Satellite phones, and VSATs can be used in conjunction with
the onboard security systems. Determine ahead of the installation if the vessel already
has these devices or if the need to be purchased. Keep these points in mind when
determining the method by which you want to transmit data.
• If using the module for just a voice line “Ring + Tip”, this will call recipients
via RJ-11 connection to the security system. This will be with Cellular and
Satellite phones only.
• Keep the communication equipment hidden from direct view, but accessible for
service when necessary.
• When using a cellular carrier, whenever possible have the communicator active
upon installing as one needs to test it
• When using a satellite phone, it is usually necessary to enter a “#” at the end of
the programmed dial out number
• If streaming video off, the fixed cellular device will need to have data enabled.
Most cellular providers call this a “Internet Data” plan
Tracking Antenna
Tracking Antennas are gaining much popularity for the modern boat. The antennas
take in a GPS feed and transmit the coordinates through a cellular connection, Low
Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite, or geostationary satellite networks. The installation
tolerances tend to loosen up a bit with cellular based tracking, but of course GPS
position data will not transmit when out of cellular coverage. Keep the following
considerations in mind prior to mounting the antenna.
•
•
•
•
Think Security. The location of the antenna is critical and should be
thoroughly scrutinized.
Most antennas are able to penetrate up to ½ inch (12.7 mm) of solid fiberglass,
making way for covert installs.
Locate the antenna a minimum of two feet (0.6 m) away from metallic
obstructions such as hand rails, rod holders and cleats.
Choose a location that is not directly under or near radar arrays to prevent
possible interferences.
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5940
5941
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5943
5944
5945
5946
5947
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make sure that the underside of the antenna is accessible to connect the antenna
cable.
Keep to a constant and breaker/fused locked and fused DC supply
Mount on a flat horizontal surface.
If the antenna communicates its data to the Geostationary based satellite
network. As a general rule, a clear line of site towards the equator is needed.
Center Consoles - It is suggested that the antenna not be installed on T-Tops as
they are more vulnerable for tampering. Popular locations include forward/aft
stringers underneath the gunwale. Keep away from amidships gunwale
mounting as the T-Top could potentially block the signal from getting out.
Larger vessels - Often require exposed hardtop or arch mounting. A ¾ inch (19
mm) hole can be drilled and sealed under the antenna with silicon.
Whenever possible, dry run the installation procedure and test the location
beforehand.
Have the owner/ crew pre-activate prior to installation whenever possible to do
active tests during and after the install is complete to assure proper functionality
Independent battery backups are suggested if the manufacturer does not provide
one.
False SAT domes (for vessel congruency) on larger vessels are a good place to
hide tracking antennas
5948
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5950
Figure 87: Tracking Antenna mounting locations
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21.8
Users
5968
21.9
5969
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5994
5995
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5997
5998
21.9.1 General Considerations
A user is defined as a person with access to the security system via a pass code and/or
key fob remote. The Master user code is the only one that can add or delete users. Most
security systems default Master code is “1234”. Common examples of the Master,
User 2, and User 3 are the owner, crew member, and boat washer respectively. Every
user can have only one key fob. For every user code programmed to the security
system, there can be a key fob. However for every key fob programmed, there must be
a user code associated to it. That being said, the installer often needs to setup key fobs
for operation with the system. Given the nature of user security access, it is suggested
that you default the users to the codes “1234”, “2222”, “3333”, etc. for master, user 2,
user 3, respectively. The owner/operator of the boat should be made aware of these
default codes and taught how to change them to their own numbers after the install is
done. This protects the installer from the liability of having an access code to the boat.
Maritime Camera Systems
Maritime Camera Systems installed in accordance with these standards should meet the
requirements identified in the following paragraphs. Maritime Cameras include “Fixed”
or “Static” and “Pan & Tilt” systems.
The use of cameras on the modern yacht is beneficial for situational awareness both
when Underway, at the dock, and away from the vessel. Though IP cameras are a
popular growing technology, the most common cameras are Analog Cameras. Most
every chart plotter onboard has multiple Analog Video Inputs to assist in docking.
Larger yachts will often tie these analog cameras into splitters that feed all the images
to TVs throughout the boat. Some security providers have equipment that will feed
this video feed off to a secure website or smart phone. In these instances a GSM or
VSAT communicator will be necessary to bring an internet connection to the vessel.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Most Analog Cameras operate on DC voltage (usually 12VDC) or 24V AC and will
need both power wires and 75 Ohm coax cable run to them. Make sure the camera is
fuse protected and run on the proper gauge wire according to the manufacturer
standards. Refer to manufacturer-specific documentation.
Thoroughly review the owner/crew requirements as to the positions and amount of
cameras needed.
Common examples of cameras are Engine Rooms, Stern looking aft, in the cockpit,
and also the salon.
If one camera is a stern camera for assistance in docking, it is usually a reverse image
camera
Mount the cameras in high areas of the boat where they are more difficult to tamper
with.
Assure that the camera is not in the direct path of water runoff or collection points
If the Analog camera has nighttime IR illumination LEDs, Assure the sensor eye is
aligned at the 6 O’clock position. Test this function by cupping your hands over the
sensor and assuring the LED’s illuminate.
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•
Mind that when feeding video off a boat, data is used. This can add up quickly when
if video is left streaming offsite all day.
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6003
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6005
6006
6007
6008
21.9.2 Installation Considerations
6009
6010
6011
6012
6013
6014
6015
6016
6017
21.9.3 Camera Types
6018
6019
6020
6021
6022
6023
6024
6025
6026
6027
21.9.4 Installation Location
6028
6029
6030
6031
6032
6033
6034
6035
6036
6037
6038
6039
21.9.5 Cable Routing
6040
6041
6042
6043
21.9.6 Camera Connection Diagrams
Prior to the installation of any camera system it is highly recommended to read and
understand the manufacturer’s installation and operation manuals. Today’s cameras are
expected to do more than just provide an image to the user. You will find most modern
Pan & Tilt cameras can be integrated with third party components for optional control
and features such as radar slew to cue. Bench testing a camera prior to physical
installation is good practice. Normal operation and video quality should be determined
in a controlled environment.
Most of today’s camera systems are either “Static” or “Pan & Tilt” configurations.
Static cameras are fixed, the user has no control over the direction the camera is
pointing. Pan & Tilt camera systems are controlled via remote which allows a user to
point the camera around a vessel. The “Payload” or “Sensor” refers to the type of
imager housed. The sensor or payload type will not affect how the housing is installed
but rather dictates the application. Smaller vessels will require sensors with a wide field
of view to compensate for greater movement and larger vessels allow for a narrow field
of view. The field of view of a camera determines how far a user can see.
Consideration should be taken when locating a camera for installation. Ideally a camera
is mounted centerline of the vessel with 360 degrees of visibility. Static cameras may
require shimming to compensate for the planning angle of the vessel when underway.
The video image of a static camera should identify a portion of the bow in the lower
10% of the screen. This method will allow a user to estimate the position of an object in
relation to their vessel. Overall the image should display 70% water 30% sky. The
installation location for any camera system should be as rigid as possible. Vibrations
from the vessels engines and auxiliary equipment can cause an unstable image which
will greatly reduce performance.
Always refer to manufacturer-specific documentation for suitable conductor size and
type. When routing cables through the vessel, care should be taken to preserve the
integrity of the cable. Video cables should always be of high quality, it is recommended
to use shielded 75ohm coax such as RG-59 or RG-6. Static camera systems will most
likely require power and video only. Pan & Tilt camera systems are controlled via a
remote joystick and require extra cabling for communications. The length of run or
total cable distance should be taken in to consideration. Some camera systems use a
serial connection and others use Ethernet between the joystick control and the camera.
Both methods have limitations regarding the distance a single cable can span and
should be identified prior to installation.
The diagrams below are examples of the two most common configurations of Serial
and Ethernet based control. Serial connections are daisy chained for multiple control
stations. Ethernet based systems are connected through a single network hub or switch.
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6049
Video connections should be routed through a powered distribution amplifier when
splitting the signal to multiple displays. An isolated DC/DC converter should be
installed to ensure clean power is supplied to the camera.
Figure 88: Typical Serial camera Control connection diagram
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6052
Figure 89: Typical Ethernet camera Control connection diagram
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22
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6057
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6059
TEST CRITERIA
This section identifies recommended tests and procedures to be performed following
installation of electronic equipment. The procedures provided are intended to verify
proper operation of both existing and newly-installed equipment.
22.1
General Considerations
6060
6061
6062
6063
6064
Electronic equipment installed in accordance with these standards, and existing
equipment at the time of installation, shall be tested in accordance with the applicable
procedures in this section. Applicable tests should be performed as each new item of
equipment is installed in order to identify and rectify any problems early on. Overall
objectives include:
6065
6066
6067
6068
6069
6070
6071
6072
•
•
6073
•
•
Verification of proper and fully-functional equipment operation.
Verification that newly-installed equipment has not adversely affected existing
equipment performance.
Verification that the vessel power distribution system is adequately sized to handle
the higher load imposed by existing and newly-installed equipment.
Verification that the vessel owner has received all information required to use and
maintain the installed equipment.
22.1.1 Commissioning Check-off
6074
6075
6076
6077
Prior to formal delivery of the completed electronics installation to the vessel owner,
the installer shall review the installation with the owner to ensure that the owner has
received all documentation and instructions applicable to the newly-installed
equipment. The review shall include:
6078
6079
1. Documentation prepared in accordance with the requirements specified in the
applicable installation section of these standards.
6080
2. Owner familiarization with all equipment locations.
6081
3. Safety critical operations demonstrated to the owner.
6082
6083
4. Certification that applicable tests have been satisfactorily completed in accordance
with this Section 22.
6084
6085
6086
All test results shall be documented using the applicable portions of Appendix B,
Commissioning Checklist. One copy of the completed checklist should be kept on file,
and one copy should be provided to the vessel owner.
6087
6088
6089
6090
6091
6092
6093
22.1.2 Test Procedure Overview
The tests in this section shall be conducted for each new item of equipment installed,
and on existing equipment that may be affected by newly-installed equipment to ensure
that existing equipment performance has not been compromised.
NOTE: Table 45 identifies the tests defined in this section and indicates when each test
should also be performed on existing equipment.
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6094
Table 45: Equipment Tests and Requirements
Test Title
Autopilot
Cellular Telephone
Compass
DC Load Tests
Depth Sounders/
Video Sounders
Electronic Chart plotters
GPS Receivers
MSAT (Mini-M) Satellite
Telephone
NMEA Interfacing
Radar
Satellite Television Systems
Sea Temperature
Speed/Knot meters
SSB Radio
VHF Radio
Wind Instruments
6095
6096
6097
6098
Performance Requirement
After modifications to the steering system, addition of
navigation equipment that provides autopilot data, or
modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® data
bus the autopilot is connected to.
After installation of any RF transmitter.
After installation of any display or other equipment in
the vicinity.
After any equipment is installed.
After modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000®
data bus the depth sounder is connected to.
After modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000®
data bus the chart plotter is connected to.
After installation of any RF transmitter or modification
of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® data bus the GPS
is connected to.
After installation of any RF transmitter
After modification or addition of equipment to any
NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® data bus.
After installation of any RF transmitter or modification
of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® data bus the Radar
is connected to.
After installation of any RF transmitter
After modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000®
data bus the sea temperature transducer is connected to.
After modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000®
data bus the speed transducer is connected to.
After installation of any RF transmitter.
After installation of any RF transmitter or modification
of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000® data bus the VHF
radio is connected to.
After modification of any NMEA 0183 or NMEA 2000®
data bus the wind instrument is connected to.
NOTE: Some equipment may be sold as a bundled kit for convenience. For example, an
Autopilot may come with its own Electronic compass. In this situation, the
Autopilot shall be tested in accordance with Section 15.2, and the Electronic
compass shall be tested in accordance with Section 15.4.
6099
6100
6101
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6102
6103
22.2
6104
22.2.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6105
6106
6107
6108
6109
DC Load Tests
AC/DC Multimeter
22.2.2 Detailed Test Requirements
The following tests ensure that sufficient capacity is available to provide power to
onboard electronics while maintaining minimum voltage levels.
22.2.2.1 Operation from Batteries
6110
1. Turn all electronic equipment off.
6111
6112
2. Turn off any charging devices connected to any batteries used as an electronics
power source.
6113
6114
3. Turn on the main electronic battery switch so that electronics will be operating on
the electronics or General use battery only.
6115
4. Turn on the main breaker and all electronics breakers.
6116
6117
5. Operate a load of 10 amps or greater for a minimum of 10 seconds to create a
momentary load on the battery.
6118
6119
6. Measure the DC voltage at the electronics breaker panel or fuse block nearest the
equipment to be tested. The no-load voltage shall be a minimum of 12.5 volts DC
6120
7. Turn on all electronic equipment.
6121
8. Set all radars to transmit.
6122
9. Set the autopilot to the manual mode and activate the rudder commands.
6123
6124
10. For SSB installations, set the SSB to a usable frequency (4125 MHz). Tune up the
antenna tuner. Transmit with modulation for not less than 30 seconds.
6125
11. Verify that all equipment continues to function for not less than 60 minutes.
6126
6127
12. Verify that the DC voltage at the electronics breaker panel or fuse block is
maintained above 11.5 volts during and at the completion of the 1 hour test time.
6128
13. Verify that no breakers are tripped.
6129
22.2.2.2 Charging and Underway Operation
6130
1. Verify that the main engines are out of gear.
6131
6132
2. Start the main engines and verify that all electronics remain on and are unaffected
by the engine starting surge.
6133
6134
6135
6136
3. Monitor the DC voltage at the electronics breaker panel or fuse block and verify
that the main engines are charging the electronics battery. If necessary, increase the
RPM of the main engines to 1,200 RPM to activate the alternators for increased
charge rate. The voltage should increase from the value measured in Step 12 above.
6137
6138
4. Shut the main engines down and measure the DC voltage at the electronics breaker
panel or fuse block.
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6139
6140
6141
6142
5. Turn on the dockside shore power to the battery charger connected to the
electronics battery. Measure the DC voltage at the at the electronics breaker panel
or fuse block and verify that the DC battery voltage is increased from the voltage in
Step 12 above and continues to increase as the charger is operated.
6143
6. Shut all electronics off and open appropriate breakers.
6144
6145
7. Restore the charger, battery switches, and shore power breakers to the condition
prior to testing.
6146
6147
22.3
6148
22.3.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6149
6150
6151
6152
6153
6154
6155
6156
6157
6158
NMEA Interfacing Testing
•
•
•
•
Laptop computer with diagnostic software
Voltmeter
Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) (optional)
NMEA 2000® net meter (optional)
22.3.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying operational features of equipment connected using NMEA 0183
or NMEA 2000® in accordance with manufacturer instructions, the following tests
ensure that interfaced data is properly transmitted between required equipment.
22.3.3 NMEA 0183 Setup and Testing
6159
6160
6161
6162
At installation completion, all interfaced equipment shall be operated and the intended
data communications shall be verified. Testing shall follow manufacturerrecommended functional test procedures and shall include the following actions when
supported/displayed by the installed equipment:
6163
6164
1. Connect a Personal Computer with HyperTerminal or manufacturer-provided test
equipment to observe data flow.
6165
6166
2. Activate a waypoint or route, and observe waypoint or route data change on
displays and monitored NMEA 0183 sentences.
6167
6168
3. Initiate a course change, and observe course data change on displays and monitored
datagrams.
6169
6170
4. Start the engines or generator, and observe applicable engine or generator data
change on displays and monitored datagrams.
6171
5. Review an interface diagram for interface circuit specifics and connection locations.
6172
6. Verify correct continuity polarity and termination of wiring and connectors.
6173
7. Confirm proper programming of units being interfaced.
6174
8. Check for appropriate data in/out display on units interfaced.
6175
9. Confirm proper data sentences on laptop/software.
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6176
22.3.4 NMEA 2000®
6177
1. Verify bus power voltage within 9-to-16-volt range.
6178
2. Verify shield potential at ground.
6179
3. Verify low bus error rate.
6180
4. Verify nominal bus traffic level.
6181
5. Verify that all devices have successfully claimed an address.
6182
22.3.4.1 NMEA 2000 Testing and Analysis:
6183
6184
With the introduction of many new types of NMEA2000 certified products it has
become necessary for a detailed NMEA2000 network analysis and configuration.
6185
6186
NMEA2000 device manufactures have introduced software programs and devices to
help properly diagnose and configure an NMEA2000 bus.
6187
Sample screen shots of some free applications are shown below.
6188
6189
Figure 90: NMEA 2000 Application software & USB Interfaces
6190
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6191
6192
6193
6194
6195
Figure 91: Examples of NMEA 2000 USB Interfaces
Manufacturers in most cases offer a free download but do require the proper equipment
to connect a PC to the NMEA2000 BUS as seen in Figure XX.
22.3.4.2 NMEA 2000 Network Design and Documentation Tools :
6196
6197
6198
Due to the complexity of many existing NMEA2000 networks, hardware manufacturers
offer utility programs that allow implementers to properly design or update
NMEA2000 networks.
6199
6200
6201
6202
Such programs offer the integrator detailed analysis of a potential network. Upon
completion of the network design and installation a customer can be supplied with
documentation regarding the installed network helping to support long term upgrades
and maintenance.
6203
6204
Figure 92: Example of NMEA 2000 Application / Design Software
6205
6206
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6207
22.3.5 Ethernet Testing
6208
6209
6210
6211
6212
6213
6214
6215
6216
6217
6218
6219
6220
6221
6222
6223
6224
6225
6226
6227
6228
6229
After all network segment cables have been installed and all connectors attached, each
network segment shall be tested to verify the integrity of the cable and connector
assemblies.
22.4
•
All network cables shall be tested with an inexpensive network cable tester.
A simple Continuity/Isolation test takes seconds and yet can save hours of
fault finding on field assembled connectors/cables.
•
Testing shall verify that the pin-out meets the requirements of Section
8.4.3.1 and that there are no opens, shorts, crossed pairs (tip and ring
reversed at one end) or split pairs (pair using one pin in each of two different
pairs).
•
Once all network segment cables are tested, connect the computers and any
hubs, routers, or other equipment to the network. Power up all devices, and
verify that all devices operate in accordance with manufacturer instructions.
•
When testing, the network should be run at as close to full load as possible
i.e. maximum network traffic would be tested by running high bandwidth
tasks such as streaming, downloads/uploads, VoIP, etc.
Antenna Installation Testing
6230
6231
6232
To ensure that antenna and electronic equipment is installed in a manner that does not
interfere with other equipment as a result of antenna spacing, all electronic equipment
shall be turned on and tested in accordance with the following paragraphs.
6233
6234
Performance evaluation shall be performed to verify that the newly-installed equipment
does not interfere with the satisfactory operation of other equipment in the installation.
6235
6236
6237
6238
All transmitting equipment shall be operated at rated transmit output as part of the test.
In addition, the following additional tests shall be performed for the specified
equipment if installed. See Section 17.2.4 and Section 17.3.6 for test methods specific
to VHF and SSB.
6239
6240
6241
6242
6243
6244
6245
6246
22.4.1 GPS Receivers
22.4.1.1 Recommended Test Equipment
Handheld GPS (optional)
22.4.1.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying GPS operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the GPS and optional equipment are
operating correctly and are not subject to interference from other onboard systems.
22.4.1.3 Main GPS Unit Dockside Testing
6247
1. Verify that satellite reception and signal strength meet manufacturer specifications.
6248
2. Verify that the computed latitude/longitude position is accurate for your location.
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6249
6250
3. Verify that the satellite reception is not compromised while each of the following
electronic systems is in their full operating modes:
6251
a. Radar in transmit
6252
b. VHF radio in transmit
6253
c. SAT phones in transmit
6254
d. SSB radio in transmit
6255
6256
e. Television antenna amplifier energized (connected to DC or AC power as
appropriate)
6257
22.4.1.4 Optional Differential Beacon Receiver Dockside Testing
6258
If this unit is equipped with this option, perform the following tests:
6259
6260
1. Verify that the local differential beacon signal (if available in your area) is being
received and that the beacon signal strength meets manufacturer specifications.
6261
6262
2. Verify that the beacon signal strength is not compromised while each of the
following electronic systems is in their full operating modes:
6263
a. Radar in transmit
6264
b. VHF radio in transmit
6265
c. SAT phones in transmit
6266
d. SSB radio in transmit
6267
22.4.1.5 Optional Differential Beacon Receiver Sea Trial Testing
6268
If this unit is equipped with this option, perform the following test:
6269
6270
6271
1. Verify that the beacon signal strength is not compromised with engines running and
shafts turning. Since the faster the shaft spins the more interference is generated,
this test should be performed underway at high speeds.
6272
6273
22.4.1.6 Optional GNSS Augmentation Receiver (i.e.WAAS, EGNOS etc.) Dockside
Testing
6274
If this unit is equipped with this option, perform the following tests:
6275
1. Verify that the satellite is being received.
6276
6277
2. Verify that the satellite signal strength is not compromised with each of the
following electronic systems in their full operating modes:
6278
a. Radar in transmit
6279
b. VHF radio in transmit
6280
c. SAT phones in transmit
6281
6282
d. SSB radio in transmit
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6283
22.4.2 Wind Instrument Antennas
6284
22.4.2.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6285
6286
None
22.4.2.2 Detailed Test Requirements
6287
6288
6289
6290
In addition to verifying wind instrument and display operational features in accordance
with manufacturer instructions, the following test ensures that the wind speed and
direction transducer is calibrated within manufacturer tolerances.
22.4.2.3 Dockside Testing
6291
6292
6293
1. Verify that the wind angle relative to the bow of the vessel is accurate within
manufacturer specifications. If it is not, calibrate and/or offset per manufacturer
instructions
6294
22.5
6295
22.5.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6296
6297
6298
6299
6300
6301
Display Testing
None.
22.5.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying display operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the display is operating correctly and is
communicating correctly with other onboard electronics.
22.5.2.1 Dockside Testing
6302
1. Verify that all cable connections at the back of the display are securely connected.
6303
2. Verify that all cables have service loops for easy removal if service is needed
6304
3. Verify that all display features are functional, including all buttons.
6305
4. Verify that the vessel’s current position is accurately displayed.
6306
5. Verify that the chart plotter and chart details meet manufacturer specifications.
6307
6. Verify that the local charts are installed and displaying properly at all zoom levels.
6308
6309
7. Verify that the autopilot, if installed, responds correctly to navigation data as shown
on the display
6310
6311
8. Verify radar data(if connected) is displaying and operating per manufacturer
specifications.
6312
6313
9. Verify fish finder data (if connected) is displaying and operating per manufacturer
specifications.
6314
10. Verify that all video inputs (if connected) are displaying correctly
6315
6316
11. Verify that all NMEA 0183 and/or NMEA 2000 interfaces(if connected) are
displaying data from each specific device.
6317
12. Verify that display software is up to date with manufacturer specifications.
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6318
22.6
6319
22.6.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6320
6321
None.
22.6.2 Detailed Test Requirements
6322
6323
6324
6325
Black Box Testing
In addition to verifying black box operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the black box is operating correctly and is
communicating correctly with other onboard electronics.
22.6.2.1 Dockside Testing
6326
1. Verify that all cable connections at the box are securely connected.
6327
2. Verify that all cables have service loops for easy removal if service is needed
6328
6329
3. Verify that the status light on the box is clearly visible and is indicating a proper
working mode per manufacturer specifications.
6330
4. Verify that software is up to date with manufacturer specifications.
6331
6332
22.7
6333
22.7.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6334
6335
6336
6337
6338
6339
Transducer Testing
•
•
Paper charts
Weighted Depth line or lead core line with distance markings
22.7.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying depth sounder and display operational features in accordance
with manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that the depth sounder is
operating correctly and is not adversely affected by water flow when underway.
6340
6341
6342
6343
6344
22.7.2.1 Testing for Leaks
6345
22.7.2.2 Dockside Testing
At the time of launch, a visual inspection shall be performed to ensure the watertight
integrity of the installation; appropriate action shall be taken if any leaks are observed.
Also, the transducer locations shall be indicated to the owner at this time, and the
method of cleaning removable transducers shall be demonstrated.
6346
1. Verify that the transducer is not leaking and that it is properly sealed and secured.
6347
6348
2. Verify that the depth reading is accurate and stable over a period of several minutes
at the dock.
6349
22.7.2.3 Sea Trial Testing
6350
6351
1. Choose a known range where the vessel can be maneuvered to confirm soundings
when underway.
6352
2. Verify that the depth reading is accurate and stable underway at slow speeds.
6353
3. Verify that the depth reading remains accurate as speed is increased.
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6354
6355
6356
6357
4. Verify that if a transom-mounted style transducer is fitted, it does not kick up (fold
up) at higher speeds.
22.7.3 Sea Temperature Transducers
22.7.3.1 Recommended Test Equipment
•
6358
6359
22.7.3.2 Detailed Test Requirements
6360
6361
6362
6363
Digital thermometer
In addition to verifying temperature transducer and display operational features in
accordance with manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that the
temperature transducer is calibrated within manufacturer tolerances.
22.7.3.3 Dockside Testing
6364
1. Verify that the transducer is not leaking.
6365
6366
2. Verify that the sea temperature reading is accurate within manufacturer
specifications. If it is not, then calibrate per manufacturer specifications.
6367
6368
22.7.4 Speed Transducers
22.7.4.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6369
6370
None
22.7.4.2 Detailed Test Requirements
6371
6372
6373
6374
In addition to verifying speed/knot meter operational features in accordance with
manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that the speed transducer is
calibrated within manufacturer tolerances.
22.7.4.3 Dockside Testing
6375
6376
1. Verify that the transducer is not leaking.
22.7.4.4 Sea Trial Testing
6377
6378
6379
1. Verify that the speed is accurate within manufacturer specifications. If it is not,
then calibrate per manufacturer specifications, using a minimum of three passes on
a known distance range.
6380
6381
22.8
6382
22.8.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6383
6384
6385
6386
6387
6388
6389
Compass Installation Testing
•
•
•
Sun compass (optional)
Handheld compass (optional)
Protractor (optional)
22.8.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying compass-operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the compass has been installed with
minimum deviational error.
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6390
6391
6392
6393
6394
6395
6396
6397
22.8.2.1 Dockside Testing
1. Check that compass location is free from interference.
NOTE: After installation and calibration is complete, if the vessel is to be transported via
truck, rail or yacht transport to a new location, re-calibration of the compass
system, and an additional Sea Trial Testing is required. This is due to the metal
structures present around the vessel while in transport, which can cause
calibration errors.
22.8.2.2 Sea Trial Testing
6398
1. Set up compass per manufacturer specifications.
6399
6400
2. If the compass is electronic, spin the compass through 360-degree course change in
accordance with manufacturer instructions.
6401
6402
3. If the heading sensor is interfaced to an autopilot, turn off the autopilot before
aligning the heading.as the autopilot may turn the rudder suddenly.
6403
6404
4. If the compass is magnetic, compensate the compass in accordance with
manufacturer instructions.
6405
6406
5. If the compass is gyro, index the compass in accordance with manufacturer
instructions.
6407
6408
6. Check compass for accuracy against other known references (e.g., GPS) at every 15
degrees of heading change.
6409
6410
7. GPS COG can be either true or magnetic bearing depending on how the system is
set up
6411
6412
8. Installers must know the magnetic variation in their location - on the paper chart for
proper calibration.
6413
6414
9. Provide compass deviation card prepared by qualified compass adjuster for every
15 degrees of heading change if any heading shows a non-zero error.
6415
6416
6417
6418
6419
6420
6421
10. At the completion of the installation, the installer should again verify that the
operation of any electronic equipment with its accessories does not adversely affect
the indicated magnetic heading shown on the GNSS compass display or autopilot
compass display. It may be necessary during Sea Trial Testing to make these tests
on four different headings, equally distributed around 360 degrees, since the effects
can vary with the heading
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6422
6423
22.9
6424
22.9.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6425
6426
6427
6428
6429
6430
Radar Installation Testing
None
22.9.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying radar operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the radar is operating correctly and is
aligned correctly with the vessel’s bow.
22.9.2.1 Dockside Testing
6431
6432
6433
1. Test the radar in transmit mode. All ranges should be viewed to verify that
expected ranges of targets for your immediate location are being received on the
vessel’s radar.
6434
2. Verify automatic tuning feature if available, and manually adjust receiver gain.
6435
6436
3. Verify automatic sea clutter or Sensitivity Time Control (STC) automatic feature if
available, and manually adjust.
6437
6438
4. Verify automatic rain clutter Fast Time Constant (FTC) automatic feature if
available, and manually adjust.
6439
5. Verify vessel’s heading input if available.
6440
6. Verify other interfacing inputs if available.
6441
6442
22.9.2.2 Sea Trial Testing
6443
6444
1. Verify that the vessel’s radar heading alignment is correct. Target should appear
directly ahead in the head-up mode, with the heading line bisecting the target.
6445
2. Perform the manufacturer’s heading alignment procedure as necessary.
6446
6447
3. Verify that the timing of the radar is correct on the radar. Perform the
manufacturer’s timing procedure as necessary.
6448
4. Adjust the radar’s tuning, gain, to optimize performance of the system.
6449
6450
5. Verify automatic sea clutter or Sensitivity Time Control (STC) automatic feature if
available, and manually adjust.
6451
6452
6453
6. Verify automatic rain clutter Fast Time Constant (FTC) automatic feature if
available, and manually adjust.
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6454
6455
6456
22.10 Autopilot Testing
6457
22.10.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6458
AC/DC Multimeter
6459
22.10.1.1 Detailed Test Requirements
6460
6461
6462
6463
6464
6465
6466
6467
6468
6469
6470
In addition to verifying autopilot operational features in accordance with manufacturerspecific documentation, the following tests ensure that connections to the vessel
steering system and other electronics via data interfaces are operating correctly.
Understand the differences in operation of different manufacturer’s autopilot models
when conducting the following tests. For example some autopilots track between two
waypoints, and some will track from the current position.
NOTE:
Before running the pump in hydraulic autopilots for the first time or
performing the following tests, make sure the system contains sufficient
hydraulic fluid and has been completely bled of air. Running the pump dry
may damage it. See Section 15.3.2
6471
6472
•
While the vessel is standing alongside the dock, enter course changes of
approximately 5 degrees and monitor the steering system response
6473
•
Confirm that the rudder moves in the correct direction(approximately 5 degrees).
6474
6475
6476
6477
6478
6479
6480
6481
6482
6483
6484
6485
6486
6487
6488
6489
6490
6491
6492
22.10.1.2 Rudder Limit Settings
Check that the drive has enough throw so it does not bottom out prior to
approaching the mechanical stops.
Rudder limit switches, if installed, should be tested to ensure that the autopilot drive
does not force the steering gear against its mechanical stops. Normal practice is to
set the limit switches to act at about 2 degrees before the mechanical stops are
reached.
Software generated rudder limit settings should be tested to ensure that the autopilot
drive does not force the steering gear against the mechanical stops. Refer to
manufacturer-specific documentation for further details.
NOTE: After installation and calibration is complete, if the vessel is to be transported via
truck, rail or yacht transport to a new location, re-calibration of the autopilot
system, and an additional Sea Trial Testing is required. This is due to the metal
structures present around the vessel while in transport, which can cause
calibration errors.
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6493
6494
22.10.1.3 Dockside Tests- Autopilot
6495
6496
1. Manufacturers have different procedures for Dockside Testing and Sea Trial
Testing setups.
6497
2. Follow the specific procedure with great ATTENTION TO DETAIL
6498
3. Verify Boat Type, Drive System, Rudder type, feedback type, compass type
6499
4. Verify heading and GPS information are present
6500
5. Zero the RRU during dockside setup
6501
6. Check steering system for air.
6502
7. Check steering system for leaks.
6503
6504
8. Check steering system for lost motion to confirm that autopilot drive has not
restricted rudder motion.
6505
9. Check for binding or mechanical interference at helm positions and rudder.
6506
10. Check for nonlinear actuation.
6507
11. Check for proper voltage to solenoids or hydraulic motor drive.
6508
6509
12. Check for proper rudder direction (that rudder is moving in correct direction in both
autopilot and helm steering).
6510
6511
13. Check rudder speed hard over to hard over time. Time should be in the range of 12
to 20 seconds.
6512
6513
14. Check for proper pressure in Pounds-per-Square-Inch (PSI) (kg per m2 or Pascals)
on pressurized hydraulic systems.
6514
15. Check data presence on input and output interfaces.
6515
16. Check that proper data sentence or Parameter Group Number (PGN) is being used.
6516
22.10.1.4 Sea Trial Testing- Autopilot
6517
6518
1. Verify that the electronic compass has been calibrated per manufacturer instructions
and details in section 22.9
6519
2. Perform specific manufacturer setup and test procedures.
6520
3. Check or adjust rudder zero alignment while maintaining a straight course.
6521
6522
4. Enter a destination in the navigation device, such as a waypoint at a distance of 3
nautical miles or greater, and verify autopilot response.
6523
5. Verify autopilot operation in all steering modes per manufacturer instructions
6524
6. Prove steering in auto mode.
6525
7. Prove steering in navigation mode.
6526
8. Prove dodge mode.
6527
9. Prove wind mode (if available).
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6528
6529
10. Verify proper operation when operating onboard transmitters, such as VHF, SSB,
Radar, etc.
6530
6531
22.11 SSB Radio Testing
6532
22.11.1 General Considerations
6533
6534
6535
6536
6537
6538
6539
6540
6541
6542
6543
6544
6545
6546
6547
6548
6549
6550
6551
6552
6553
Each fixed-mounted SSB Radio Transceiver shall be subjected to the following tests in
accordance with the described procedures. The tests’ objectives are to ensure that all
connections are solid, power distribution is adequately sized for the intended load, and
the SSB ground system is a substantial counterpoise.
22.11.2 Recommended Test Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wattmeter with appropriate element
AC/DC Multimeter
Dummy load
Frequency counter
RF ammeter (MFJ-854 or equivalent)
DC ammeter (0-50Amps)
AM modulation meter
Oscilloscope
Signal generator
Communications test set
Field strength meter
22.11.3 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying SSB operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the antenna connection, tuner, grounding,
and optional equipment are operating correctly.
22.11.3.1 RF Power, Modulation and Power Consumption
6554
6555
The SSB Radio Transceiver (Device Under Test or DUT) shall be connected to the
following test equipment in accordance with the diagram in Figure 93..
6556
6557
6558
A Wattmeter with the appropriate element capable of measuring forward and reflected
power in the frequency range of 2 MHz to 30 MHz, shall be inserted in-line between
the DUT output connector and the transmission line coaxial cable.
6559
6560
6561
A multimeter shall be connected across the positive and negative power leads to the
DUT. An existing panel meter is sufficient, provided it meets the requirements of
Section 2.3.2, Voltmeters.
6562
6563
A multimeter or Ammeter capable of measuring and displaying 150% of the rated DUT
transmit current shall be connected in series with the positive power lead.
6564
6565
The other end of the transmission line coaxial cable shall be connected to an
appropriate RF load at the rated power of the transmitter.
6566
An appropriate means of measuring modulation (e.g. communications monitor).
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6567
6568
6569
6570
6571
6572
6573
6574
Figure 93: SSB Power test Setup
Transmit on the SSB with a continuous tone on a clear and authorized channel while
the unit is set to transmit at its highest output power. While transmitting, measure the
characteristics identified in Table 46 below using the appropriate instrumentation, and
verify that the characteristics are within the required tolerance.
Table 46: Typical SSB Transmission Test Measurements
6575
Test
1
Measurement
RF forward power
2
3
Modulation level
Voltage at the DUT input
connector
Current at the DUT input
connector
4
Nominal Value
Rated Transmit
Power
100%
12 Volts
Tolerance
≥ 80% Rated
Transmit Power
100%
≥ 11.7 Volts
Rated Transmit
Current
≤ 125% Rated
Transmit Current
6576
6577
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6578
22.11.3.2 RF Balance/Impedance/Ground Current
6579
6580
The SSB Radio Transceiver (Device Under Test or DUT) shall be connected to the
following test equipment in accordance with the diagram in Figure 94..
6581
6582
6583
A Wattmeter with the appropriate element capable of measuring forward and reflected
power in the frequency range of 2 MHz to 30 MHz, shall be inserted in-line between
the DUT output connector and the transmission line coaxial cable.
6584
6585
The other end of the transmission line coaxial cable shall be connected to the antenna
coupler, which in turn is connected to the antenna lead-in line.
6586
6587
Connect an RF ammeter, capable of measuring RF current from 0 to 3 Amps, to the
lead-in wire at the antenna coupler.
6588
The multimeter, Voltmeter, or ammeter may be left connected from the previous test.
6589
6590
6591
6592
6593
6594
6595
6596
6597
Figure 94: SSB Antenna Power test Setup
Per the manufacturer’s instructions, in each band, wait for the antenna coupler to finish
tuning, then measure and record the characteristics identified in Table 47., using the
attached instrumentation. Transmit on the SSB with a continuous tone on a clear and
authorized channel in each band while the unit is set to transmit at its highest output
power. Verify that the RF forward power and RF reflected power are within the
tolerance given in Section 17.3.6.1 at each band.
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6598
Table 47: SSB Transmission Measurements
Band
Frequency
Selected
RF Forward
Power
RF Reflected
Power
RF Current
2000 kHz
4000 kHz
6000 kHz
8000 kHz
12000 kHz
16000 kHz
18000 kHz
22000 kHz
25000 kHz
6599
6600
6601
6602
6603
6604
6605
6606
6607
6608
6609
6610
6611
6612
6613
6614
The RF ammeter provides an indication of how good the ground is in the current
installation. Since the current in the antenna wire produces the radiation that is
transmitted, no RF current means that there is no transmission. Plot the RF current
versus RF forward power to determine if there are any frequencies where the RF
current is out of line with the values recorded for other frequencies. One problem that
can be discovered in this way is that of a lead within the ground system that is
resonating at the selected frequency. When this occurs, the ground system is receiving
all the RF energy rather than the antenna.
22.11.3.3 Voice Radio Check
Verify satisfactory operation of the radio and antenna system by obtaining positive
confirmation of clear, static-free audio reception by another human transmitting and
receiving on another SSB at a distance of at least 2 miles. Operate the DUT by
initiating transmission on a convenient idle working frequency. Ask the receiver to
confirm that the initial transmission is clear and static-free. Then verify that the return
transmission is also clear and static-free.
6615
6616
NOTE: 2182 kHz is designated as the international distress and calling frequency and
shall not be used for routine radio testing.
6617
NOTE: The U.S. Coast Guard is no longer monitoring 2182 kHz
6618
6619
6620
6621
6622
6623
6624
6625
6626
6627
6628
22.11.3.4 DSC Radio Check
Verify satisfactory operation of a DSC calling sequence by obtaining positive
confirmation of the MMSI received and, if applicable, the position report received by
another DSC-equipped SSB Transceiver at a distance of at least 2 miles. Refer to the
manufacturers’ manual to determine how to enter and call the MMSI of a known SSB
station, and how to enable position reporting. When the SSB Radio Transceiver
switches to a working channel for follow-up voice communications, verify that the
reported position, if applicable, was transmitted correctly to the receiving unit.
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6629
6630
22.11.4 Dockside Testing
6631
1. Check ground system on antenna tuner and transceiver.
6632
2. Check proper lead in into coupler from antenna (GTO-15 or equivalent).
6633
6634
6635
3. Check transmit power into dummy load. For 150-Watt transmitter, reflected power
should be less than 5 Watts on all bands. This represents a Standing Wave Ratio
(VSWR) of 1.5:1 or less.
6636
4. Check VSWR with antenna connected.
6637
5. Check receiver sensitivity. Tune receiver to WWV and CHU for time check.
6638
6639
6. Measure DC Voltage and current at power connector while transmitting. DC power
should drop less than 3%, and current should remain constant across all bands.
6640
6641
7. Measure and plot Radio Frequency (RF) current between the antenna coupler and
the antenna across all bands.
6642
8. Perform radio check.
6643
9. Verify operation of the following optional equipment, if installed:
6644
a. External speakers
6645
b. Interfacing
6646
c. SITOR
6647
d. E-mail
6648
e. Remotes
6649
6650
6651
6652
10. On units equipped with Digital Selective Calling (DSC), ensure that the Maritime
Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) number has been entered properly and that the
vessel’s position is displayed correctly.
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6653
6654
22.12 VHF Radio Testing
6655
22.12.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6656
6657
• Wattmeter designed for use on transmitter frequency of 156 MHz and appropriate
power level. Full range not to exceed 50 Watts.
6658
6659
6660
• Communications Service Monitor or equivalent discrete test equipment.
• AC/DC Multimeter
• 50 ohm resistive Dummy Load
6661
6662
6663
6664
22.12.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying VHF radio operational features in accordance with
manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that the antenna connection and
optional equipment are operating correctly.
6665
6666
NOTE: VHF Radios can be off frequency by as much as 1000 Hz. Simply checking power
and VSWR is not enough in some cases
6667
22.12.3 Dockside Testing
6668
6669
1. Measure DC Voltage at power connector while transmitting on full power.
Voltage should be no less than 11.5 Volts
6670
2.Check each radio with a service monitor for correct frequency and modulation.
6671
a. Transmit frequency tolerance is +- 1560hZ
6672
b. Modulation +- 5kHz
6673
c. Check the receiver sensitivity: For .35 uv or less for 12db sinad sensitivity
6674
3. Check transmit power (20W minimum) into a dummy load
6675
6676
6677
4. Test forward and reflected power by connecting the fixed-mounted antenna.
For a 25-Watt radio, reflected power should be no more than 2.5W. This
represents an VSWR of 2:1 or less.
6678
6679
6680
5. Perform a radio check using the automated radio service available in your local
area instead of channel 16( if available).
Check www.seatow.com for VHF test channels in your area.
6681
6. Perform testing of DSC functionality
6682
7. Verify operation of the following optional equipment, if installed:
6683
d. External speakers
6684
e. Interfacing
6685
f. Scrambler
6686
g. Remotes
6687
6688
6689
8. On DSC equipped units, ensure that the Maritime Mobile Service Identity
(MMSI) number has been entered properly, and that the vessel position is
displayed correctly.
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6690
6691
6692
6693
6694
6695
22.12.4 VHF Antenna Testing
Each fixed-mounted VHF Radio Transceiver connected to a fixed-mounted antenna
shall be subjected to the following three tests in accordance with the described
procedures. The tests’ objectives are to ensure that all connections are solid and power
distribution is adequately sized for the intended load.
22.12.4.1 RF Power and Power Consumption
6696
6697
The VHF Radio Transceiver ( Device Under Test or DUT) shall be connected to the
following test equipment in accordance with the diagram in Figure 95..
6698
6699
6700
A Wattmeter with the appropriate element capable of measuring forward and reflected
power in the frequency range of 156 MHz to 163MHz, shall be inserted in-line between
the DUT output connector and the antenna coaxial cable.
6701
6702
6703
A multimeter or Voltmeter shall be connected across the positive and negative power
leads to the DUT. An existing panel meter is sufficient, provided it meets the
requirements of Section 2.3.2, Voltmeters.
6704
6705
A multimeter or ammeter capable of measuring and displaying 150% of the rated DUT
transmit current shall be connected in series with the positive power lead.
6706
6707
6708
6709
6710
6711
6712
6713
Figure 95: VHF Radio Test Setup
Operate the DUT by initiating a transmission on a convenient idle channel while the
unit is set to transmit at its highest output power, monitoring is required during the test.
While transmitting, measure the characteristics identified in Table 48 using the attached
instrumentation, and verify that the characteristics are within the required tolerances.
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6714
Table 48: VHF Test Measurements
6715
Test
Measurement
1
2
3
RF forward power
RF reflected power at the DUT
output connector
Voltage at the DUT input connector
4
Current at the DUT input connector
Nominal
Value
25 Watts
0 Watts
Tolerance
≥ 20 Watts
≤ 3 Watts
13.2 Volts
≥ 11.7 Volts
Rated Transmit
Current
≤ 125% Rated
Transmit
Current
6716
DUT= Device Under Test
6717
6718
6719
6720
NOTE: For accurate power readings, the Wattmeter should connect directly to the radio’s
RF output using a barrel connector or appropriate RF adapter. Where a direct
connection is impractical, an electrical half-wavelength test coaxial cable should be
fabricated and used to connect the radio's RF output to the Wattmeter
6721
6722
6723
6724
6725
6726
6727
6728
6729
6730
6731
6732
6733
6734
22.12.4.2 Voice Radio Check
Verify satisfactory operation of the radio and antenna system by obtaining positive
confirmation of loud and clear, static-free audio reception by another human
transmitting and receiving on another VHF at a distance of at least 2 miles. Operate the
DUT by initiating transmission on a convenient idle channel, while hailing another
known operator. Ask the receiver to confirm that the initial transmission is clear and
static-free. Then verify that the return transmission is also clear and static-free.
NOTE: Channel 16 is designated as the international distress and calling channel but can
be used very briefly to establish contact and switch to another channel.
Channel 16 should not be used for routine radio testing.
NOTE: There are regional dedicated automated VHF radio check channels that should be
used. See http://www.seatow.com/map/arcs/
22.12.4.3 DSC Radio Check and Test Call
6735
6736
On DSC equipped units, ensure that the Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI)
number has been entered properly, and that the vessel position is displayed correctly.
6737
6738
6739
6740
6741
6742
6743
6744
6745
Verify satisfactory operation of a DSC calling sequence by obtaining positive
confirmation of the MMSI received and, if applicable, the position report received by
another DSC-equipped VHF Transceiver at a distance of at least 2 miles. Refer to the
manufacturer’s manual to determine how to enter and call the MMSI of a known VHF
station, and how to enable position reporting. When the VHF Radio Transceiver
switches to a working channel for follow-up voice communications, verify that the
reported position, if applicable, was transmitted correctly to the receiving unit.
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6746
22.13 AIS Testing
6747
22.13.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6748
•
Wattmeter
6749
•
Voltmeter
6750
•
Laptop Computer
6751
•
AIS Test Box
6752
6753
6754
6755
6756
22.13.2 Detailed AIS Test Requirements
In addition to verifying AIS operational features in accordance with manufacturer
instructions, the following tests ensure that the antenna connections, receiver, display,
and optional equipment are operating correctly.
22.13.2.1 Dockside Testing
6757
1. Test input Voltage Drop
6758
2. Test output power and reflected power per manufacturer instructions
6759
3. Confirm AIS receives data from other vessels
6760
4. Confirm that the correct data is transmitted by checking with another vessel
6761
5. Or check www.marinetraffic.com/ais
6762
6. Test pilot plug operation
6763
6764
22.14 Satellite TV & Communications System Setup and Testing
6765
22.14.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6766
6767
6768
6769
6770
6771
6772
Laptop computer with diagnostic software
AC/DC Multimeter
22.14.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying satellite television operational features in accordance with
manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that satellite acquisition and
tracking are properly adjusted.
22.14.2.1 Dockside Testing
6773
1. Verify system voltage at power connector during normal operation.
6774
2. Verify that system setup is properly configured for basic operation.
6775
3. Verify correct registration and programming with service provider.
6776
4. Check received signal strength processed by receiver on video display.
6777
5. Confirm proper operational configuration with laptop/software.
6778
6779
6780
6. Following setup and operational verification in accordance with the manufacturer’s
guidelines, perform a voltage test at the power connection to the control unit by
observing and recording the measurements identified in Table 50. The
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6781
6782
6783
6784
6785
6786
6787
manufacturer documentation should be consulted to determine the mode requiring
maximum power, which may require receiving a call or executing a turn during Sea
Trial Testing. When the manufacturer does not explicitly specify a minimum
operational voltage in addition to the minimum supply voltage, the specified
minimum supply voltage shall be used for both tests.
Table 49: Satellite System Voltage Test
Measurement
Supply Voltage
(System Power Off)
Supply Voltage
(System Operating at Maximum Power)
Value
Minimum Supply Voltage Specified by
the Manufacturer
Minimum Operational Voltage Specified
by the Manufacturer
6788
6789
22.14.2.2 Sea Trial Testing
6790
1. Calibrate electronic heading sensor.
6791
2. Confirm proper antenna acquisition and tracking during course changes.
6792
6793
6794
3. Monitor proper operational parameters while underway with laptop/software.
6795
22.15 Satellite Telephone Installation Testing
6796
22.15.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6797
6798
6799
6800
6801
6802
AC/DC Multimeter
22.15.2 Detailed Test Requirements
In addition to verifying satellite phone operational features in accordance with
manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that satellite acquisition and
tracking are properly adjusted.
22.15.2.1 Dockside Testing
6803
1. Verify system voltage at power connector during normal operation.
6804
2. Verify that system setup is properly configured for basic operation.
6805
3. Confirm service provider registration and required programming.
6806
4. Check correct area/ocean region selected.
6807
5. Check signal strength on handset.
6808
6. Verify voice RX and TX test calls from handset.
6809
7. Verify operation of the following optional equipment, if installed:
6810
a. Auxiliary phone programming and perform RX & TX test calls
6811
b. FAX programming and perform RX & TX test calls
6812
c. Data programming and perform RX & TX test calls
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6813
22.15.2.2 Sea Trial Testing
6814
1. Calibrate electronic heading sensor (if provided).
6815
2. Confirm proper antenna acquisition and tracking during course changes.
6816
3. Make and receive test calls on handset while vessel underway.
6817
22.16 Cellular Telephone Installation Testing
6818
22.16.1 Recommended Test Equipment
6819
6820
AC/DC Multimeter
Wattmeter with appropriate element
6821
22.16.2 Detailed Test Requirements
6822
6823
6824
6825
In addition to verifying cellular phone operational features in accordance with
manufacturer instructions, the following tests ensure that the antenna connection and
optional equipment are operating correctly.
22.16.2.1 Dockside Testing
6826
1. Verify system voltage at power connector during normal operation.
6827
2. Confirm service provider registration and programming.
6828
3. Check receive signal strength indicator.
6829
6830
6831
4. Test forward and reflected power to confirm appropriate Voltage Standing Wave
Ratio (VSWR) measurement. (For 3W phone, reflected power should not exceed
1/3 watt. VSWR of 2:1 or less.)
6832
5. Verify voice RX & TX test calls from handset.
6833
6. Verify operation of the following optional equipment, if installed:
6834
a. Auxiliary phone programming and perform RX & TX test calls,
6835
b. FAX programming and perform RX & TX test calls,
6836
c. Data programming and perform RX & TX test calls,
6837
d. Auxiliary alert feature.
6838
6839
End of NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
6840
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6841 APPENDIX A. GLOSSARY
6842
Term/Acronym
ABYC
ADU or ADE
AC
AC Grounded Conductor
AC Grounding
Conductor
AC Ungrounded
Conductor
Attenuation
AGM
AIS
Aperture
AWG
Azimuth
Backbone Power Leg
Battery
Definition
American Boat and Yacht Council, Edgewater, Maryland, USA
“Above Deck” Units or Equipment, generally considered
exposed to the weather.
Alternating Current
Current carrying conductor intentionally maintained at ground
potential.
A normally non-current carrying conductor used to connect
metallic, non-current carrying parts of AC devices to ground.
(Refer to Section 3, Grounding, Bonding and Lightning
Protection for specific details on ground requirements.)
The hot, or live current carrying conductor in an AC distribution
system.
Reduction in signal strength measured in dB. Attenuation
generally does not affect the impedance of a device but rather
reduces signal level exclusively.
Absorbed Glass Mat. A type of battery that contains the
electrolyte in a fiberglass mat that is compressed between plates.
Automatic Identification System. VHF based system for
exchanging navigation information between vessels within lineof-sight of each other.
Antenna aperture or effective area is a measure of how effective
an antenna is at receiving the power of radio waves.
American Wire Gauge. A wire diameter specification. The
smaller the AWG number, the larger the wire diameter.
The horizontal direction of a celestial point from a terrestrial point,
expressed as the angular distance from a reference direction,
usually measured from 000o at the reference direction clockwise
through 359o.
A length of an NMEA 2000® backbone that has its own power
(NET-S) and ground (NET-C) connections and is isolated from
the power and ground connections of any other backbone power
leg.
A DC electrical storage device typically with a nominal output
voltage of 12v, 24v, or 32v DC. For these standards, a battery
may refer to a single battery or to a bank of batteries connected
in parallel or series in order to provide a specific voltage and
capacity.
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Term/Acronym
Battery Charger
Battery Isolator
Battery Reserve Capacity
BDU or BDE
Bend Radius
BITT
BMEA
Definition
A device designed primarily to charge and maintain a battery
that supplies power to DC loads.
Diode-based device used to allow the charging of more than a
single battery from a single charging source while
simultaneously isolating the battery outputs.
The number of minutes a new fully charged battery at 26.7ºC
(80ºF) can be discharged at 25 amperes and maintain a voltage
of 1.75 volts or higher per cell (e.g., 10.5 volts for a 12-volt
battery).
“Below deck” units or equipment generally considered sheltered
from the weather.
Minimum radius that a transmission line can be bent before
deterioration or degradation in signal quality occurs.
AIS Built In Integrity Test
British Marine Electronics Association
Device that joins two network segments using the same network
protocol and address space. Data rate and physical media may
differ on the two sides of a bridge.
British Standard Pipe thread. Common thread type used in
BSP
Europe.
A transducer that is capable of operating at a multitude of
Broadband Transducer
frequencies as specified by the transducer manufacturer
A twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is
CAT-5E
used in structured cabling for computer networks such as
Ethernet.
A standardized cable for Gigabit Ethernet and other network
CAT-6E CAT 7
physical layers that is backward compatible with the CAT-5E.
Inner conductor of a coaxial cable. It may be solid or stranded,
Center Conductor
depending on the cable design.
Code of Federal Regulations.
CFR
Characteristic Impedance The ratio of applied voltage to resulting current at any point
along a transmission line on which there are no standing waves.
When connected across the cable’s output terminals, the
characteristic impedance makes a transmission cable seem
infinitely long. For a majority of marine applications, the
characteristic impedance will be either a nominal 50 ohms or a
nominal 75 ohms.
Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (aka Broadband
CHIRP Transducer
Transducer)
Bridge
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Term/Acronym
Coaxial Cable
COG
Collision Domain
Colour
Combination Transducer
or Triducer
CW
Data
Datagram
Data Interfacing
Data Sentence
DC
DC Grounded Conductor
DC Grounding
Conductor
DC Negative
DC Positive
Definition
A transmission line with a cross-section constructed of a center
conductor, a solid insulating dielectric, and an outer shield. It is
primarily designed to transmit radio frequency signals. It
exhibits characteristic impedance that is a result of the diameter
of the center conductor, the diameter of the outer conductor, and
the dielectric constant of the insulating dielectric.
Course Over Ground
A collection or set of Ethernet nodes that are connected to a
network segment in a manner such that their data transmissions
may interfere with each other.
International English spelling of the U.S. word “color”
A transducer that contains a depth transducer with a speed and
temperature sensor in a single mechanical housing. The
speed/temp sensor may be permanently mounted in the
transducer housing or may be contained in a removable insert
that plugs into the housing that is secured to the hull.
Combination transducers are available in transom mount and
through-hull transducers.
Continuous Wave. Radio transmission method where the carrier
wave is maintained at a constant amplitude and frequency.
Information including a variety of specific values, including but
not limited to vessel position, speed, course, heading, depth, and
waypoint specifics.
A complete, independent and self-contained data entity sent over
a network.
The connection of marine equipment to enable the transfer of
data between devices.
A compilation of specific data in a format that is consistent for
the purpose of transmitting specifics.
Direct Current
A current carrying conductor connected to the terminal of the
power source that is intentionally maintained at boat ground
potential.
A normally non-current carrying conductor used to connect
metallic, non-current carrying parts of DC devices to ground.
(Refer to Section 3, Grounding, Bonding and Lightning
Protection for specific details on ground requirements.)
The negative terminal of a DC power source.
The positive terminal of a DC power source.
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Term/Acronym
Decibel (dB)
Depth Transducer
DGPS
DHCP
Dielectric
Distribution Panel
DNS
Diplexer
Double Insulation System
DSC
DUT
EIA
EMI
Engine Negative
Terminal
EPIRB
Ethernet
Definition
A unit that expresses the logarithmic ratio between the input and
output signal of any given component, circuit, or system and
may be expressed in terms of voltage, current, or power. The
following formulas apply:
dB = 10Log (Power A / Power B)
dB = 20Log (Voltage A / Voltage B)
A device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy
or sound. It is intended to operate as part of an echo sounder
system and is generally a piezoelectric crystal that resonates at a
specific frequency, expressed in Kilohertz. The transducer is a
two-way device – it converts electrical energy at its
characteristic frequency into mechanical energy (during
transmission) and turns received mechanical energy (during
reception) into electrical signals. The transducer is connected to
the depth sounder by a wire connection.
Differential GPS. Radio beacon based GPS correction system.
Dynamic Host Control Protocol
A material that presents insulating characteristics to electrical
current flow.
Assembly of devices for the purpose of controlling and/or
distributing power on a boat. It includes devices such as circuit
breakers, fuses, switches, instruments, and indicators.
Domain Name System.
A circuit inside a dual frequency transducer that combines the
low and high frequency signals so that they can travel in an
orderly fashion along the same pair of wires.
An insulation system composed of basic insulation and
supplementary insulation, with the two insulations physically
separated and so arranged that they are not simultaneously
subjected to the same deteriorating influences (e.g., temperature,
contaminants, and the like) to the same degree.
Digital Selective Calling.
Device Under Test.
Electronic Industries Alliance, Arlington, VA
Electromagnetic Interference.
The electrical termination point (if provided) on the engine at
which the negative battery cable is connected.
Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons
A frame-based computer network standard that defines physical,
media access control and data link layers of the OSI networking
model.
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Term/Acronym
Fairing Block
FCC
FCMW
Ferrites
Flag State
Forward Power
Geostationary Orbit
Gbps
GMDSS
GNSS
Ground
Ground, Performance
Ground Plate
Ground Plane
Ground, Reference
Ground, Safety
GTO-15
HF
Hub
Definition
Wood or plastic block designed as a mechanical transition
wedge to match the flat mounting surface of a transducer to the
angled surface on the hull. The size and shape will vary based
on the transducer size, shape, and the hull dead rise angle and
boat speed capability. Fairing blocks may also be used to
control the water flow over the face of the transducer.
Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.
Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) style radar
Components placed on the end of data cables to reduce
interference
The flag state of a commercial vessel is the state under whose
laws the vessel is registered or licensed.
RF power transmitted out from the radio to the antenna
Satellite orbit directly above the Earth's equator (0° latitude) at
an altitude of 35,786 km. and with a period equal to the Earth's
rotational period; Geostationary satellites appear motionless in
the sky,
A gigabit per second is a unit of data transfer rate equal to:1,000
megabits per second or 1,000,000 kilobits per second or
1,000,000,000 bits per second or 125,000,000 bytes per second.
Global Maritime Distress and Safety System.
Global Navigation Satellite System
Ground applies to the potential of the earth’s surface. The boat’s
ground is established by a conducting connection, intentional or
accidental, with the earth, including any conductive part of the
wetted surface of a hull.
Used to reduce noise in electronic equipment and improve signal
transmission and reception by providing a dedicated path to
ground for RF energy that bypasses reference ground
conductors.
Used to establish a specific potential with respect to power or
signals in order to induce current flow in a desired direction.
Generally non-current carrying conductor intended to short
dangerous potentials away from personnel, equipment, and the
vessel in order to prevent injury or damage.
A high voltage wire used in an SSB installation.
High Frequency. An RF band in the range 3 to 30 MHz
See Repeater.
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Term/Acronym
Ignition Protection
Definition
The design and construction of a device such that, under design
operating conditions:
1. It will not ignite a flammable hydrocarbon mixture
surrounding the device when an ignition source causes an
internal explosion; or
2. It is incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal
energy to ignite a hydrocarbon mixture; or
Impedance
IMO
Impedance Mismatch
In-Hull Transducer
INMARSAT
Input
Interference
IP
3. Its source of ignition is hermetically sealed.
Resistance to current flow by an individual reactive element
such as an inductor or capacitor or a combination circuit
containing inductors and capacitors. Impedance is expressed in
ohms and may contain inductive and capacitive reactive
elements.
International Maritime Organization
The result of differences in source and load impedance. As the
value of impedance mismatch between source and load is
increased, the resulting power transfer is reduced. The ratio of
mismatch is expressed as a ratio that takes into account all
reactive and resistive components. A 1.0:1.0 is a perfect match
between source and load.
A depth-only transducer that is glued inside the hull to allow
depth sounder operation without the requirement of drilling a
hole in the hull or mounting a transducer on the transom. This
style of transducer requires a solid fiberglass hull material to
function. NOTE: Cored fiberglass, wood, aluminum, and steel
hulls are unacceptable for this style transducer.
An international telecommunications company that provides
telephony and data services to user’s world-wide. Inmarsat also
provides global maritime distress and safety services (GMDSS)
to ships and aircraft at no charge.
A signal or power that is applied to a piece of electronic
equipment or transmission cable.
Disturbances of an electromagnetic or electrical nature that
introduce undesirable responses from other electrical or
electronic equipment or impede the performance of other
electrical or electronic equipment.
Internet Protocol. A protocol for routing data packets between
connected devices and between connected networks, and a
common element of the public Internet.
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Term/Acronym
IPX
IP67
Kbps
LAN
Listener
LEN
LEO
LF
mA
MEIPA
Mbps
MBS
MEO
Metre
MF
MMSI
Multi-Frequency
Transducer
NetBEUI
NetBIOS
NMEA
Definition
Internetwork Packet Exchange. A declining protocol for routing
data packets between connected devices and between connected
networks, originally used for Novell.
An IP Code, Ingress Protection Rating, classifies and rates the
degree of protection a piece of equipment has against the
intrusion of solid objects and water.
A kilobit per second is a unit of data transfer rate equal to: 1,000
bits per second or 125 bytes per second.
Local Area Network
Device that receives data from other equipment.
Load Equivalency Number.
Low Earth Orbit. An orbit within the range extending from the
Earth’s surface up to an altitude of 2,000 km.
Low Frequency. An RF band in the range 30 to 300 kHz.
Mill amperes.
Marine Electronics Industry Promotion Association(S. Korea)
Megabit per second is a unit of data transfer rate equal to:
1,000,000 bits per second or 1,000 kilobits per second or
125,000 bytes per second or 125 kilobytes per second
Main Bang Suppression
Medium Earth Orbit. An orbit within the range extending from
above Low Earth Orbit to below geostationary orbit.
International English spelling of the U.S. word “meter”
Medium Frequency. An RF band in the range 300 kHz to 3
MHz
Maritime Mobile Service Identity number. International
identifier assigned to uniquely designate a vessel for
telecommunications.
A transducer that is capable of operating on more than one
operating frequency (e.g., 50KHz and 200KHz.). This is
accomplished either by using a single crystal element that
resonates at both frequencies or by including two separate
elements in a single housing.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface. Un-routed protocol for
exchanging NetBIOS frames within a single network segment.
Network Basic I/O System. Low-level network communication
protocol developed by IBM for personal computers.
National Marine Electronics Association, Severna Park, MD.
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Term/Acronym
NMEA 0183 Interface
Standard
NMEA 2000® Interface
Standard
NPT
NMMA
Node
OFCOM
OSI
Over-current Protection
Device
PEP
PGN
PoE
Polarized System
Power Insertion Point
PSI
Receive Data
PtoMP
Reflected Power
Repeater
RF
RJ-45
Definition
Developed by the National Marine Electronics Association as a
standard to specify the data, format, and hardware requirements
for a single talker, multi-listener data interface exchange.
Developed by the National Marine Electronics Association as a
standard to specify the data, format, and hardware requirements
for a multi-talker, multi-listener network data interface
exchange.
National Pipe Tapered thread. Common thread type used in
United States.
National Marine Manufacturers Association
The attachment of a transmitter/receiver to the signaling channel
at the physical implementation layer.
Office of Communications. The UK office that issues MMSI
numbers and controls the use of radio spectrum.
Open Systems Interconnection. Reference model that describes
required network functions as a layered set of services.
A device, such as a fuse or circuit breaker, designed to interrupt
the circuit when the current flow exceeds a predetermined value
for a specified period of time.
Peak envelope power, a measure of radio transmitter signal
strength
Parameter Group Number. Identifier used to designate the
content and format of an NMEA 2000® datagram.
Power Over Ethernet. Method of utilizing the spare pairs in an
Ethernet cable to distribute power to connected hubs or other
devices in remote locations.
A system in which the grounded (negative) and ungrounded
(positive) conductors are connected in the same relation to
terminals or leads on devices in the circuit.
A physical connection to the power (NET-S) and ground (NETC) pair used to connect an NMEA 2000® backbone power leg to
a power source.
Pounds-per-Square-Inch.
Information received by a listener.
Point to Multi-Point
Power reflected back from the antenna to the radio.
Device that joins two or more networks with the same network
protocol and address space.
Radio Frequency.
A type of modular connector for computer network cables
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Term/Acronym
RS-232
RS-422
Router
RRU
RTCM
SBAS
Self-Limiting
Sheath
Shield
Shunt
Single Talker
SNR
SOG
Solenoid
Speed/Temp Sensor
SSB
Switch
Definition
A standard for serial binary data signals commonly used in
computer serial ports. NMEA 0183 versions prior to 2.0 were
based off RS-232.
A standard for serial binary data signals commonly used in
computer serial ports. NMEA 0183 Versions after 2.0 are based
off RS-422.
Device that joins two networks with the same network protocol.
On each side of a router, the address space, data rate, and
physical media may differ.
Rudder Reference Unit
Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services
Satellite Base Augmentation System (SBAS),
Device in which the output remains at a value that will not
damage the device after application of a short circuit at the DC
output terminals for a period of 15 days.
A material used as a continuous protective covering, such as
overlapping electrical tape, woven sleeve, molded rubber,
molded plastic, shrink tubing, loom, spiral wrap or flexible
tubing, around one or more insulated conductors.
A sheet, screen, or braid of metal, usually copper, aluminum, or
other conducting material, placed around or between electric
circuits, cables, or their components to contain unwanted
radiation or to keep out unwanted interference.
A conductor of known resistance placed in series with a circuit
to indicate current flow by measurement of the voltage drop
across this conductor.
Only one device may transmit data on the data lines.
Signal-to-noise ratio.
Speed Over Ground
A type of marine power steering
A device that contains two independent sensing devices. The
first is designed to generate electrical pulses at a rate
proportional to the speed of the boat through the water. The
second is electrically related to the temperature of the water.
Single Side Band.
A device that incorporates several bridges, allowing the creation
of complex networks of multiple independent segments.
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Term/Acronym
SWR
Talker
TCP/IP
TDR
Terminal Block
Through-Hull
Transducer
TIA
Transmission Loss
Transmit Data
Transom Mount
Transducer
Trip-Free Circuit
Breaker
USCG
USB
UPS
VHF
VLF
Definition
Standing Wave Ratio. Also known as Voltage Standing Wave
Ratio (VSWR). A ratio of the maximum amplitude to the
minimum amplitude of a standing wave along a transmission
line as a result of reflected energy. The reflected energy is a
result of an impedance mismatch of the load with reference to
the transmission line characteristic impedance.
A device that transmits data for use by other equipment.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)
provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be
formatted, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the
destination
Time Domain Reflectometer. An electronic instrument used to
characterize and locate faults in metallic cables (e.g., twisted
pair, coax).
A device intended as a fixed mounted termination to establish a
secure mechanical and electrical connection of the terminal lugs
attached to the end of two lengths of wire.
A transducer designed to be mounted through the bottom of the
hull of the boat. A hole must be drilled through the hull, and a
fairing block may be required to level the face of the transducer
to be parallel with respect to the water’s surface.
Telecommunications Industry Association, Arlington, VA
Attenuation of radio frequency signals due to signal losses in
transmission cable.
Information sentences transmitted from a talker device.
A transducer that is designed to be mounted to the exterior of the
transom of the boat.
A resettable over-current protection device, designed so that the
means of resetting cannot override the current interrupting
mechanism.
United States Coast Guard.
Universal Serial Bus.
Uninterruptible Power Supply. Equipment that maintains a
continuous electric power supply to protected equipment by
supplying power from a separate source, such as a battery, when
the primary source is unavailable.
Very High Frequency. An RF band in the range 30 to 300 MHz
Very Low Frequency. An RF band in the range 3 to 30 kHz.
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Term/Acronym
VSWR
WAAS
WAN
Watertight
Weatherproof
WEP
Wi-Fi
WPA
10BaseT
100BaseTX
1000BaseT
Definition
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio. Also known as Standing Wave
Ratio (SWR). A ratio of the maximum amplitude to the
minimum amplitude of a standing wave along a transmission
line as a result of reflected energy. The reflected energy is a
result of an impedance mismatch of the load with reference to
the transmission line characteristic impedance.
Wide Area Augmentation System. Satellite based GPS
correction system.
Wide Area Network
Constructed so that water will not enter the enclosure under test
conditions specified in NEMA Standard 250.
Constructed or protected so that exposure to the weather will not
interfere with successful operation. NOTE: For the purpose of
these standards, as applied to marine use, weatherproof implies
resistance to rain, spray, and splash.
Wired Equivalent Privacy. An encryption method used to secure
wireless networks. Superseded by WPA.
A set of product compatibility standards for implementing
wireless local area networks.
Wi-Fi Protected Access. An encryption method used to secure
wireless networks that also employs methods of key
management.
Earlier versions of Ethernet hardware over copper wiring
Most common version of Ethernet hardware over copper wiring
currently produced today
The standard for gigabit Ethernet hardware over copper wiring
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6843
6844
APPENDIX B. VESSEL COMMISSIONING CHECKLIST
Commissioning Checklist
Boat Name:
Owner’s Name:
Dealer Name:
Dealer Address:
Type:
Dealer Phone:
Radar: Display Type ____________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Scanner Type ___________________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Timing adjustment ____________________Heading offset _______________________
Waypoint data displayed: yes or no
Instrument data displayed: yes or no
Close-in targets shown: yes or no
Closest Target Distance _______________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Autopilot: Type _______________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Compass: Deviation ___________________________ Heading Offset __________ Location _______________
Pilot Type _________ Cal Lock __________ Rudder Gain ________Counter Rudder _______Rudder Offset _____
Rudder Limit ______ Turn Rate __________ Cruise Speed________Off Course ___________Auto Trim ________
Power Steer ________ Drive Type _________ Rudder Damp _______Variation ____________Auto Adapt _______
Latitude ___________ Wind Trim _________ Tack Angle _________Auto Release _________Response _________
Rudder Low ____________ Rudder High ____________ Counter Rudder Low _____ Counter Rudder High _____
Auto Trim Low __________ Auto Trim High _________ Rudder Limit Low _______ Rudder Limit High _______
Ability to steer to a waypoint: yes or no Ability to sail to wind: yes or no VERIFY
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Instruments: Type ____________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Depth: Datum _______________________(water line or keel)
Speed: Log cal factor __________________
Wind angle: Offset ____________________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Ships Compass: Type _________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Deviations
Pilot Compass
GPS/Magnetic
000
_________________
_________________
090
_________________
_________________
180
_________________
_________________
270
_________________
_________________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
VHF: Type ____________________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Output Test: High Power ___________________ Low Power ________________Weather Stations Rx ________
MMSI _________________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Date
6845
6846
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Commissioning Checklist (page 2)
Boat Name:
Owner’s Name:
Type:
SSB: Type _____________________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
MMSI _________________
Band
Frequency
Selected
RF Forward
Power
RF Reflected
Power
RF Current
2000 kHz
4000 kHz
6000 kHz
8000 kHz
12000 kHz
16000 kHz
18000 kHz
22000 kHz
25000 kHz
Auto tune?
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
or
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
no
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Satellite Phone: Type __________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Satellite TV: Type _____________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Shaded/shadowed Bearings _______________________________________ (from bow)
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Other: Type ___________________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
Other: Type ___________________ Model _________________________Serial Number __________________
Notes______________________________________________________________________
General Notes:
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________________
 Sea Trial Testing Conducted By: ________________________________________________________________
Sea Trial Testing Sea State____________ Speed at which Depth indication stopped___________
 Manual Binder Aboard
 All Remotes w/batteries Aboard
Date
6847
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6848 APPENDIX C: VESSEL INSPECTION INFORMATION
6849
6850
6851
The following forms are available for download on the NMEA website for commercial
and recreational vessel electronics inspections.
6852
http://www.nmea.org/content/vessel_inspect/vessel_inspect.asp
6853
6854
6855
6856
6857
6858
6859
6860
6861
6862
6863
Compulsory Vessel Inspections
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
GMDSS Inspection and Installation Check List 2009
Small Passenger Inspection and Installation Check List 2009
Go to http://www.rtcm.org/navguide.php for navigation requirements.
Go to http://www.rtcm.org/gmdssguide.php for equipment requirements.
AIS Class A Installation Inspection Check List (Coming Soon)
Fishing Vessel Radio Installation For Compliance with the Fishing Vessel GMDSS
Waiver
Fisheries Inspection Check List (Coming Soon)
How to Conduct a Great Lakes Small Passenger Vessel Inspection
6864
6865
6866
6867
6868
6869
6870
6871
6872
6873
6874
6875
6876
6877
6878
6879
FCC Inspector Requirements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Licenses General Radiotelephone Operator License GROL
How to Conduct a GMDSS Inspection
License Program Who Needs a License Examination
License GMDSS Radio Operator Maintainer
Licenses Ship Radar Endorsement
FCC Forms
NOAA Forms
FCC Qualified Inspector
•
•
Application For Qualified FCC Inspectors
Qualified FCC Inspectors by Location
Voluntary Vessel Inspection
•
•
DSC-VHF Installation Check List
AIS Class B Installation Inspection Check List (Coming Soon)
6880
6881
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6882 APPENDIX D. WIRE GAUGE AND VOLTAGE DROP REFERENCE TABLES
6883
6884
Common US Wire Gauges with Typical Characteristics
Gauge 1
Circular
Weight 2
Resistance 2
1
(AWG) Mil Area
lbs. per
kg per
Ω per
Ω per
1000 ft.
100 m.
1000 ft.
100 m.
4/0
211,600
837
125
0.049
0.016
3/0
167,800
675
100
0.062
0.020
2/0
133,100
549
82
0.077
0.025
1/0
105,600
437
65
0.099
0.032
1
83,690
350
52
0.127
0.042
2
66,360
266
40
0.157
0.052
4
41,740
181
27
0.240
0.079
6
26,240
118
18
0.400
0.131
8
16,510
75
11
0.620
0.203
10
10,380
46
6.8
0.980
0.322
12
6,530
31
4.6
1.75
0.574
14
4,110
19
2.8
2.73
0.896
16
2,580
13
1.9
4.00
1.31
18
1,620
8.0
1.2
6.92
2.27
20
1,020
5.0
0.7
10.9
3.58
22
640
1.9
0.29
17.5
5.74
24
404
1.2
0.18
27.7
9.09
26
253
0.8
0.11
44.4
14.6
28
159
0.48
0.072
70.7
23.2
30
100
0.30
0.045
112
36.7
32
64
0.20
0.029
164
53.8
34
40
0.12
0.018
261
85.6
36
25
0.08
0.011
415
136
6885
6886 Notes:
6887
6888
6889
6890
6891
6892
1. American Wire Gauge (AWG) and Circular Mil Area from Standard Handbook for Electrical
Engineers, 14th Edition, Fink, Donald G. and H. Wayne Beaty, 2000.
2. Wire Weight and Resistance from Ancor and Belden catalogs for industry preferred
stranding.
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6893
6894
Common Metric Wire Gauges Compared to AWG
Gauge 1
A (mm2) Circular
Mil Area (AWG)
0.05
0.08
0.14
0.25
0.34
0.38
0.5
0.75
1
1.5
2.5
4
6
10
16
25
35
50
70
95
120
6895
6896
6897
6898
6899
99
158
276
493
671
750
987
1,480
1,974
2,960
4,934
7,894
11,841
19,735
31,576
49,338
69,073
98,676
138,147
187,485
236,823
30
28
26
24
22
21
20
18
17
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
Notes:
1. US wire gauge (AWG) listed is the closest gauge. Area of metric equivalent may vary by –
10% smaller to +22% larger than the AWG listed.
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6900
6901
6902
6903
6904
Voltage Drop
The minimum circular mil area, and thus the wire gauge, necessary to ensure that the voltage
drop on any circuit is equal to or less than a certain value, is easily computed for copper wire
using the following equation:
CM = K x I x L / E
Where:
K = 10.75 (resistivity constant for copper)
I = Current (amps)
L = Round Trip Wire Distance (feet)
E = Maximum Voltage Drop Allowed (volts)
6905
(Equation C-1)
6906
6907
6908
6909
The following tables are based on application of this equation for specific voltage drop limits and
identify the minimum AWG for various circuit lengths in English and Metric units. The table
columns identify the round-trip distance between the power source and the load, which is found
by multiplying the distance between the source and the load by two.
6910
6911
6912
6913
When the circuit includes a switch loop in addition to the run between the power source and the
load, compute the total distance by adding the switch loop length to circuit length, and
multiplying by two, as shown in the following diagram.
Load
Switch Loop
L1
Switch
L2
Total Distance = (L1 + L2)
6914
6915
6916
Source
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
V 4.00N DRAFT
258 of 313
2014 NMEA
6917
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (US)
1%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
5
20
14
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
2
22
18
16
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
4
4
24
20
16
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
6
Distance from source to device (feet) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
8
12
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
1/0
3/0
4/0
1/0
3/0
4/0
2/0
3/0
2/0
4/0
2/0
4/0
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
3/0
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
14
16
14
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
10
10
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
6
6
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
2
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
70
8
4
2
2/0
4/0
12
6
4
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
12
8
6
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
6918
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
V 4.00N DRAFT
259 of 313
2014 NMEA
6919
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (US)
3%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
5
24
20
18
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
8
6
6
6
28
22
20
18
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
10
10
8
28
24
22
18
16
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
12
10
10
10
Distance from source to device (feet) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
22
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
8
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
6
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4
2
2
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
24
22
22
20
20
18
18
18
18
16
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
18
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
2
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
8
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
6
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
26
24
22
22
20
20
20
20
18
18
20
20
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
14
18
16
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
10
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
8
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
4
10
10
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
1/0
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
70
12
8
6
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
16
12
8
6
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
18
12
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
1/0
2/0
6920
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
V 4.00N DRAFT
260 of 313
2014 NMEA
6921
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (US)
10%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
5
30
24
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
12
12
12
32
28
26
22
20
20
18
18
18
16
16
16
16
14
14
14
32
28
26
24
22
20
20
20
18
18
18
16
16
16
16
16
Distance from source to device (feet) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
60
26
24
24
22
22
22
20
20
20
18
22
20
18
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
8
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
12
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
2
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
2
2
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
8
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
1
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
30
28
26
26
24
24
24
24
22
22
24
24
22
20
20
20
18
18
18
18
22
20
20
18
18
18
16
16
16
14
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
18
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
8
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
8
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
6
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
12
10
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
12
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
4
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
30
28
28
26
26
26
24
24
24
24
26
24
22
22
22
20
20
20
20
18
24
22
20
20
20
18
18
18
16
16
20
20
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
14
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
18
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
16
16
14
12
12
12
10
10
10
10
16
14
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
4
70
18
14
12
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
1/0
22
16
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
4
2
22
18
16
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
4
4
6922
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
V 4.00N DRAFT
261 of 313
2014 NMEA
6923
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (Metric)
1%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
22
16
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
24
20
18
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
6
6
6
26
20
18
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
8
Distance from source to device (meters) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
18
16
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
6
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
8
6
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
2
1
1/0
3/0
4/0
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
2
1/0
2/0
4/0
2
1/0
2/0
4/0
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
1
2/0
3/0
1
2/0
3/0
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
12
12
12
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
8
6
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
8
6
4
2
2
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
2/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
4
2
1
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
4/0
22
20
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
18
16
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
12
10
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
10
10
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
8
6
6
4
2
2
2
1
1/0
1/0
8
6
4
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
8
6
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
6
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
4
2
1
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
20
6
4
2
2/0
4/0
12
6
4
2
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
12
8
6
2
2
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
6924
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2014 NMEA
6925
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (Metric)
3%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
26
22
20
16
14
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
8
8
8
8
30
24
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
12
12
10
30
26
24
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
14
12
12
12
Distance from source to device (meters) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
24
22
20
18
18
16
16
14
14
14
18
16
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
8
6
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
8
6
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
8
6
4
2
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
6
4
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
6
4
2
2
1/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
4
4
2
1
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
26
24
24
22
20
20
18
18
18
16
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
12
12
12
20
18
16
14
14
12
12
10
10
10
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
12
10
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
10
10
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
8
8
6
4
2
2
2
1
1/0
1/0
8
6
6
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
8
6
6
4
2
2
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
8
6
4
4
2
1
1
1/0
2/0
2/0
28
26
24
22
22
20
20
18
18
18
22
20
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
20
18
18
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
18
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
8
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
12
10
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
4
12
10
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
10
10
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
20
14
8
6
4
2
1
1/0
2/0
3/0
3/0
4/0
4/0
16
12
10
6
4
4
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
2/0
2/0
2/0
3/0
18
12
10
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1/0
1/0
1/0
6926
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
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2014 NMEA
6927
Wire Gauge to Limit Voltage Drop at Various Currents, Lengths, and Voltages (Metric)
10%
Drop
12
Volts
24
Volts
32
Volts
Current
(amps)
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
3
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1
32
26
24
22
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
14
14
14
12
34
30
28
24
22
22
20
20
18
18
18
18
18
16
16
16
36
30
28
26
24
22
22
20
20
20
20
18
18
18
18
18
Distance from source to device (meters) – See Diagram
Wire gauge sizes are already computed for round trip
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
28
26
26
24
22
22
20
20
20
18
24
22
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
14
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
12
12
12
18
16
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
12
10
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
12
10
8
8
6
4
4
4
2
2
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
12
10
8
6
6
4
4
2
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
2
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
10
8
8
6
4
4
2
2
2
1
32
30
28
26
26
24
24
22
22
22
26
24
24
22
20
20
18
18
18
18
24
22
22
20
18
18
16
16
16
14
22
20
18
16
16
14
14
12
12
12
20
18
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
18
16
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
18
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
8
8
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
16
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
14
14
12
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
4
4
4
32
30
30
28
26
26
24
24
24
24
28
26
24
24
22
20
20
20
18
18
26
24
22
20
20
18
18
18
16
16
22
20
20
18
16
16
14
14
14
14
20
20
18
16
14
14
14
12
12
12
20
18
16
14
14
12
12
12
10
10
18
16
16
14
12
12
10
10
10
10
18
16
14
14
12
10
10
10
8
8
18
16
14
12
12
10
10
8
8
8
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
8
16
14
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
16
14
12
10
10
8
8
6
6
6
14
14
12
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
6
14
12
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
20
18
14
12
8
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
22
16
14
12
10
8
8
6
6
6
4
4
4
4
4
4
22
18
16
12
10
10
8
8
8
6
6
6
6
4
4
4
6928
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6929
APPENDIX E. BATTERY CAPACITY CALCULATION
6930
6931
6932
6933
6934
6935
6936
6937
Absolute battery capacity depends on many factors including ambient temperature and discharge
rate. A battery discharged at a low rate will last longer and provide more apparent ampere-hours
than the same battery discharged at a higher rate. In general battery capacities are advertised at
only one specific discharge rate, which is usually not the discharge rate for the intended
application. The capacity most commonly advertised is Battery Reserve Capacity, which is also
known as Reserve Capacity. Reserve Capacity is specified in minutes and represents the time
required to discharge the battery to 1.2 volts per cell when the ambient temperature is 80° F (27°
C) and the discharge rate is 25 amperes.
6938
6939
6940
6941
6942
Peukert’s Equation may be used to determine if a battery with a specified Reserve Capacity is
sufficient for the required application. Peukert’s Equation describes a generalized capacity curve
where the available capacity decreases as the discharge rate increases. The specific curve
characteristics are determined by the constant known as Peukert’s Constant, and vary depending
on the battery type and construction.
Cp = Ik x t
Where:
Cp = Peukert's Capacity
I = Discharge Current (amps)
t = Discharge Time (hours)
k = Peukert's Constant
6943
(Equation D-1)
6944
6945
6946
6947
Peukert’s Capacity represents the nominal battery capacity in ampere-hours when discharged at a
1 ampere discharge rate. Whenever possible, Peukert’s Constant should be taken from the
battery manufacturer documentation. Typical values are given in the following table for various
battery constructions when manufacturer values are not available.
6948
Typical Peukert’s Constant Ranges
Minimum
Maximum
Average
Wet Cell
1.2
1.6
1.4
Gel Cell
1.1
1.25
1.175
AGM
1.05
1.15
1.1
6949
6950
6951
6952
The Battery Reserve Capacity required to support a specific application is determined using a
straightforward two-step process. The average discharge current and the time duration that the
discharge rate is anticipated between charges must be known prior to using this method.
6953
6954
6955
1. Using Peukert’s Equation, compute the Peukert Capacity based on the average discharge
current and required discharge time. Select from the table the average value for Peukert’s
Constant corresponding to the selected battery type.
6956
6957
2. Rewriting Peukert’s Equation to solve for time as shown in equation 2, compute the
discharge time for the computer capacity when with a discharge current of 25 amperes – this
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
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6958
6959
is the Reserve Capacity provided by battery manufacturers. Be sure to use the same value for
Peukert’s Constant as used in step 1.
t = Cp / Ik
Where:
Cp = Peukert's Capacity
I = Discharge Current (amps)
t = Discharge Time (hours)
k = Peukert's Constant
6960
(Equation D-2)
6961
6962
6963
6964
For example, in Section 4.1.2.1, Emergency Communications Battery Capacity, an average
discharge current of 12 amperes was required for a 6-hour duration. The following calculations
demonstrate how to compute the Battery Reserve Capacity when an AGM battery is used for the
Emergency Communications Battery.
6965
Peukert’s Capacity
6966
6967
6968
= (12)1.1 x 6
= 92.3 ampere-hours
Reserve Capacity
= (92.3) / (25)1.1
= 2.7 hours
6969
6970
Since most manufacturers publish their reserve capacity in minutes, multiply the result obtained
above by 60 to get 162 minutes.
6971
6972
6973
6974
6975
Note that this method calculates the capacity required to full discharge! To ensure a long battery
life, a battery should not be discharged below 50%. Accordingly, the Reserve Capacity should
be doubled for most applications. However, for an Emergency Communications Battery, there is
no requirement that that the battery be recharged after encountering a complete 6 hour
emergency situation, and would normally be replaced.
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APPENDIX F
NMEA 0183 V 4.10 SENTENCE DESCRIPTIONS
The following list contains all NMEA 0183 Sentence Descriptions as of Version 4.10. Please
check www.nmea.org for the most up-to-date list as new sentences are occasionally added to the
NMEA 0183 standard.
AAM – Waypoint Arrival Alarm
ABK – AIS Addressed and Binary Broadcast Acknowledgement
ABM – AIS Addressed Binary and Safety Related Message
ACA – AIS Regional Channel Assignment Message
ACF – General AtoN Station Configuration Command
ACG – Extended General AtoN Station Configuration Command
ACK – Acknowledge Alarm
ACM – AIS Base Station Addressed Channel Management Command
ACS – AIS Channel Management Information Source
ADS – Automatic Device Status
AFB – AtoN Forced Broadcast Command
AGA – AIS Base Station Broadcast of a Group Assignment Command
AID – AtoN Identification Configuration Command
AIR – AIS Interrogation Request
AKD – Acknowledge Detail Alarm Condition
ALA – Set Detail Alarm Condition
ALR – Set Alarm State
APB – Heading/Track Controller (Autopilot) Sentence "B"
ASN –AIS Base Station Broadcast of Assignment Command
BBM – AIS Broadcast Binary Message
BCG – Base Station Configuration, General Command
BCL – Base Station Configuration, Location Command
BEC – Bearing & Distance to Waypoint – Dead Reckoning
BOD – Bearing - Origin to Destination
BWC – Bearing & Distance to Waypoint – Great Circle
BWR – Bearing & Distance to Waypoint – Rhumb Line
BWW – Bearing – Waypoint to Waypoint
CBR – Configure Broadcast Rates for AIS AtoN Station Message Command
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CEK – Configure Encryption Key Command
COP – Configure the Operational Period, Command
CPC – Configure Parameter-code for UNIX Time Parameter (c)
CPD – Configure Parameter-code for Destination-identification Parameter (d)
CPG – Configure Parameter-code for the Sentence-Grouping Parameter (g)
CPN – Configure Parameter-code for the Line-count Parameter (n)
CPR – Configure Parameter-code for Relative (epoch / event) Time Parameter (r)
CPS – Configure Parameter-code for the Source-identification Parameter(s)
CPT – Configure Parameter-code for a Text-string Parameter (t)
CUR –- Water Current Layer
DBT – Depth Below Transducer
DDC – Display Dimming Control
DLM – Data Link Management Slot Allocations for Base Station Command
DOR – Door Status Detection
DSC – Digital Selective Calling Information
DSE – Expanded Digital Selective Calling
DSI – DSC Transponder Initialize
DSR – DSC Transponder Response
DTM – Datum Reference
ECB – Configure Broadcast Schedules for Base Station Messages, Command
ETL – Engine Telegraph Operation Status
EVE – General Event Message
FIR – Fire Detection
FSR – Frame Summary of AIS Reception
GBS– GNSS Satellite Fault Detection
GEN – Generic Binary Information
GFA - GNSS Fix Accuracy and Integrity
GGA – Global Positioning System Fix Data
GLC – Geographic Position – Loran-C
GLL – Geographic Position – Latitude/Longitude
GMP – GNSS Map Projection Fix Data
GNS – GNSS Fix Data
GRS – GNSS Range Residuals
GSV – GNSS Satellites In View
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HDG – Heading, Deviation & Variation
HDT – Heading, True
HMR – Heading Monitor Receive
HMS – Heading Monitor Set
HSS – Hull Stress Surveillance Systems
HTC – Heading/Track Control Command
HTD – Heading/Track Control Data
LCD – Loran-C Signal Data
LRF – AIS Long-Range Function
LRI – AIS Long-Range Interrogation
LR1 – AIS Long-range Reply Sentence 1
LR2 – AIS Long-range Reply Sentence 2
LR3 – AIS Long-range Reply Sentence 3
MEB – Message Input for Broadcast, Command
MLA – GLONASS Almanac Data
MSK – MSK Receiver Interface Command
MSS – MSK Receiver Signal
MTW Water Temperature
MWD Wind Direction & Speed
MWV Wind Speed & Angle
NAK Negative Acknowledgement
NRM – NAVTEX Receiver Mask Command
NRX – NAVTEX Received Message
OSD – Own Ship Data
POS - Device Position and Ship Dimensions Report or Configuration Command
PRC – Propulsion Remote Control Status
RMA – Recommended Minimum Specific Loran-C Data
RMB – Recommended Minimum Navigation Information
RMC – Recommended Minimum Specific GNSS Data
ROR – Rudder Order Status
ROT – Rate Of Turn
RPM – Revolutions
RSA – Rudder Sensor Angle
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
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RSD – Radar System Data
RST – Equipment Reset Command
RTE – Routes RTE – Routes
SFI – Scanning Frequency Information Status and Command
SID – Set an Equipment’s Identification and Command
SPO – Select AIS Device’s Processing and Output, Command
SSD – AIS Ship Static Data
STN – Multiple Data ID
TBR – TAG Block Report Request
TBS – TAG Block Listener Source-identification Configuration Command
TFR – Transmit Feed-Back Report
THS – True Heading and Status
TLB – Target Label
TLL – Target Latitude and Longitude
TPC – Transmit Slot Prohibit, Command
TRC – Thruster Control Data
TRD – Thruster Response Data
TSA – Transmit Slot Assignment
TSP – Temporary Transmit Slot Prohibit
TSR – Transmit Slot Prohibit Status Report
TTD – Tracked Target Data
TTM – Tracked Target Message
TUT – Transmission of Multi-language Text
TXT – Text Transmission
UID – User Identification Code Transmission
VBW – Dual Ground/Water Speed
VDM – AIS VHF Data-link Message
VDO – AIS VHF Data-Link Own-Vessel Report
VDR – Set & Drift
VER – Version
VHW – Water Speed and Heading
VLW – Dual Ground/Water Distance
VPW – Speed – Measured Parallel to Wind
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
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VSD – AIS Voyage Static Data
VSI – VDL Signal Information
VTG – Course Over Ground & Ground Speed
WAT – Water Level Detection
WCV – Waypoint Closure Velocity
WNC – Distance – Waypoint to Waypoint
WPL – Waypoint Location
XDR – Transducer Measurements
XTR – Cross-Track Error – Dead Reckoning
ZDA – Time & Date
ZDL – Time & Distance to Variable Point
ZFO – UTC & Time from Origin Waypoint
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APPENDIX G: NMEA 0183 VERSION 4.10 SENTENCE TALKER IDENTIFIERS
TALKER DEVICE
Independent AIS Base Station
Dependent AIS Base Station
HEADING TRACK CONTROLLER (Autopilot): General
Magnetic
Mobile Class A or B AIS Station
AIS Aids to Navigation Station
AIS Receiving Station
AIS Station (ITU_R M1371, (“Limited Base Station’)
AIS Transmitting Station
AIS Simplex Repeater Station
Bilge Systems
Bridge Navigational Watch Alarm System
COMMUNICATIONS:
Digital Selective Calling (DSC)
Data Receiver
Satellite
Radio-Telephone (MF/HF)
Radio-Telephone (VHF)
Scanning Receiver
Direction Finder
Duplex Repeater Station
Electronic Chart System (ECS)
Electronic Chart Display & Information System (ECDIS)
Emergency Position Indicating Beacon (EPIRB)
Engine Room Monitoring Systems
Fire Door Controller/Monitoring Point
Fire Extinguisher System
Fire Detection Point
Fire Sprinkler System
Galileo Positioning System
GLONASS Receiver
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
Global Positioning System (GPS)
HEADING SENSORS:
Compass, Magnetic
Gyro, North Seeking
Fluxgate
Gyro, Non-North Seeking
Hull Door Controller/Monitoring Panel
Hull Stress Monitoring
Integrated Instrumentation
Integrated Navigation
Loran C
20140429 NMEA 0400 Installation Standard
V 4.00N DRAFT
IDENTIFIER
AB
AD
AG
AP
AI
AN
AR
AS
AT
AX
BI
BN
CD
CR
CS
CT
CV
CX
DF
DU
EC
EI
EP
ER
FD
FE
FR
FS
GA
GL
GN
GP
HC
HE
HF
HN
HD
HS
II
IN
LC
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2014 NMEA
TALKER DEVICE
Multiplexer
Navigation Light Controller
Proprietary Code
Radar and/or Radar Plotting
Propulsion Machinery Including Remote Control
Physical Shore AIS Station
Sounder, depth
Steering Gear/Steering Engine
Electronic Positioning System, other/general
Sounder, scanning
Turn Rate Indicator
Microprocessor Controller
(0 ≤ # ≤ 9) User configured talker identifier1
VELOCITY SENSORS:
Doppler, other/general
Speed Log, Water, Magnetic
Speed Log, Water Mechanical
Voyage Data Recorder
Watertight Door Controller/Monitoring Panel
Weather Instruments
Water Level Detection Systems
Transducer
TIMEKEEPERS, TIME/DATE:
Atomics Clock
Chronometer
Quartz
Radio Update
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MX
NL
P
RA
RC
SA
SD
SG
SN
SS
TI
UP
U# 1
VD
VM
VW
VR
WD
WI
WL
YX
ZA
ZC
ZQ
ZV
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APPENDIX H: NMEA 2000 PGN NUMBERS & DESCRIPTIONS
The following list contains all NMEA 2000 PGN’s as of XXX. Please check www.nmea.org for
the most up-to-date list as new PGNs are occasionally added to the NMEA 2000 standard.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
059392
ISO Acknowledgment
This message is provided by ISO 11783 for a handshake mechanism between transmitting and
receiving devices. This message is the possible response to acknowledge the reception of a
“normal broadcast” message or the response to a specific command to indicate compliance or
failure.
059904
ISO Request
As defined by ISO, this message has a data length of 3 bytes with no padding added to complete
the single frame. The appropriate response to this message is based on the PGN being requested,
and whether the receiver supports the requested PGN.
060160
ISO Transport Protocol, Data Transfer
ISO 11783 defines this PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for transmitting
messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN represents a single packet
of a multipacket message.
060416
ISO Transport Protocol, Connection Management - RTS group function
ISO 11783 defines this group function PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for
transmitting messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN’s role in the transport process is
determined by the group function value found in the first data byte of the PGN.
060416
ISO Transport Protocol, Connection Management - CTS group function
ISO 11783 defines this group function PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for
transmitting messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN’s role in the transport process is
determined by the group function value found in the first data byte of the PGN.
060416
ISO Transport Protocol, Connection Management - EOM group function
ISO 11783 defines this group function PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for
transmitting messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN’s role in the transport process is
determined by the group function value found in the first data byte of the PGN.
060416
ISO Transport Protocol, Connection Management - BAM group function
ISO 11783 defines this group function PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for
transmitting messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN’s role in the transport process is
determined by the group function value found in the first data byte of the PGN.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
060416
ISO Transport Protocol, Connection Management - Abort group function
ISO 11783 defines this group function PGN as part of the transport protocol method used for
transmitting messages that have 9 or more data bytes. This PGN’s role in the transport process is
determined by the group function value found in the first data byte of the PGN
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
060928
ISO Address Claim
This network management message is used to claim a network address and to respond with
device information (NAME) requested by the ISO Request or Complex Request Group Function.
This PGN contains several fields that are Request Parameters that can be used to control the
expected response to requests for this PGN.
065240
ISO Commanded Address
ISO 11783 defined this message to provide a mechanism for assigning a network address to a
node. The NAME information in the data portion of the message must match the name
information of the node whose network address is to be set.
126208
NMEA - Request group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126208
NMEA - Command group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126208
NMEA - Acknowledge group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126208
NMEA - Read Fields - group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126208
NMEA - Read Fields Reply - group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126208
NMEA - Write Fields - group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
126208
NMEA - Write Fields Reply - group function
The Request / Command / Acknowledge Group type of function is defined by first field. The
message will be a Request, Command, or Acknowledge Group Function.
126464
PGN List - Transmit PGNs group function
The PGN List group function type is defined by the first field. The message will be either a
Transmit PGNs or a Receive PGNs group function that identifies the PGNs transmitted from or
received by a node.
126464
PGN List - Received PGNs group function
The Transmit / Receive PGN List Group type of function is defined by first field. The message
will be a Transmit or Receive PGN List group function.
126983
Alert
This PGN is used to report the status of an alert.
126984
Alert Response
This PGN is used to control an active Alert.
126985
Alert Text
The Alert text PGN is used to convey identification and location text strings associated with
source of an Alert.
126986
Alert Configuration
This PGN is used to report the configuration of an alert.
126987
Alert Threshold
The Alert Threshold PGN is used to convey or program the trigger method and threshold level
associated with an Alert.
126988
Alert Value
The Alert Value PGN is used to convey the instantaneous value parameter directly linked with
an associated Alert.
126992
System Time
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a regular transmission of UTC time and date; optionally
synchronized to other parameter groups from the same source.
126996
Product Information
Provides product information onto the network that could be important for determining quality of
data coming from this product.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
126998
Configuration Information
Free-form alphanumeric fields describing the installation (e.g., starboard engine room location)
of the device and installation notes (e.g., calibration data).
127237
Heading/Track Control
Sends commands to, and receives data from, heading control systems. Allows for navigational
(remote) control of a heading control system and direct rudder control.
127245
Rudder
Rudder order command in direction or angle with current rudder angle reading.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
127250
Vessel Heading
Heading sensor value with a flag for True or Magnetic. If the sensor value is Magnetic, the
deviation field can be used to produce a Magnetic heading, and the variation
field can be used to correct the Magnetic heading to produce a True heading.
127251
Rate of Turn
Rate of Turn is the rate of change of the Heading.
127257
Attitude
This parameter group provides a single transmission that describes the position of a vessel
relative to both horizontal and vertical planes. This would typically be used for
vessel stabilization, vessel control and onboard platform stabilization.
127258
Magnetic Variation
Message for transmitting variation. The message contains a sequence number to allow
synchronization of other messages such as Heading or Course over Ground. The
quality of service and age of service are provided to enable recipients to determine an
appropriate level of service if multiple transmissions exist.
127488
Engine Parameters, Rapid Update
Provides data with a high update rate for a specific engine in a single frame message. The first
field provides information as to which engine.
127489
Engine Parameters, Dynamic
Used to provide real-time operational data and status relevant to a specific engine, indicated by
the engine instance field. This message would normally be broadcasted periodically to provide
information for instrumentation or control functions.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
127493
Transmission Parameters, Dynamic
Used to provide the operational state and internal operating parameters of a specific
transmission, indicated by the transmission instance field. This message would
normally be broadcasted periodically to provide information for instrumentation or control
functions.
127496
Trip Parameters, Vessel
Trip parameters relative to Vessel
127497
Trip Parameters, Engine
Engine related trip information.
127498
Engine Parameters, Static
Provides identification information and rated engine speed for the engine indicated by the engine
instance field. Used primarily by display devices.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
127500
Load Controller Connection State / Control
Broadcast the state and status of a Load Controller output/connection & control of the
output/connection with PGN 126208 Command Group Function.
127501
Binary Status Report
Universal status report for binary state devices in banks of up to 28 devices each.
127502
Switch Bank Control
Universal commands to multiple banks of two-state devices.
127503
AC Input Status -DEPRECATED
Any device with an AC Input may transmit this message.
127504
AC Output Status -DEPRECATED
Any device with an AC Output may transmit this message.
127505
Fluid Level
Fluid Level contains an instance number, type of fluid, level of fluid, and tank capacity. For
example the fluid instance may be the level of fuel in a tank or the level of water
in the bilge. Used primarily by display or instrumentation devices.
127506
DC Detailed Status
Provides parametric data for a specific battery, indicated by the battery instance field. Used
primarily by display or instrumentation devices, but may also be used by battery management
controls.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
127507
Charger Status
Any device capable of charging a battery may transmit this message.
127508
Battery Status
Provides parametric data for a specific DC Source, indicated by the instance field. The type of
DC Source can be identified from the DC Detailed Status PGN. Used primarily by display or
instrumentation devices, but may also be used by power management.
127509
Inverter Status
Any device capable of inverting a DC source to an SC output may transmit this message.
127510
Charger Configuration Status
Any device capable of charging a battery may transmit this message.
127511
Inverter Configuration Status
Any device capable of inverting DC to AC may transmit this message.
127512
AGS Configuration Status
Any device that is capable of starting/stopping a generator may transmit this message.
127513
Battery Configuration Status
Any device connected to a battery may transmit this message.
127514
AGS Status
Any device capable of starting/stopping a generator may transmit this message.
127744
AC Power / Current- Phase A
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase A AC Current / Power
status.
127745
AC Power / Current- Phase B
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase B AC Current / Power
status.
127746
AC Power / Current- Phase C
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase C AC Current / Power
status.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
127747
AC Voltage / Frequency-Phase A
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase A AC Voltage/ Frequency
status.
127748
AC Voltage / Frequency-Phase B
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase B AC Voltage/ Frequency
status.
127749
AC Voltage / Frequency-Phase C
The purpose of this PGN is to provide a common way to report Phase C AC Voltage/ Frequency
status.
127750
Converter (Inverter/Charger) Status
Provides both state and status information about a Charger, Inverter or combined Inverter /
Charger.
127751
DC Voltage / Current
Provides a common way to report and extended range of DC Voltage and DC Current status
including high voltage / high power systems
128259
Speed, Water Referenced
This parameter group provides a single transmission that describes the motion of a vessel.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
128267
Water Depth
Water depth relative to the transducer and offset of the measuring transducer. Positive offset
numbers provide the distance from the transducer to the waterline.
128275
Distance Log
This PGN provides the cumulative voyage distance traveled since the last reset. The distance is
tagged with the time and date of the distance measurement.
128520
Tracked Target Data
Message for reporting status and target data from tracking radar external devices.
129025
Position, Rapid Update
This PGN provides latitude and longitude referenced to WGS84. Being defined as single frame
message, as opposed to other PGNs that include latitude and longitude and are defined as fast or
multi-packet, this PGN lends itself to being transmitted more frequently without using up
excessive bandwidth on the bus for the benefit of receiving equipment that may require rapid
position updates.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129026
COG & SOG, Rapid Update
This parameter group is a single frame parameter group that provides Course Over Ground
(COG) and Speed Over Ground (SOG).
129027
Position Delta, High Precision Rapid Update
The "Position Delta, High Precision Rapid Update" Parameter Group is intended for applications
where very high precision and very fast update rates are needed for
position data. This PGN can provide delta position changes down to 1 millimeter with a delta
time period accurate to 5 milliseconds.
129028
Altitude Delta, High Precision Rapid Update
The "Altitude Delta, High Precision Rapid Update" Parameter Group is intended for applications
where very high precision and very fast update rates are needed for
altitude and course over ground data. This PGN can provide delta altitude changes down to 1
millimeter, a change in direction as small as 0.0057 degrees, and with a delta
time period accurate to 5 milliseconds.
129029
GNSS Position Data
This parameter group conveys a comprehensive set of Global Navigation Satellite System
(GNSS) parameters, including position information.
129033
Local Time Offset
This parameter group has a single transmission that provides: UTC time, UTC Date and Local
Offset Datum Local geodetic datum and datum offsets from a reference
datum.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129038
AIS Class A Position Report
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Messages 1, 2, and 3
Position Reports, autonomous, assigned, and response to interrogation, respectively. An AIS
device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 1,2 or
3, or upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN (see ITU-R M.1371-1 for additional
information).
129039
AIS Class B Position Report
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 18 Standard
Class B Equipment Position Report. An AIS device may generate this parameter group either
upon receiving a VHF data link message 18, or upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN
(see ITU-R M.1371-1 for additional information).
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129040
AIS Class B Extended Position Report
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 19 Extended
Class B Equipment Position Report containing position and static information. An AIS device
may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 19, or upon
receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129041
AIS Aids to Navigation (AtoN) Report
This PGN provides information received from an AtoN AIS station conforming to ITU-R
M.1371-4 Message 21.
129044
Datum
This parameter group is used to define the datum to which a position location output by the same
device in other PGNs is referenced.
129045
User Datum Settings
Transformation parameters for converting from WGS-84 to other Datums.
129283
Cross Track Error
This parameter group provides the magnitude of position error perpendicular to the desired
course.
129284
Navigation Data
This parameter group provides essential navigation data for following a route. Transmissions
will originate from products that can create and manage routes using waypoints. This
information is intended for navigational repeaters.
129285
Navigation - Route/WP information
This parameter group returns Route and WP data ahead in the Active Route. It can be requested
or may be transmitted without a request, typically at each Waypoint advance.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129291
Set & Drift, Rapid Update
The Set and Drift effect on the Vessel is the direction and the speed of a current.
129301
Time to/from Mark
Time to go to or elapsed from a generic mark, that may be non-fixed. The mark is not generally a
specific geographic point but may vary continuously and is most often determined by calculation
(the recommended turning or tacking point for sailing vessels, the wheel-over point for vessels
making turns, a predicted collision point, etc.)
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129302
Bearing and Distance between two Marks
Bearing and distance from the origin mark to the destination mark, calculated at the origin mark,
for any two arbitrary generic marks. The calculation type (Rhumb Line, Great Circle) is
specified, as well as the bearing reference (Mag, True).
129538
GNSS Control Status
GNSS common satellite receiver parameter status
129539
GNSS DOPs
This PGN provides a single transmission containing GNSS status and dilution of precision
components (DOP) that indicate the contribution of satellite geometry to the
overall positioning error. There are three DOP parameters reported, horizontal (HDOP), Vertical
(VDOP) and time (TDOP).
129540
GNSS Sats in View
GNSS information on current satellites in view tagged by sequence ID. Information includes
PRN, elevation, azimuth, SNR, defines the number of satellites; defines the satellite number and
the information.
129541
GPS Almanac Data
This parameter group provides a single transmission that contains relevant almanac data for GPS
products. The almanac contains satellite vehicle course orbital parameters. This information is
not considered precise and is only valid for several months at a time. GPS products receive
almanac data directly from the satellites. This information would either be transmitted to and
from GPS products for update, or system interrogation.
129542
GNSS Pseudorange Noise Statistics
GNSS pseudorange measurement noise statistics can be translated in the position domain in
order to give statistical measures of the quality of the position solution. Intended for use with a
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) application.
129545
GNSS RAIM Output
This parameter group is used to provide the output from a GNSS Receiver's Receiver
Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) process. The Integrity field value is based upon the
parameters set in PGN 130059 GNS RAIM Settings.
PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129546
GNSS RAIM Settings
This PGN is used to report the control parameters for a GNSS Receiver Autonomous Integrity
Monitoring (RAIM) process.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129547
GNSS Pseudorange Error Statistics
This parameter group is used to support Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM).
Pseudorange measurement error statistics can be translated in the position domain in order to
give statistical measures of the quality of the position solution.
129549
DGNSS Corrections
This PGN provides a means to pass differential GNSS corrections between NMEA devices.
Passing DGNSS data this way allows for more flexibility than traditional methods. One
differential correction receiver could supply multiple GNSS receivers. Multiple differential
correction receivers or data streams could be connected to a GNSS receiver allowing for network
DGNSS approaches. This PGN can accommodate DGPS and DGLONASS corrections.
129550
GNSS Differential Correction Receiver Interface
GNSS common differential correction receiver parameter status.
129551
GNSS Differential Correction Receiver Signal
GNSS differential correction receiver status tagged by sequence ID. Status information includes
frequency, SNR, and use as a correction source.
129556
GLONASS Almanac Data
This PGN provides a single transmission that contains relevant almanac data for Glonass
products. The almanac contains satellite vehicle course orbital parameters. This information is
not considered precise and is only valid for several months at a time. Glonass products receive
almanac data directly from the satellites. This information would either be transmitted to and
from Glonass products for update, or system interrogation.
129792
AIS DGNSS Broadcast Binary Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 17 GNSS
Broadcast Binary Message containing DGNSS corrections from a base station. An AIS device
may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 17, or upon
receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN (see ITU-R M.1371-1 for additional information).
129793
AIS UTC and Date Report
This parameter group provides data from ITU-R M.1371 message 4 Base Station Report
providing position, time, date, and current slot number of a base station, and 11 UTC and date
response message providing current UTC and date if available. An AIS device may generate this
parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 4 or 11, or upon receipt of an
ISO or NMEA request PGN.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129794
AIS Class A Static and Voyage Related Data
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 5 Ship Static
and Voyage Related Data Message. An AIS device may generate this parameter group either
upon receiving a VHF data link message 5, or upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129795
AIS Addressed Binary Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 6 Addressed
Binary Message supporting address communication of binary data. An AIS device may generate
this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 6, or upon receipt of an ISO
or NMEA request PGN.
129796
AIS Acknowledge
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Messages 7 Binary
Acknowledge Message and 13 Safety Related Acknowledge Message. Message 7 acknowledges
receipt of message 6 while message 13 acknowledges receipt of message 14. An AIS device may
generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 7 or 13, or upon
receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129797
AIS Binary Broadcast Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 8 Binary
Broadcast Message supporting broadcast communication of binary data. An AIS device may
generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 8, or upon receipt
of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129798
AIS SAR Aircraft Position Report
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 9 SAR Aircraft
Position Report Message for Airborne AIS units conducting Search and Rescue operations. An
AIS device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 9,
or upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request.
129799
Radio Frequency/Mode/Power
This PGN provides status and control for a Radiotelephone, connected to a NMEA network. The
Radiotelephone will transmit and receive status along with remote control and repeater products.
129800
AIS UTC/Date Inquiry
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 10 UTC and
Date Inquiry Message used to request current UTC and date. An AIS device may generate this
parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 10, or AIS Addressed Safety
Related Message.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129801
AIS Addressed Safety Related Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 12 Addressed
Safety Related Message supporting addressed communication of safety related data. An AIS
device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 12, or
upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129802
AIS Safety Related Broadcast Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 14 Safety
Related Broadcast Message supporting broadcast communication of safety related data. An AIS
device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 14, or
upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129803
AIS Interrogation
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 15 Interrogation
Message used to request a specific ITU-R M.1371 message resulting in responses from one or
more AIS mobile units. An AIS device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving
a VHF data link message 15, or upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129804
AIS Assignment Mode Command
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 16 Assigned
Mode Command Message for assigning specific behavior by a competent authority. An AIS
device may generate this parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 16, or
upon receipt of an ISO or NMEA request PGN.
129805
AIS Data Link Management Message
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 20 Data Link
Management Message for reserving slots for base stations. An AIS device may generate this
parameter group either upon receiving a VHF data link message 20, or upon receipt of an ISO or
NMEA request PGN.
129806
AIS Channel Management
This parameter group provides data associated with the ITU-R M.1371 Message 22 Channel
Management Message supporting management of transceiver modes and channels by a base
station.
129807
AIS Group Assignment
The Group Assignment Command is transmitted by a base station when operating as a
controlling entity for AIS Stations.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
129808
DSC Call Information
This parameter group provides Digital Selective Calling (DSC) data according to ITU M.493-9
with optional expansion according to ITU M.821-1. DSC is a paging system that is used to
automate distress alerts sent over terrestrial communication systems such as VHF, MF and HF
marine radio systems. DSC provides a mechanism to report significantly more information
regarding a distress call rather than just the distress itself. Products equipped with DSC will
transmit and receive this information.
129809
AIS Class B "CS" Static Data Report, Part A
This parameter group is used by Class B "CS" ship borne mobile equipment each time Part A of
ITU-R M.1372 Message 24 is received.
129810
AIS Class B "CS" Static Data Report, Part B
This parameter group is used by Class B "CS" ship borne mobile equipment each time Part B of
ITU-R M.1372 Message 24 is received.
130052
Loran-C TD Data
This provides Time Difference (TD) lines of position of Loran-C signals relative to a single
Group Repetition Interval.
130053
Loran-C Range Data
This provides Propagation times (Ranges) of Loran-C signals relative to a single Group
Repetition Interval.
130054
Loran-C Signal Data
SNR, ECD, and ASF values of Loran-C signals
130060
Label
The Label PGN is used to set and retrieve a text label assigned to a particular device or a
particular hardware resource within a particular device. The Label PGN supports multiplechannel devices.
130061
Channel Source Configuration
The Channel Source Configuration parameter group is used to identify data sources that a device
receives from the NMEA network to satisfy device operational requirements. For example, if a
device stores the vessel location any time an event monitored by the device occurs, and there are
more than one GPS device aboard the vessel, this parameter group may be used to report and
also command which GPS is used/to use by the device. An example may be a MOB sensor.
130064
Route and WP Service - Database List
Complex request for this PGN should return a list of Databases in which a navigation Device
organizes its Routes and WPs. A Database may contain one WP-List and multiple Routes.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
130065
Route and WP Service - Route List
Complex request for this PGN should return a list of Routes in a Database.
130066
Route and WP Service - Route/WP-List Attributes
Complex request for this PGN should return the attributes of a Route or the WP-List.
130067
Route and WP Service - Route - WP Name & Position
Complex request of this PGN should return the Waypoints belonging to a Route.
130068
Route and WP Service - Route - WP Name
Complex request of this PGN should return the Waypoints belonging to a Route.
130069
Route and WP Service - XTE Limit & Navigation Method
Complex request of this PGN will return XTE Limit and/or Navigation Method specific to
individual legs of a Route.
130070
Route and WP Service - WP Comment
Complex request of this PGN should return supplementary Comments attached to Waypoints in
a Route or a WP-List.
130071
Route and WP Service - Route Comment
Complex request of this PGN should return supplementary Comments attached to Routes.
130072
Route and WP Service - Database Comment
Complex request of this PGN should return supplementary Comments attached to Databases in
the navigation Device.
130073
Route and WP Service - Radius of Turn
Complex request of this PGN should return the Radius of Turn at specific Waypoints of a Route.
130074
Route and WP Service - WP List - WP Name & Position
Complex request of this PGN should return the Waypoints of a WP-List.
130306
Wind Data
Direction and speed of Wind. True wind can be referenced to the vessel or to the ground. The
Apparent Wind is what is felt standing on the (moving) ship, I.e., the wind measured by the
typical mast head instruments. The boat referenced true wind is given by the vector sum of
Apparent wind and vessel's heading and speed though the water. The ground referenced true
wind is given by the vector sum of Apparent wind and vessel's heading and speed over ground.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
130310
Environmental Parameters - DEPRECATED
Local atmospheric environmental conditions. This PGN has been deprecated. Specific PGNs
130316 Temperature, 130313 Relative Humidity, 130314 Actual Pressure, 130315 Set Pressure
shall be used.
130311
Environmental Parameters- DEPRECATED
This PGN has been deprecated. Specific PGNs 130316 Temperature, 130313 Relative Humidity,
130314 Actual Pressure, 130315 Set Pressure shall be used.
130312
Temperature - DEPRECATED
Temperature as measured by a specific temperature source. This PGN has been deprecated.
Please use PGN 130316 (Temperature-Extended Range) for all new designs.
130313
Humidity
Humidity as measured by a specific humidity source.
130314
Actual Pressure
Pressure as measured by a specific pressure source
130315
Set Pressure
This parameter group can be sent to a device that controls pressure to change its targeted
pressure, or it can be sent out by the control device to indicate its current targeted pressure.
130316
Temperature, Extended Range
This parameter group is used to report a wide variety of temperature measurements.
130320
Tide Station Data
Tide station measurement data including station location, numeric identifier, and name.
130321
Salinity Station Data
Salinity station measurement data including station location, numeric identifier, and name.
130322
Current Station Data
Current station measurement data including station location, numeric identifier, and name.
130323
Meteorological Station Data
Meteorological station measurement data including station location, numeric identifier, and
name.
130324
Moored Buoy Station Data
Moored buoy measurement data including station location and numeric identifier.
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PGN #
PGN Name & Description
130560
Payload Mass
The Payload Mass parameter group is used to transmit the mass associated with vessel payloads.
Applications for this PGN vary from recreational to commercial use. This may include, but is
not limited to weighing fish, or weighing cargo .
130576
Trim Tab Status
Provides data on various small craft control surfaces and speed through the water. Used
primarily by display or instrumentation.
130577
Direction Data
The purpose of this PGN is to group three fundamental vectors related to vessel motion, speed
and heading referenced to the water, speed and course referenced to ground and current speed
and flow direction.
130578
Vessel Speed Components
This PGN provides a single transmission that accurately describes the speed of a vessel by
component vectors.
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APPENDIX I VHF / GPS/ DSC NMEA 0183 WIRING INFORMATION
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APPENDIX J: INDEX
1
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 13
1.1
Purpose and Scope ............................................................................................................ 13
1.1.1
Disclaimer ......................................................................................................................... 13
1.1.2
Local Regulations ............................................................................................................. 14
1.2
References ......................................................................................................................... 14
1.2.1
Normative References ....................................................................................................... 14
1.2.2
Informative References ..................................................................................................... 15
1.3
Comments and Corrections ............................................................................................... 16
2
AC and DC Wiring installation......................................................................................... 19
2.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 19
2.1.1
Existing Capacity .............................................................................................................. 19
2.1.2
New Electronic Device Load Requirements ..................................................................... 19
2.1.3
Existing Distribution Panel Capacity ................................................................................ 20
2.1.4
Sub-panels ......................................................................................................................... 20
2.1.5
Wiring and Panel Marking ................................................................................................ 20
2.1.6
Wiring System Documentation ......................................................................................... 21
2.1.7
AC and DC Conductor Designations ................................................................................ 21
2.2
Equipment Wiring Requirements ..................................................................................... 22
2.2.1
Wire Gauge ....................................................................................................................... 22
2.2.2
Connections and Terminations ......................................................................................... 22
2.3
Distribution Panels ............................................................................................................ 23
2.3.1
Capacity ............................................................................................................................ 23
2.3.2
Voltmeters ......................................................................................................................... 23
2.3.3
Multiple Voltages.............................................................................................................. 23
2.4
Ignition Protection ............................................................................................................ 23
2.5
Example Wiring Diagrams ............................................................................................... 24
2.5.1
Electronics Power from Main Distribution ....................................................................... 24
2.5.2
Electronics Power from Sub-panel ................................................................................... 24
2.5.3
DC Load Testing ............................................................................................................... 25
3
Grounding, Bonding, and Lightning Protection ............................................................... 26
3.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 26
3.1.1
Grounding Systems ........................................................................................................... 26
3.1.2
Electronic Equipment and Display Grounding ................................................................. 28
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3.1.3
Electrical Equipment Grounding ...................................................................................... 28
3.1.4
MF/HF SSB ...................................................................................................................... 28
3.1.5
Metal Structures ................................................................................................................ 28
3.1.6
Marking and Color ............................................................................................................ 29
3.2
RF Ground System ............................................................................................................ 29
3.3
DC Common Grounding System ...................................................................................... 29
3.3.1
DC Common Grounding Connections .............................................................................. 30
3.3.2
Types of Corrosion ........................................................................................................... 30
3.4
Lightning Ground System ................................................................................................. 31
3.4.1
Conductive and Inductive Strike Protection ..................................................................... 31
3.4.2
Direct Strike Protection..................................................................................................... 31
4
Battery installation ............................................................................................................ 32
4.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 32
4.1.1
Power Source for Electronics............................................................................................ 32
4.1.2
Emergency Communications Battery ............................................................................... 32
4.1.2.1 Emergency Communications Battery Capacity ................................................................ 33
4.1.3
Battery Construction ......................................................................................................... 33
4.1.4
Battery Capacity................................................................................................................ 34
4.2
Battery System Requirements ........................................................................................... 34
4.2.1
Voltage Monitoring ........................................................................................................... 34
4.2.2
Overcurrent Protection ...................................................................................................... 35
4.2.3
Access for Inspection and Maintenance ........................................................................... 35
4.2.4
Battery System Marking ................................................................................................... 35
4.3
Battery Installation and Connection.................................................................................. 36
5
Charging System installation ............................................................................................ 37
5.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 37
5.1.1
Charging Capacity ............................................................................................................ 37
5.1.1.1 Underway Charging .......................................................................................................... 37
5.1.1.2 AC Charging ..................................................................................................................... 38
5.2
Charging System Requirements ........................................................................................ 38
5.2.1
Ambient Conditions .......................................................................................................... 38
5.2.2
Functional Isolation .......................................................................................................... 38
5.2.2.1 Series Voltage Regulators ................................................................................................. 39
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5.2.2.2 Battery Combiners ............................................................................................................ 39
5.2.2.3 Battery Isolators ................................................................................................................ 40
5.2.3
AC Chargers...................................................................................................................... 41
5.2.4
Documentation .................................................................................................................. 41
5.3
Charging System Installation and Wiring ......................................................................... 41
5.3.1
Location ............................................................................................................................ 41
5.3.2
Ratings .............................................................................................................................. 41
6
Power Inverter installation ................................................................................................ 42
6.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 42
6.1.1
Power Inverter Types ........................................................................................................ 42
6.1.2
Selection and Sizing.......................................................................................................... 43
6.2
Power Inverter Installation................................................................................................ 43
7
COAXIAL CABLE installation........................................................................................ 44
7.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 44
7.1.1
Background ....................................................................................................................... 45
7.1.2
Length of Cables ............................................................................................................... 45
7.1.3
Equipment Connections .................................................................................................... 46
7.1.4
Extension of Cables .......................................................................................................... 46
7.2
Coaxial Cable Installation ................................................................................................. 46
7.2.1
Total Attenuation (Loss) ................................................................................................... 46
7.2.2
Cable Selection ................................................................................................................. 47
7.2.3
Connector Selection .......................................................................................................... 48
7.2.4
Cable Junctions ................................................................................................................. 49
7.2.5
Physical Installation .......................................................................................................... 49
7.3
Signal Loss Calculations ................................................................................................... 50
7.3.1
Calculation Method ........................................................................................................... 51
7.3.2
Loss Calculation Examples ............................................................................................... 53
7.3.2.1 Extending Cable to 52 Feet (16 Meters) Using RG8X ..................................................... 53
7.3.2.2 Extending Cable to 68 Feet (20.7 Meters) Using RG8X .................................................. 54
7.3.2.3 Extending Cable to 68 Feet (20.7 Meters) Using RG8U .................................................. 54
7.4
Connector Assembly ......................................................................................................... 55
7.4.1
Cable Stripping ................................................................................................................. 55
7.4.2
PL-259 Connector Installation .......................................................................................... 56
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7.4.3
BNC Connector Installation .............................................................................................. 58
7.4.4
TNC Connector Installation .............................................................................................. 59
7.4.5
F Connector Installation .................................................................................................... 60
7.4.6
Other Installation Methods ............................................................................................... 61
8
Data Interfacing- nmea 0183, nmea 2000, Ethernet ......................................................... 62
8.1
General Considerations ..................................................................................................... 62
8.1.1
Cable Routing and Labeling ............................................................................................. 62
8.1.1.1 Electromagnetic Interference ............................................................................................ 63
8.1.2
Documentation .................................................................................................................. 63
8.2
NMEA 0183 Interfacing & Wiring Requirements............................................................ 63
8.2.1
NMEA 0183-HS (High Speed) ......................................................................................... 64
8.2.2
RS-232 and RS-422 Overview.......................................................................................... 65
8.2.2.1 Data Transfer .................................................................................................................... 65
8.2.2.2 RS-232 66
8.2.2.3 RS-422 66
8.2.2.4 What are the other differences between RS-422 and RS-232? ......................................... 66
8.2.2.5 How do we tell if a circuit (a Communication Pair) is RS-422 or RS-232? ..................... 66
8.2.3
NMEA 0183 Circuit .......................................................................................................... 67
8.2.3.1 Talker Circuit .................................................................................................................... 68
8.2.3.2 Multiple Talker Circuits .................................................................................................... 68
8.2.4
Cable Requirements .......................................................................................................... 70
8.2.4.1 Maximum Operational Cable Length ............................................................................... 70
8.2.4.2 Cable Type ........................................................................................................................ 70
8.2.4.3 Connections....................................................................................................................... 70
8.2.4.4 Shielding 70
8.2.4.5 Color-Coding .................................................................................................................... 70
8.2.5
Power Requirements ......................................................................................................... 71
8.2.6
Interface between Versions, to NMEA 2000®, and to Other Devices .............................. 71
8.2.7
NMEA 0183 Setup ............................................................................................................ 71
8.2.8
NMEA 0183 Installation Testing ...................................................................................... 71
8.3
NMEA 2000® Interfacing & Wiring Requirements ......................................................... 72
8.3.1
General Requirements ....................................................................................................... 72
8.3.1.1 Device Power .................................................................................................................... 73
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8.3.2
Cable Requirements .......................................................................................................... 74
8.3.2.1 Cable Types ...................................................................................................................... 74
8.3.2.2 Maximum Operational Cable Length ............................................................................... 76
8.3.2.3 Connection Methods ......................................................................................................... 76
8.3.2.4 Shielding 77
8.3.2.5 Terminations ..................................................................................................................... 77
8.3.2.6 Color Coding..................................................................................................................... 78
8.3.2.7 Cable Installation .............................................................................................................. 79
8.3.3
Backbone Power Requirements ........................................................................................ 79
8.3.3.1 Minimum and Maximum Voltage .................................................................................... 80
8.3.3.2 Maximum Device Load .................................................................................................... 80
8.3.3.3 Backbone Power Source ................................................................................................... 81
8.3.3.4 Backbone Leg Power Connection ..................................................................................... 81
8.3.3.5 Backbone Leg Over-current Protection ............................................................................ 81
8.3.3.6 Redundant Power .............................................................................................................. 81
8.3.3.7 Common Network Reference ........................................................................................... 82
8.3.3.8 Isolated Power Supplies .................................................................................................... 82
8.3.4
Network Planning ............................................................................................................. 82
8.3.4.1 End-Powered Network ...................................................................................................... 83
8.3.4.2 Mid-Powered Network...................................................................................................... 84
8.3.4.3 Initial Voltage Drop Estimate ........................................................................................... 85
8.3.5
Advanced Network Planning ............................................................................................ 87
8.3.5.1 Detailed Segment Voltage Drop ....................................................................................... 87
8.3.5.2 Connecting Devices Drawing More Than 1 Amp ............................................................ 89
8.3.5.3 Other Considerations ........................................................................................................ 90
8.3.6
Example Calculations ....................................................................................................... 90
8.3.6.1 End-Powered Network Initial Estimate ............................................................................ 91
8.3.6.2 Mid-Powered Network Initial Estimate ............................................................................ 91
8.3.6.3 Mid-Powered Network Detailed Analysis ........................................................................ 92
8.3.7
Example Power Connections ............................................................................................ 93
8.3.7.1 Single Leg Backbone Power ............................................................................................. 94
8.3.7.2 Multiple Leg Backbone Power ......................................................................................... 95
8.3.7.3 Two Leg Backbone with Collocated Power Insertion Points ........................................... 96
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8.3.8
Interface to NMEA 0183 and Other Networks ................................................................. 97
8.3.9
General Test and Setup ..................................................................................................... 97
8.3.9.1 Instance Configuration ...................................................................................................... 98
8.3.9.2 Variations of parameter Instancing ................................................................................... 98
8.3.10 NMEA 2000 Installation Testing ...................................................................................... 99
8.4
Ethernet Network Interfacing Requirements .................................................................... 99
8.4.1
General Practices .............................................................................................................. 99
8.4.1.1 Generalized Topology..................................................................................................... 100
8.4.1.2 Multiple Protocols........................................................................................................... 100
8.4.2
Cabling ............................................................................................................................ 100
8.4.2.1 Maximum Operational Cable Length ............................................................................. 100
8.4.2.2 Cable Type ...................................................................................................................... 101
8.4.2.3 Connections..................................................................................................................... 101
8.4.2.4 Shielding 101
8.4.3
Connectors ...................................................................................................................... 102
8.4.3.1 Color Coding................................................................................................................... 102
8.4.3.2 Connector Assembly ....................................................................................................... 103
8.4.4
Power Requirements ....................................................................................................... 104
8.4.4.1 Power over Ethernet ........................................................................................................ 104
8.4.5
Ethernet Network Planning ............................................................................................. 104
8.4.5.1 Choosing Interconnection Devices ................................................................................. 105
8.4.5.2 Equipment Locations ...................................................................................................... 107
8.4.5.3 Multiple Ethernet Networks ............................................................................................ 107
8.4.5.4 Network Diagram............................................................................................................ 108
8.4.6
Advanced Network Planning .......................................................................................... 108
8.4.6.1 Internet Protocol Planning .............................................................................................. 108
8.4.6.2 IP Address Allocation ..................................................................................................... 110
8.4.6.3 Web-Based Configuration .............................................................................................. 111
8.4.6.4 Wireless Networks .......................................................................................................... 112
8.4.6.5 Other Considerations ...................................................................................................... 113
8.4.7
Ethernet Installation Testing ........................................................................................... 113
9
Antenna installation ........................................................................................................ 114
9.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 114
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9.1.1
Transmission Lines ......................................................................................................... 115
9.2
Installation Requirements ............................................................................................... 115
9.2.1
Arrangement ................................................................................................................... 115
9.2.1.1 Location 115
9.2.1.2 Minimum Spacing........................................................................................................... 115
9.2.2
Antenna Support ............................................................................................................. 117
9.2.2.1 Multipoint Mounting....................................................................................................... 117
9.2.3
Antenna Installation Testing ........................................................................................... 117
10
Display installations ........................................................................................................ 118
10.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 118
10.1.1 Visibility ......................................................................................................................... 118
10.1.2 Accessibility.................................................................................................................... 118
10.1.3 Touchscreen Displays ..................................................................................................... 119
10.1.4 Serviceability .................................................................................................................. 119
10.2
Installation....................................................................................................................... 119
10.2.1 Mounting ......................................................................................................................... 119
10.2.1.1
Flush Mount Display Installations .................................................................. 119
10.2.1.2
Bracket Mount Display Installations .............................................................. 121
10.2.1.3
Cored Construction ......................................................................................... 121
10.2.2 Environmental Protection ............................................................................................... 121
10.2.3 Cabinets and Enclosures ................................................................................................. 122
10.2.4 Marking ........................................................................................................................... 122
10.2.5 Display Installation Testing ............................................................................................ 122
11
Black box installations .................................................................................................... 123
11.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 123
11.2
Installation....................................................................................................................... 123
11.2.1 Mounting Location & Orientation .................................................................................. 123
11.2.2 Serviceability .................................................................................................................. 124
11.2.3 Environmental Protection ............................................................................................... 124
11.2.4 Cable Marking ................................................................................................................ 125
11.2.5 Black Box Installation Testing........................................................................................ 125
12
Transducer INSTALLATION ........................................................................................ 126
12.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 126
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12.1.1 Transducer Types and Construction ............................................................................... 126
12.1.2 Transducer Configurations.............................................................................................. 127
12.1.2.1
Transom Mount ............................................................................................... 127
12.1.2.2
Through-Hull .................................................................................................. 127
12.1.2.3
In-Hull Transducers ........................................................................................ 129
12.1.2.4
Commercial Tank Mount ................................................................................ 129
12.1.3 Transducer Selection ....................................................................................................... 130
12.1.3.1
Hull Thickness ................................................................................................ 131
12.1.3.2
Steel and Aluminum Hull Vessels .................................................................. 131
12.1.3.3
Vessel Speed ................................................................................................... 131
12.1.3.4
Transducer / Display Matching ....................................................................... 131
12.1.3.5
Non-penetrating Installations .......................................................................... 132
12.1.4 Transducer Location ....................................................................................................... 132
12.1.4.1
Transom Mount Transducers .......................................................................... 132
12.1.4.2
In-hull Transducers ......................................................................................... 133
12.1.4.3
Through-hull Transducers ............................................................................... 134
12.1.5 Dummy Plugs.................................................................................................................. 135
12.1.6 Anti-Fouling Paint .......................................................................................................... 135
12.2
Installation Requirements ............................................................................................... 135
12.2.1 Mounting ......................................................................................................................... 136
12.2.1.1
Transom Mount ............................................................................................... 136
12.2.1.2
In-hull Mount .................................................................................................. 136
12.2.1.3
Through-hull Mounts ...................................................................................... 136
12.2.1.4
Fairing Blocks ................................................................................................. 136
12.2.1.5
Cored Hull Construction ................................................................................. 137
12.2.2 Cable Routing ................................................................................................................. 138
12.2.2.1
Transom Cables .............................................................................................. 138
12.2.3 Fasteners and Sealing...................................................................................................... 138
12.2.4 Electrical ......................................................................................................................... 139
12.2.4.1
Frequency........................................................................................................ 139
12.2.4.2
Power .............................................................................................................. 139
12.2.4.3
Grounding ....................................................................................................... 139
12.3
Installation Procedures .................................................................................................... 139
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12.3.1 Dry Fitting Before Installation ........................................................................................ 139
12.3.2 Surface Preparation ......................................................................................................... 140
12.3.3 Sealing............................................................................................................................. 140
12.3.4 Final Assembly ............................................................................................................... 140
12.3.5 Checking for Leaks ......................................................................................................... 140
12.3.6 Transducer Installation Testing....................................................................................... 140
13
Compass INSTALLATION ............................................................................................ 142
13.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 142
13.1.1 Compass Safe Distance ................................................................................................... 142
13.1.2 Pre-Installation Testing ................................................................................................... 142
13.1.3 Compass Compensation .................................................................................................. 143
13.1.4 Compass Installation ....................................................................................................... 143
13.2
Magnetic Compass .......................................................................................................... 143
13.2.1 Location .......................................................................................................................... 143
13.2.2 Electrical Connections .................................................................................................... 143
13.3
Electronic Compass ........................................................................................................ 143
13.3.1 Location .......................................................................................................................... 144
13.3.2 Electrical Connections .................................................................................................... 144
13.3.3 Mounting ......................................................................................................................... 144
13.3.4 Calibration and Compensation ........................................................................................ 144
13.3.5 Compass Testing ............................................................................................................. 144
13.4
SATELLITE COMPASS (GNSS) INSTALLATION .................................................... 144
13.4.1 General Considerations ................................................................................................... 145
13.4.2 Compass Safe Distance ................................................................................................... 146
13.4.3 Testing............................................................................................................................. 146
13.4.4 Compass Compensation .................................................................................................. 146
13.4.5 Installation....................................................................................................................... 146
13.4.5.1
GNSS Compass............................................................................................... 146
13.4.5.2
Mounting Location.......................................................................................... 146
13.4.5.3
Mounting Orientation...................................................................................... 148
13.4.5.4
Mounting Options ........................................................................................... 148
13.4.5.5
Electrical Connections .................................................................................... 149
13.4.6 Calibration and Compensation ........................................................................................ 149
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13.4.7 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 149
13.4.7.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 149
13.4.7.2
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 149
13.5
Gyrocompass................................................................................................................... 150
13.5.1 Mounting Location.......................................................................................................... 150
13.5.2 Data Outputs ................................................................................................................... 150
13.5.3 Compass Installation Testing .......................................................................................... 151
14
RADAR INSTALLATION ............................................................................................ 152
14.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 152
14.1.1 Radiation ......................................................................................................................... 152
14.1.2 Location .......................................................................................................................... 153
14.1.2.1
14.2
Spacing............................................................................................................ 153
Radar Installation ............................................................................................................ 153
14.2.1 Mounting ......................................................................................................................... 153
14.2.2 Orientation ...................................................................................................................... 154
14.2.3 Processing Unit Installation ............................................................................................ 154
14.2.4 Cables .............................................................................................................................. 154
14.2.4.1
Cable Routing ................................................................................................. 154
14.2.4.2
Cable Extensions............................................................................................. 155
14.2.5 Interference ..................................................................................................................... 155
14.2.6 Calculating Radar Range ................................................................................................ 155
14.2.7 Radar Installation Testing ............................................................................................... 156
15
Autopilots........................................................................................................................ 157
15.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 157
15.2
Autopilot Component Installation................................................................................... 158
15.2.1 Control Head Installation ................................................................................................ 158
15.2.2 Course Computer Installation ......................................................................................... 158
15.2.3 Compass Installation ....................................................................................................... 158
15.2.4 Rudder Reference Unit Installation (RRU)..................................................................... 158
15.3
Autopilot Drive Types & Installations ............................................................................ 159
15.3.1 Installation Considerations.............................................................................................. 160
15.3.2 Hydraulic Drive Unit Installations .................................................................................. 160
15.3.2.1
Hoses ............................................................................................................... 161
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15.3.2.2
Fittings ............................................................................................................ 161
15.3.2.3
Isolation Valves .............................................................................................. 161
15.3.2.4
Check Valves .................................................................................................. 161
15.3.2.5
Fluid Types ..................................................................................................... 162
15.3.2.6
Independent Steering Systems ........................................................................ 162
15.3.2.7
Testing and Adjustments................................................................................. 162
15.3.2.8
Bleeding Air .................................................................................................... 162
15.3.2.9
System Integrity .............................................................................................. 162
15.3.2.10
Additional Notes ............................................................................................. 162
15.3.3 Mechanical Drive Unit Installation................................................................................. 163
15.3.3.1
Mounting ......................................................................................................... 163
15.3.3.2
Protective Covers ............................................................................................ 163
15.3.3.3
Accessibility.................................................................................................... 163
15.3.4 Autopilot Installation Testing ......................................................................................... 163
16
Electromagnetic Interference .......................................................................................... 164
16.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 164
16.2
Identification and Elimination of EMI Problems............................................................ 165
16.2.1 Identifying and Isolating the Interference Source ........................................................... 165
16.2.1.1
Tracking Radiated Emissions ......................................................................... 166
16.2.1.2
Tracking Conducted Emissions ...................................................................... 166
16.2.2 Techniques for Eliminating Interference Effects ............................................................ 166
16.2.2.1
Shielded Cables ............................................................................................... 166
16.2.2.2
Grounding ....................................................................................................... 166
16.2.2.3
Filters .............................................................................................................. 167
16.2.2.4
Ferrites ............................................................................................................ 167
16.2.2.5
Relocating Cable Runs .................................................................................... 167
16.2.2.6
Relocating Equipment Displays ...................................................................... 167
16.2.2.7
Relocating Antennas ....................................................................................... 167
17
VHF & SSB Radio Installation ....................................................................................... 168
17.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 168
17.1.1 Digital Selective Calling (DSC)...................................................................................... 168
17.1.2 Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) Number ...................................................... 168
17.1.3 DSC Interfacing to GPS via NMEA 0183 ...................................................................... 169
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17.1.4 DSC Interfacing to GPS via NMEA 2000 ...................................................................... 170
17.2
Prerequisite Equipment ................................................................................................... 170
17.3
VHF Radio Transceiver Installation Requirements ........................................................ 170
Power Source .............................................................................................................................. 171
17.3.1 Equipment Location ........................................................................................................ 171
17.3.2 VHF Transmission Line Requirements .......................................................................... 171
17.3.3 VHF Antenna Requirements ........................................................................................... 171
17.4
MF/HF SSB Transceiver Installation Requirements ...................................................... 173
17.4.1 General Requirements ..................................................................................................... 173
17.4.2 Equipment Locations ...................................................................................................... 174
17.4.3 SSB Transmission Line Requirements ........................................................................... 175
17.4.4 SSB Antenna Requirements ............................................................................................ 175
17.4.4.1
Lead-in Wire ................................................................................................... 175
17.4.4.2
Whip Antennas................................................................................................ 176
17.4.4.3
Backstay and Other Rigging Antennas ........................................................... 176
17.4.5 SSB Counterpoise (Ground) System .............................................................................. 179
17.4.5.1
Installation in Metal Hull Vessels ................................................................... 179
17.4.5.2
Non-metal Hull Vessels .................................................................................. 180
17.4.6 VHF & SSB Installation Testing .................................................................................... 182
18
Computer System Installation ......................................................................................... 183
18.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 183
18.1.1 Computer Types .............................................................................................................. 183
18.1.1.1
Rugged Marine Computer Device .................................................................. 183
18.1.1.2
Portable Computer Devices ............................................................................ 184
18.1.1.3
General Purpose Computer Devices ............................................................... 184
18.1.2 Selection and Application ............................................................................................... 184
18.2
Installation Requirements ............................................................................................... 185
18.2.1 Uninterruptible Power ..................................................................................................... 185
18.2.2 Interfaces ......................................................................................................................... 185
18.2.2.1
USB Universal Serial Bus ............................................................................... 186
18.2.2.2
USB Hubs ....................................................................................................... 187
18.2.3 Purpose-built Equipment Configuration ......................................................................... 188
18.2.3.1
Physical Access Control ................................................................................. 188
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18.2.3.2
Passwords ........................................................................................................ 188
18.2.3.3
Software Installation and Configuration ......................................................... 189
18.2.3.4
Data Backup .................................................................................................... 189
18.2.4 Documentation and Restoration ...................................................................................... 189
19
Automatic Identification Systems (AIS) Installation..................................................... 191
19.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 191
19.1.1 AIS Classes ..................................................................................................................... 191
19.1.2 AIS Installation Documentation ..................................................................................... 192
19.2
Installation Requirements ............................................................................................... 193
19.2.1 Antenna Location ............................................................................................................ 193
19.2.2 Power Source .................................................................................................................. 194
19.2.3 Equipment Location ........................................................................................................ 194
19.2.3.1
Pilot Plug......................................................................................................... 195
19.2.4 Data Interface .................................................................................................................. 195
19.2.5 Long-Range Option ........................................................................................................ 197
19.3
Configuration .................................................................................................................. 197
19.3.1 Vessel Data ..................................................................................................................... 197
19.3.2 Reference Point ............................................................................................................... 199
19.3.3 AIS Installation Testing .................................................................................................. 199
20
Satellite TV & Communications System installation ..................................................... 200
20.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 200
20.1.1 Satellite Dome Basics ..................................................................................................... 201
20.1.2 Satellite System Installation Documentation .................................................................. 202
20.2
Installation Requirements ............................................................................................... 203
20.2.1 Satellite Dome Location and Mounting .......................................................................... 203
20.2.2 Control Unit Installation ................................................................................................. 204
20.2.3 Satellite Communications System Grounding ................................................................ 205
20.2.4 Connections..................................................................................................................... 205
20.2.5 Satellite System Installation Testing............................................................................... 205
21
Security, Tracking, and Video / Camera Installation ...................................................... 206
21.1
Purpose and Scope .......................................................................................................... 206
21.2
Terminology.................................................................................................................... 206
21.3
Power .............................................................................................................................. 207
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21.3.1 Battery Backup................................................................................................................ 207
21.4
Equipment Installation Considerations ........................................................................... 207
21.4.1 Panel ................................................................................................................................ 207
21.5
Sensors ............................................................................................................................ 207
21.5.1 Sensors - Security Zones- Exterior ................................................................................. 208
21.5.2 Sensors - Security Zones- Interior .................................................................................. 208
21.6
Outputs ............................................................................................................................ 209
21.6.1 Outputs-Programming..................................................................................................... 210
21.7
Tracking Antenna............................................................................................................ 210
21.8
Users ............................................................................................................................... 212
21.9
Maritime Camera Systems .............................................................................................. 212
21.9.1 General Considerations ................................................................................................... 212
21.9.2 Installation Considerations.............................................................................................. 213
21.9.3 Camera Types ................................................................................................................. 213
21.9.4 Installation Location ....................................................................................................... 213
21.9.5 Cable Routing ................................................................................................................. 213
21.9.6 Camera Connection Diagrams ........................................................................................ 213
22
Test Criteria .................................................................................................................... 216
22.1
General Considerations ................................................................................................... 216
22.1.1 Commissioning Check-off .............................................................................................. 216
22.1.2 Test Procedure Overview ................................................................................................ 216
22.2
DC Load Tests ................................................................................................................ 218
22.2.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 218
22.2.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 218
22.2.2.1
Operation from Batteries................................................................................. 218
22.2.2.2
Charging and Underway Operation ................................................................ 218
22.3
NMEA Interfacing Testing ............................................................................................. 219
22.3.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 219
22.3.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 219
22.3.3 NMEA 0183 Setup and Testing ...................................................................................... 219
22.3.3.1
NMEA 2000® .................................................................................................. 220
22.3.3.2
NMEA 2000 Testing and Analysis: ................................................................ 220
22.3.3.3
NMEA 2000 Network Design and Documentation Tools : ............................ 221
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22.3.4 Ethernet Testing .............................................................................................................. 222
22.4
Antenna Installation Testing ........................................................................................... 222
22.4.1 GPS Receivers ................................................................................................................ 222
22.4.1.1
Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................... 222
22.4.1.2
Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................ 222
22.4.1.3
Main GPS Unit Dockside Testing................................................................... 222
22.4.1.4
Optional Differential Beacon Receiver Dockside Testing.............................. 223
22.4.1.5
Optional Differential Beacon Receiver Sea Trial Testing .............................. 223
22.4.1.6
Optional GNSS Augmentation Receiver (i.e.WAAS, EGNOS etc.) Dockside
Testing 223
22.4.2 Wind Instrument Antennas ............................................................................................. 224
22.4.2.1
Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................... 224
22.4.2.2
Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................ 224
22.4.2.3
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 224
22.5
Display Testing ............................................................................................................... 224
22.5.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 224
22.5.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 224
22.5.2.1
22.6
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 224
Black Box Testing........................................................................................................... 225
22.6.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 225
22.6.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 225
22.6.2.1
22.7
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 225
Transducer Testing.......................................................................................................... 225
22.7.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 225
22.7.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 225
22.7.2.1
Testing for Leaks ............................................................................................ 225
22.7.2.2
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 225
22.7.2.3
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 225
22.7.3 Sea Temperature Transducers ......................................................................................... 226
22.7.3.1
Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................... 226
22.7.3.2
Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................ 226
22.7.3.3
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 226
22.7.4 Speed Transducers .......................................................................................................... 226
22.7.4.1
Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................... 226
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22.7.4.2
Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................ 226
22.7.4.3
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 226
22.7.4.4
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 226
22.8
Compass Installation Testing .......................................................................................... 226
22.8.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 226
22.8.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 226
22.8.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 227
22.8.2.2
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 227
22.9
Radar Installation Testing ............................................................................................... 228
22.9.1 Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................................... 228
22.9.2 Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................................ 228
22.9.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 228
22.9.2.2
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 228
22.10 Autopilot Testing ............................................................................................................ 229
22.10.1
Test Criteria ...............................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.10.2
General Considerations ..............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.10.3
Autopilot Testing .......................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.10.3.1
Rudder Limit Settings ..................................................................................... 229
22.10.3.2
Recommended Test Equipment .........................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.10.3.3
Detailed Test Requirements ...............................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.10.3.4
Dockside Tests- Autopilot .............................................................................. 230
22.10.3.5
Sea Trial Testing- Autopilot ........................................................................... 230
22.11 SSB Radio Testing .......................................................................................................... 231
22.11.1
General Considerations ........................................................................................... 231
22.11.2
Recommended Test Equipment .............................................................................. 231
22.11.3
Detailed Test Requirements .................................................................................... 231
22.11.3.1
RF Power, Modulation and Power Consumption ........................................... 231
22.11.3.2
RF Balance/Impedance/Ground Current......................................................... 233
22.11.3.3
Voice Radio Check ......................................................................................... 234
22.11.3.4
DSC Radio Check ........................................................................................... 234
22.11.4
Dockside Testing .................................................................................................... 235
22.12 VHF Radio Testing ......................................................................................................... 236
22.12.1.1
Recommended Test Equipment ...................................................................... 236
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22.12.1.2
22.12.2
Detailed Test Requirements ............................................................................ 236
VHF Antenna Testing ............................................................................................. 237
22.12.2.1
RF Power and Power Consumption ................................................................ 237
22.12.2.2
Voice Radio Check ......................................................................................... 238
22.12.2.3
DSC Radio Check and Test Call ..................................................................... 238
22.12.2.4
Dockside Testing ...............................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
22.13 AIS Testing ..................................................................................................................... 239
22.13.1
Recommended Test Equipment .............................................................................. 239
22.13.2
Detailed AIS Test Requirements ............................................................................ 239
22.13.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 239
22.14 Satellite TV & Communications System Setup and Testing .......................................... 239
22.14.1
Recommended Test Equipment .............................................................................. 239
22.14.2
Detailed Test Requirements .................................................................................... 239
22.14.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 239
22.14.2.2
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 240
22.15 Satellite Telephone Installation Testing.......................................................................... 240
22.15.1
Recommended Test Equipment .............................................................................. 240
22.15.2
Detailed Test Requirements .................................................................................... 240
22.15.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 240
22.15.2.2
Sea Trial Testing ............................................................................................. 241
22.16 Cellular Telephone Installation Testing .......................................................................... 241
22.16.1
Recommended Test Equipment .............................................................................. 241
22.16.2
Detailed Test Requirements .................................................................................... 241
22.16.2.1
Dockside Testing ............................................................................................ 241
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APPENDIX K REVISION HISTORY
Version
Scope
Date
Number
1 March 2002
1 October 2004
Original
1.1
1 January 2006
2.0
1 December 2006
2.1
31 July 2008
3.0
February 2012
3.1
April 2014
DRAFT 2014
First edition.
Editorial reformatting and rewrite to improve
overall readability. Incorporated select ABYC
Standards as appendices.
Added new sections 8.4 Ethernet Network Wiring
Requirements, 17 VHF and SSB Radio
Transceivers, and 18 Computer System
Installation, Appendix E Commissioning
Checklist. Moved Section 3.3 SSB Ground
System to Section 17. Revised Section 8.3 NMEA
2000 Wiring Requirements to address equipment
and backbone power connections and improve
network planning readability. Resolved
miscellaneous errata received from the field.
Implemented as a Change Package. Added new
sections 4.1.2 Emergency Communication Battery,
19 Automatic Identification Systems, and 20
Satellite Communication Systems. No longer
published ABYC Standards as appendices.
Established new NMEA Standard identification
number (NMEA 0400). Added Revision History.
Added new appendix containing voltage drop
tables in English and Metric units. Revised Section
8.3 NMEA 2000® Wiring Requirements to provide
additional equipment and backbone power
alternatives and ensure harmonization with local
regulatory requirements. Added references to local
regulatory agencies to assure the compliance with
local standards.
Updated images based on new NMEA 2000
training materials and MEI Training Materials.
Major revision Draft.
End of NMEA 0400, Version 4.00, 2014
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