Download Why Do We Say That?

Document related concepts

Spanish grammar wikipedia , lookup

Pipil grammar wikipedia , lookup

Swedish grammar wikipedia , lookup

Yiddish grammar wikipedia , lookup

Malay grammar wikipedia , lookup

Latin syntax wikipedia , lookup

Germanic weak verb wikipedia , lookup

Classical compound wikipedia , lookup

Old Norse morphology wikipedia , lookup

Old English grammar wikipedia , lookup

Old Irish grammar wikipedia , lookup

Germanic strong verb wikipedia , lookup

Germanic umlaut wikipedia , lookup

Transcript
Welcome
Welcome
Why Do We
Say That?
The
The Indo-European
Indo-European Factor
Factor
IE: 4000-2500 B.C.
Inherited
Inherited Word
Word Stock
Stock
Indo-European vocabulary correspondences
English
German
Gothic
(Old Gmc)
Latin
Greek
night (OE
niht)
Nacht
nahts
eight (OE
eahta)
acht
ahtau
nox, noctis
octo≠
nyktós (G.)
okto≠
nák, naktam as˝t¸au
Old Indic
(Sanskrit)
Old Irish
-nocht
ocht
(Old) Welsh nos
oeth
Lithuanian
naktis
a£tuonì
Old Slavic
no£[email protected]
[email protected]
garden (OE
geard)
Garten
gards
‘house
hortus
xórtos
‘court’
grhá‘house’
gort
garth
‘enclosure’
gar~das
‘enclosure’
gradu`
guest (OE
giest)
Gast
gasts
meal (OE
melu)
mahlen
malan
hostis
molere
mane (OE
manu)
Mähne
mana
(OHG)
mon|le
‘neckband’
m¥llo≠
mrn˝a≠ti
melim
malu
mánya≠
‘neck’
muin ‘neck’
mwn ‘neck’
malù
[email protected]
meljoˆ
monisto
‘neckband’
Vowel
Vowel Gradation
Gradation ((Ablaut
Ablaut))
Indo-European made frequent use of vowel gradation
(Ablaut) to indicate tenses and various forms of words. Its
effects live on in the daughter languages and beyond.
From IE st(H)\-/st(H)a≠- ‘stand’:
Lat. sta≠re
OE standan, MnE stand (with present -n- infix)
Lat status, OE sto≠d, MnE stood (from perfect stem)
From PrGmc sta∂iz:
E stead, G Stadt, Statt, Stätte
Skt sthíti ‘(the act of) standing’
Lat statio≠, stationis, Gk stásis
OE sto≠d ‘group of animals, esp. for breeding’
> MnE stud, Ger Stute
Also E stall < Gmc sta∂laz; E stool, Ger Stuhl,
Rus stol ‘table’, Gk ste≠le≠ ‘column’
Possibly E stem, G Stamm
Zero grade -st-: nest
Vowel
Vowel Gradation
Gradation ((Ablaut
Ablaut))
Why do we say SING - SANG - SUNG or
WRITE - WROTE - WRITTEN?
Vowel
Vowel Gradation
Gradation ((Ablaut
Ablaut))
Indo-European vowel gradations were of two types
qualitative (e.g., a/o, a/e,)
quantitative (e.g., a/a≠, o/o≠, a/Ø that is, zero-grade)
Germanic retained the alternations very visibly in the
verb system, with original IE vowels changed slightly but
regularly in some instances. Gothic, the oldest Gmc language
for which we have extensive records, shows the most regular
pattern and is used to mirror the PrGmc situation. German and
English exhibit variations due to sound changes and
the effects of analogy.
Vowel
Vowel Gradation
Gradation ((Ablaut
Ablaut))
Traditional verb class I
PrGmc pres |
Gothic
steigan ‘rise’
OHG
tr|ban ‘drive’
OE
b|tan ‘bite’
pret1 ai
stáig
treib
ba≠t
pret2 i
stigum
tribun
biton
p.p. i
stigans
gitriban
biten
Traditional verb class II
PrGmc pres eu
Gothic kiusan
OHG
sliofan ‘slip’
OE
be≠odan ‘command’
pret1 au
kaus
slouf
be≠ad
pret2 u
kusum
sluffun
budon
p.p. u
kusans
gisloffan
boden
Vowel
Vowel Gradation
Gradation ((Ablaut
Ablaut))
Traditional verb class IV
PrGmc pres e
Gothic baíran (pron ‘e’)
OHG
stelan ‘steal’
OE
beran ‘bear’
pret1 a
bar
stal
bær
pret2 æ≠
be≠rum
sta≠lun
bæ≠ron
p.p. o
baúrans
gistolan
boren
Traditional verb class V
PrGmc pres e
Gothic qiπan
OHG
geban ‘give’
OE
metan ‘measure’
pret1 a
qaπ
gab
mæt
pret2 æ≠
qe≠πum
ga≠bun
mæ≠ton
p.p. e
qiπans
gigeban
meten
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-present verbs have past-tense (preterite)
forms for present-tense meanings. These verbs are
ancient, all the way from IE days.
In Germanic languages, as we have seen, preterite
tenses had two different vowel gradations. In OE:
OE singan: ic/he≠ song
I/he sang
πu≠ sunge (thou sangest)
we≠/ge≠/he≠o sungon
we/ye/they sang
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
In Germanic languages, preterite tenses had two
different vowel gradations:
OE singan: ic/he≠ song
I/he sang
πu≠ sunge (thou sangest)
we≠/ge≠/he≠o sungon
we/ye/they sang
The OE verb witan (to know) uses similar forms with
a present meaning:
OE witan: ic/he≠ wa≠t
I/he know(s)
orig.
‘I have seen’
πu≠ wite
we≠/ge≠/he≠o witon
we/ye/they know
PRESENT meaning !
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-present witan (to know) came from IE.
OE witan: wa≠t - witon know
Originally meant way back in IE ‘I have seen’, the
perfect (past) tense. If I have seen something, I
‘know’ it. In form it is thus past, but came to have a
present meaning.
It is related to Lat video≠, vide≠re ‘see’’!
Cf. also Russian vizhu, vidit, ‘I see, she sees’
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-presents are largely modal auxiliary verbs:
Eng can
OE can/cunnon G kann/können
shall
sceal/sculon
soll/sollen
may
mæg/magon
mag/mögen
will
wille/willa∂
will/wollen
must
mo≠t/mo≠ton
muss/müssen
(durst)
πearf/πurfon
darf/dürfen
OE (mostly) retained the two-vowel past tense system in
these ancient verbs (but of course with PRESENT meaning).
Modern German still does as well, but ONLY in the modal
verbs and wissen (OE witan).
MnE has leveled them out to one vowel only.
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
Modern English, by way of Middle English, has
ended up with just one vowel. In the case of witan,
we have the remains of the verb ‘to know’ in:
witless ‘having no sense, knowing nothing’
unwittingly ‘without knowing’
witness > OE witnes ‘knowledge; testimony’
witling ‘person of little wit’
dull-witted, dim-witted ‘weak in the knowledge
department’
Preterite-Presents
Preterite-Presents
More modern traces of witan ‘to know’:
nitwit ‘know-nothing’ (or ‘brain the size of a louse’s
egg’)
witty (formerly, ‘having great knowledge’)
wits (brains, knowledge)
at one’s wits’ end ‘not knowing what to do’’
to wit ‘so that you know’, for example
wittol (ME wetewold): an archaic term for a cuckold,
one who knows of his wife’s infidelity but does
nothing about it
More
More vowel
vowel gradation
gradation
Do these vowel gradations only show up
in verbs?
More
More vowel
vowel gradation
gradation
The IE Connection: not only verbs
fare
drive
Gk po≠s ‘foot’
ferry
drift
foot, Ger Fuß
wayfarer
in droves
Lat pe≠s, pedis
ford
pedal, podium,
firth
tripod; in fetters
Ties
Ties that
that bind:
bind: ProtoProtoGermanic
Germanic
Ties that bind:
Proto-Germanic
Development
Development of
of Germanic
Germanic
Proto-Gmc: 500 B.C. - 3C A.D.
PreGmc: 2500-500 B.C.
Germanic
Germanic Tribes
Tribes
Off to Merry Olde England!
(beginning around 400-450 A.D.)
IE
IE to
to Germanic
Germanic
How did the Germanic language family become different
from Indo-European? What kinds of factors made it a
different language family?
IE
IE to
to Germanic
Germanic
First Sound Shift: consonant changes:
IE bh, dh, gh > Gmc b≠, ∂, ©, later b, d, g in some positions
IE p, t, k > Gmc f, π, x (h initially)
IE b, d, g > Gmc p, t, k
Relatively complicated IE verb system simplified in Germanic to
present and past tenses only. (Compound tenses added later.)
Vowel changes:
IE o > Gmc a (L octo≠, Go ahtau)
IE a≠ > Gmc o≠ (L ma≠ter, OE mo≠dor)
Dental preterite (past tense formed by a t/d/π suffix) was a Gmc
innovation: origin of MnE -ed, now in the vast majority of our verbs
IE accent could be on any syllable; the accent became fixed on the
first syllable in Germanic
Some vocabulary not found in other IE languages
Germanic
Germanic Sound
Sound Shift
Shift
Examples of First Germanic Sound Shift
Separated Germanic from other IE branches
Germanic changes shown in red in chart
IE bh > L f, Gk ph
Gmc b
fra≠ter / brother
fiber / beaver
fra(n)go≠ / break
Gk pho≠gein / bake
IE/L/Gk p > Gmc f
pater / father
piscis / fish
portus / ford
pullus / foal
ped- / foot
pecu ‘cattle’ / fee
OE feoh
IE/L/Gk b > Gmc p
G kannabis / hemp
turba / thorp ‘town’
(IE b was very rare;
little evidence left
of it)
IE dh > L f, Gk th
Gmc d
fi(n)gere ‘mold’ /
dough (OE d|ge)
foris / door
Gk thygate≠r /
daughter
IE/L/Gk t > π
tre≠s / three
tu≠ / thou
tenuis / thin
tume≠re ‘swell’ /
thumb
tona≠re / thunder
IE/L/Gk d > Gmc t
duo≠ / two
dent- / tooth
doma≠re / tame
decem / ten
edere / eat
IE gh > L h, Gk ch
Gmc g
hostis / guest
hortus / geard
homo / OE guma
(cf. ME bridegome)
Gk chole≠ / gall
IE/L/Gk k > Gmc h
cornu≠ / horn
cord- / heart
quod / hwæt, what
cent- / hund-red
capere / heave,
have
canis / hound
IE/L/Gk g > Gmc k
genu / knee
ager ‘field’ / acre
genus / kin
G gyne≠ / queen
gra≠num / corn
Dental
Dental preterite
preterite
If we inherited a system of vowel
alternations from Indo-European, why do
we put -ed on most of our verbs to form
the past tense without changing the vowel
at all?
Dental
Dental preterite
preterite
Dental suffix to form past tense/past participle
Examples from Germanic languages
Gothic
OHG
OE
MnE
MnG
Dan
Ice
Infinitive / 3s past / past participle
nasjan/nasida/nasiπs ‘save’
haban/habáida/habáiπs ‘have’
nerien(nerren)/nerita/ginerit
habe≠n/habe≠ta/gihabe≠t
fremman/fremmede/fremed ‘perform’ habban/hæfde/hæfd
save/saved/saved have/had/had keep/kept/kept rip/ripped/ripped
retten/rettete/gerettet haben/hatte/gehabt
spise/spiste/spist ‘eat’ have/havde/haft bo/boede/boet ‘live, dwell’
dæma/dæmdi/dæmdur ‘deem’ hreyfa/hreyf∂i/hreyf∂ur ’move’
her∂i/herti/hertur ‘harden’
bor∂a/bor∂a∂i/bor∂a∂ur ‘eat
Fixed
Fixed Accent
Accent
Greek retained
IE movable accent:
Gmc (here OE) fixed
accent on first syllable:
Nom
Gen
Dat
Acc
Voc
pate≠r Sing.
patros
patri
patera
pater
N/D/A fæder Sing.
Gen fæder(es)
N/V
Gen
Dat
Acc
pateres Plur.
patero≠n
patrasi
pateras
N/A
Gen
Dat
fæderas Plur.
fædera
fæderum
This was to have dramatic
effects in Middle English.
Fixed
Fixed Accent
Accent
Compare these words from Old English, featuring full vowel values in
unstressed syllables, with their Middle English equivalents:
Old English
‘lame’
lama
‘go, fare’ faran, p.p. faren
‘stone’ sta≠nes (G), sta≠nas (pl)
‘falleth’ fealla∂
nacod
‘we made’ macodon
‘sure’ sicor
leng∂o
‘liquor’ medu
Middle English
la≠me
fa≠ren (both forms)
sto≠ˆnes*
falleth
na≠ked
ma≠keden
se≠ker
lengthe
me≠d
ˆ e
Unaccented vowels were leveled to the neutral -e.
*In Middle English, the final -s came to be a plural signal.
*It also retained its previous function of marking the genitive.
Verner’s
Verner’s Law
Law
Why do we say I WAS but YOU WERE?
Verner’s
Verner’s Law
Law
When the original IE accent FOLLOWED a syllable with
Gmc voiceless f, π, x and s were VOICED to b≠(v), ∂, g,
z (which by OE had become r).
Similar things happen in modern English and German.
Compare:
accent before
accent after causes voicing
MnE éxecute (ks)
exécutive (voiced to gz)
Ger
Hannoveráner (voiced to v)
Hannóver (f)
Verner’s
Verner’s Law
Law
IE,PrGmc:
Voiceless
Accent + f, π, x, s
cf.
Skt vavárta, OE wearπ
Voiced
b≠(v), ∂(d), g, z(r) + Accent
Skt vavrtimá, OE wurdon
Effects of Verner’s Law frequent in past tense plural and past participle of
verbs; accent used to be AFTER f, π, x, s in these forms:
OE fre≠osan ‘freeze’,
ce≠osan ‘choose’
se≠o∂an ‘seethe’
fle≠on ‘flee’
sn|∂an ‘cut’
fe≠olan ‘reach’
se≠on ‘see’
be≠on, wesan
PAST fre≠as / fruron
ce≠as / curon
se≠a∂ / sudon
fle≠ah / flugon
sna≠∂ / snidon
fealh / fulgon
seah / sæ≠gon
wæs / wæ≠ron
PP froren
coren
soden
flogen
sniden
fulgen
segen
Modern English has (sensibly?) eliminated all but was/were.
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
Why do we say stone-stones, friend-friends,
but
goose-GEESE, mouse-MICE, foot-FEET?
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
OE vowels
High
|, y≠
u≠
y, i
Front
u
e≠
o≠
e
o
æ
a≠
æ
Low
a
Back
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
In PreOE (PrGmc), base vowels are fronted (or just raised for æ>e)
if |, i or j (semivowel as in yes) were in the following syllable.
High
y≠
u≠
y
Front
u
e≠
o≠
e
o
æ
Back
a≠
æ
a
Low
The vocal organs anticipate the high front position of |, i or j .
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
The effects of the earlier |, i or j remain by evidence of the
changed stem vowel. The mutation factor is usually lost by the
time of OE, appearing to be an exception unless you look back
earlier. The umlaut factor often caused doubling of the consonant
before disappearing, an additional ghost of its former presence.
Gothic, for instance, shows us the closest information we have to
Proto-Germanic:
Gothic example
Old Engl/Modern Engl reflex
(vowel unmutated)
(showing mutated vowel)
certain verb classes
nas-j-an ‘save’
sat-j-an ‘set, cause to sit’
at-j-an
haf-j-an
comparative & superlative
suffixes: -iz-, -ist- (alπiza)
but no umlaut if -o≠z-, -o≠st-
nerian
set (from past tense), OE settan
etch (‘eat away at’), Ger ätzen
OE hebban, MnE heave
old,elder,eldest; < eald,ieldra,ieldesta
sceort, sciertra, sciertesta BUT:
fægen, fægenra, fægnosta ‘fain, glad’
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
Gothic example
(vowel unmutated)
Old Engl/Modern Engl reflex
(showing mutated vowel)
certain noun classes
cf. PGmc *bo≠k, pl. *bo≠kiz
fo≠tus, fo≠tjus (PGmc pl *fo≠tiz)
mouse/mice, louse/lice
(OE mu≠s > pl. my≠s > m|s > mice)
goose/geese, foot/feet
Umlaut is essentially inactive in modern English. Its remains are
viewed as “irregularities” now.
As a side note, modern Icelandic is in contrast to English so
conservative that it has retained full case inflections from ON.
Phonological processes like umlaut remain very much alive to this
day. These nouns, for instance, alternate 2 or even 3 vowels:
‘tooth’ NGA tönn, G tannar; (pl.) NA tennur, G tanna, D tönnum
‘foot’ N fótur, G fótar, D fæti, A fót; (pl.) NA fætur, G fóta, D fótum
Mutating
Mutating Vowels!
Vowels!
In summary, the combination of original ablaut (vowel gradation) from
Indo-European and the effects of umlaut factors (i-, u-, w-mutation and
some other factors)--plus a few later developments having to do with
syllable structure--all serve to create the vowel alternations we see today
in various word families.
broad/breadth (OE bra≠d!)
long/length
wide/width
fall, fell, fallen; to fell a tree
heave, hove; have; heft, hefty
give, gave, given; gift
etc. etc. etc.
Alliteration
Alliteration ((Stabreim)
Stabreim)
Why do we say things like
FRIEND or FOE?
Alliteration
Alliteration ((Stabreim)
Stabreim)
In Old Germanic oral tradition, alliteration
(Ger. Stabreim), or repetition of initial
sounds in successive words, was common
instead of rhyme as we think of it.
Alliteration served:
As a memory aid
For dramatic effect, emphasis on
important words
Alliteration
Alliteration ((Stabreim)
Stabreim)
An example from Beowulf (translation by Seamus Heaney):
Ongeat πa≠ se go≠da grund-wyrgenne,
mere-w|f mihtig; mægen-ræ≠s forgeaf
hilde-bille, hond sweng ne ofte≠ah
πæt hire on hafelan hring-mæ≠l a≠go≠l
græ≠dig gu≠∂-le≠o∂. (...)
The hero observed that swamp-thing from hell,
the tarn-hag in all her terrible strength,
then heaved his war-sword and swung his arm:
the decorated blade came down ringing
and singing on her head. (...)
Alliteration
Alliteration ((Stabreim)
Stabreim)
The mindset of Germanic alliteration survives in many
alliterative pairs, some of which are modern formations:
kith and kin
time and tide
friend or foe
rough and ready
with heart and hand
wind and weather
life and limb
down and dirty
bed and breakfast
rest and relaxation
tried and true
now or never
live and learn
hippety-hop
house and home
vim and vigor
no rhyme or reason
hale and hearty
come hell or high water
Word
Word Order
Order
Why do we hear things in strange orders
in nursery rhymes that we’d never say
normally? You know, like
A merry old soul was he.
and
Then came his fiddlers three.
Word
Word Order
Order
Although Subj-Vb-Obj was a typical word order in Gmc.,
and very much so already in Old English, placing
another element first was common, especially since the
inflections indicated grammatical function. The verb
then usually remained second if for instance an adverb
came first:
˜a≠ clipode he≠ and cwæ∂ ...
Then called he and said ...
(MnE: Then he cried out, saying) ...
Word
Word Order
Order
Modern English retains the V-S inversion only in a few
fixed expressions:
“Give me wine!” said he. (Old King Cole?)
Little did we know that a cliff lay ahead.
Not only was she rich, but she was also smart.
Never would I presume!
No sooner had he said it ...
Otherwise, the S-V order prevails. Modern English, with
no inflections, relies solely on word order to indicate
grammar function.
Soon they saw a clearing ahead.
“Give me some wine!” he said.
Word
Word Order
Order
The V-S inversion was also typical in older English for
questions with question words:
Hu≠ clypode A±beles blo≠d to≠ Gode ... ?
‘How called out Abel’s blood to God ... ?’
As well as in yes/no questions:
Gehy≠rst πu≠, sæ≠lida?
‘Hear you, sailor?’
Word
Word Order
Order
Modern English retains the V-S inversion in all
questions, but most often inserts a helping verb:
not How called out Abel’s blood to God ... ?
but How did Abel’s blood call out to God ... ?
As well as in yes/no questions:
not Hear you, sailor?
but Do you hear, sailor?
Word
Word Order
Order
Generally, only auxiliary verbs (used with infinitives or
participles as completions) are allowed to form a V-S
inversion in Modern English questions:
OK
OK
OK
OK
Can you bring me some tea?
Must they always shout so much?
Have you forgotten anything?
Is Mrs. Jones coming to the social?
but Have you any change?
seems quaint (or British!), and
Wish you anything else, Sir? or
Brought Tom the pizza?
sound downright wrong in MnE.
Semantic
Semantic shift
shift
OK, so, if German, Dutch, Danish and English all came from
the same source, why does tide mean a different thing in
English from the other three, even though they were
originally the same word?
English
tide (regular ebb and flow of the sea)
Danish
tid (= time)
Dutch
tijd (= time)
German
Zeit (= time)
OE t|d also meant ‘time, hour’ and survives in such words
as Yuletide, Whitsuntide, or “time and tide will admit no
delaying” (an alliterative doublet)
Semantic
Semantic shift
shift
Many times words change their meanings slightly or a
great deal over centuries. This is semantic shift.
MnE deer // G Tier, Du dier, OE de≠or ‘animal’
MnE wife - OE w|f ‘woman, wife’ // G Weib, Du wijf (now pej.)
Ice hross, MnE horse // G Ross, Du ros, ‘steed’
MnE town - OE tu≠n ‘enclosure, village’ // G Zaun ‘fence’ //
Du tuin ‘garden’ // OIr du≠n ‘fortress’
Frequent as -ton in English place & personal names:
Brighton, Newton, Flemington, Wellington, etc.
NWGmc
NWGmc &
& Ingwaeonic
Ingwaeonic
What’s the origin of bring
vs. brought?
NWGmc
NWGmc &
& Ingwaeonic
Ingwaeonic
North Sea dialects (e.g., OE, Dutch, Frisian) shared certain characteristics. One was loss of nasal consonants (n, m) before a fricative
sound. The vowel was lengthened in compensation for the loss.
Ingwaeonic
OE *finf > f|f, MnE five, Du vijf
cf. Ger fünf
bring vs. brought (g was fricative)
think vs. thought (k<x,h)
stand vs. stood
OE so≠π (MnE forsooth)
cf. Dan sand
OE *tanπ > *tonπ > to≠π, tooth
G Zahn (cf. Lat dent-)
OE *monπ > *munπ > mu≠π > mouth G Mund (cf. Lat mand-)
Here Dutch has tand and mond (WITH the n). Why?
Second
Second Sound
Sound Shift
Shift
Why does German seem so different
from English when it’s a related
language?
(You knew I had to sneak German
into this, didn’t you!)
Second
Second Sound
Sound Shift
Shift
All Germanic languages shared the First Sound Shift.
That’s how they split off from Indo-European.
Only Central and Southern German underwent something
called the Second (or “High German”) Sound Shift which
further differentiated it from the remaining Germanic
languages--including, incidentally, northern German
dialects. This “Zweite Lautverschiebung” occurred most
completely in remote Swiss mountain villages and spread
northward. Only some of the sounds shifted in central
Germany--or only in some words and not others--so those
dialects are a “mix” of shifted and unshifted sounds. The
process happened around 400-800 A.D.
Second
Second Sound
Sound Shift
Shift
As with the First (Germanic) Sound Shift, consonants were
affected in the Second (High German) Sound Shift:
English
Dutch
ten, two
water, that
pepper, deep
make, book
tien, twee
water, dat
peper, diep
maken, boek
German (showing 2nd shift)
zehn, zwei
Wasser, das
Pfeffer, tief
machen, Buch
Northern German dialects, along with Frisian and Dutch, are
more akin to English in their consonants. In fact, Frisian is the
closest relative to English.
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
If Latin was so important in Europe
until well into the 18th and even 19th
centuries, did English absorb any
Latin vocabulary?
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
Latin loan words (examples from Pyles)
early loans: common to all Gmc languages
oral loans, popular language
wine (OE w|n), Lat v|num
cheap (EmnE good cheap, OE ce≠ap ‘marketplace, wares, price’;
cf. name Chapman), Lat caupo≠ ‘tradesman, wineseller’
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
anchor (OE ancor), Lat ancora
butter (OE butere), Lat bu≠tyrum
chalk (OE cealc), Lat calccheese (OE ce≠se), Lat ca≠seus
cf. Ger Käse, Frisian tji
dish (OE disc), Lat discus
cf. Ger Tisch ‘table
kettle (OE cetel), Lat catillus ’little pot’ cf. Ger Kessel’
kitchen (OE cycene), L coqu|na
cf. Ger Küche
mile (OE m|l), L milia (passuum) ‘a thousand (paces)’
mint (OE mynet ‘coin, coinage’), L mone≠ta
cf. Ger Münze
-monger (OE mangere ‘trader, merchant, broker’), L mango≠
cf. gossip monger, war monger
mongrel is not from this root; probably from OE gemong ‘crowd’
> ME ymong, mong ‘mixture’
pepper (OE piper, pipor), L piper
cf. Ger Pfeffer
pound (OE pund), L pondo≠ ‘measure of weight’)
cf. Ger Pfund
sack (OE sacc), L saccus)
sickel (OE sicol), L secula’
cf. Ger Sichel
street (OE stræ≠t), L (via) stra≠ta ‘paved (road)
cf. Ger Straße
wall (OE weall), L vallum
These were all borrowed into Gmc after the first sound shift but before
the second “High German” sound shift, as shown by German equivalents
of indicated words.
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
Pyles lists as earlier loans (some acquired from British Celts):
Old English
tæfl ‘gaming board’
candel
sealtian ‘to dance’
sealm
leahtric ‘lettuce’
eced ‘vinegar’
Læden ‘Latin’
mægester ‘master’
cest ‘chest’
peru ‘pear’
senop ‘mustard’
regol ‘rule’
mynster ‘monastery’
earc ‘ark’
t|gle ‘tile’
sicor ‘secure’
stær ‘history’
segn ‘mark, banner’
(MnE sign from Fr signe, later)
ceaster ‘city’
Manchester, Gloucester,
Worcester, Casterton,
Chesterfield, Lancaster, Exeter (<
Execestre)
Latin source
tabula
cande≠la
salta≠re
psalmus (from Gk)
lactu≠ca
ace≠tum
Lat|na
magister
cista > cesta
pirum
sina≠pi
re≠gula
monaste≠rium
arca
te≠gula
se≠cu≠rus
historia
signum
castra ‘camp’
German/Dutch cognate
Tafel, tafel
Psalme
Essig, edik/azijn
Latein, latijn
Meister, meester
Kiste, kist/kast
Birne, peer
Senf, sennep
Regel, regel
Münster, munster
Arche, ark/arke
Ziegel, tegel
sicher, zeker
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
Somewhat later loans, after about 650 A.D., do not exhibt the typical English sound changes:
Old English
plaster
alter ‘altar’
martir
templ
de≠mon
paper
messe ‘mass’
circul
ca≠lend ‘month’s beginning’
come≠ta
Latin source
emplastrum
altar
martyr
templum
daemon
papy≠rus
missa > messa
circulus
calendae, Kalendae
come≠ta
German cognate
Pflaster
Altar
Märtyrer
Tempel
Dämon
Papier
Messe
Zirkel ‘compass’
Kalender
Komet
There are more than 500 in OE up to the Conquest; later borrowings than this from Latin are massive
in number in comparison. Some of them were ultimately from Greek, from which Latin borrowed
extensively. (Pyles)
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
Middle English borrowed heavily from French and Latin.
Often not really possible to tell from which language the words were taken.
• ecclesiastical terms: dirge, mediator, redemptor, later Redeemer;
• legal: client, subpoena, conviction;
• scholarly: simile, index, library, scribe;
• scientific: dissolve, equal, essence, medicine, mercury, opaque, orbit,
quadrant, recipe.
• verbs: admit, commit, discuss, interest, mediate, seclude;
• adjectives: legitimate, obdurate, populous, imaginary, instant,
complete.
Pyles reports that there were hundreds of Latin words adopted between the
Conquest and 1500.
Latin
Latin Leftovers
Leftovers
The most Latin and Greek terms were borrowed in the Modern English period,
after 1500.
From 1500-1600 or so: area, abdomen, compensate, composite, data,
decorum, delirium, denominate, digress, edition, education, fictitious, folio,
fortitude, gradual, horrid, imitate, janitor, jocose, lapse, medium, modern,
notorious, orb, pacific, penetrate, querulous, resuscitate, sinecure, series,
splendid, strict, superintendent, transition, ultimate, urban, urge, vindicate.
Some of these again may be via French.
From Greek via Latin: allegory, anemia, anesthesia, aristocracy, barbarous,
chaos, comedy, cycle, dilemma, drama, electric, epoch, enthusiasm, epithet,
history, homonym, metaphor, mystery, paradox, pharyx, phenomenon,
rhapsody, rhythm, theory, zone.
From Greek via French: center, chronicle, character, democracy, diet,
dragon, ecstasy, fantasy, harmony, lyre, machine, nymph, pause, rheum,
tyrant.
From Greek directly: acronym, agnostic, anthropoid, autocracy, chlorine,
idiosyncrasy, kudos, oligarchy, pathos, phone, telegram, xylophone.
Celtic
Celtic Carryovers
Carryovers
How about the Celts? After all,
they had settled Britain before the
Angles and Saxons, right?
Celtic
Celtic Carryovers
Carryovers
Celtic loans are not numerous because they were the conquered people.
Pyles states that it is likely ceaster (< L castra) was one, as was the –coln in
Lincoln (< L colo≠nia; cf. here G Köln, Du Keulen). One is torr ‘peak’. Several
place names are of Celtic origin: Cornwall, Devon, Avon, Usk, Dover, London,
Carlisle, and many more.
A
A Case
Case for
for Cases
Cases
Old dative forms:
methinks, me thoughte ‘it seems/seemed to me’
me mette (ME) ‘it dreamed to me’
Old accusative:
If you please ‘if it please you’ (Fr s’il vous plaît, D.O.)
Old instrumental forms (OE πy≠):
the more, the merrier
‘by that (much) more, by that (much) merrier
nonetheless ‘nothing less by that’
all the better to eat you, my dear
Old reflexive pronouns:
Now I lay me down to sleep ... (myself)
He set him down. = He sat (set himself) down.
Prepositional
Prepositional Plunderings
Plunderings
Why do we say “to fight WITH
someone”? Aren’t we really fighting
against the person?
And why are thoroughbreds
called that? Are they bred to
be really hard workers or good
at detail?
Prepositional
Prepositional Plunderings
Plunderings
wiπ in OE meant ‘against, opposite, from’:
withstand ‘stand against’’
to fight with someone
to break with one’s family
to break up with a boyfriend
withdraw ‘draw away from’’
withhold ‘hold away, back from’’
notwithstanding ‘not opposing that’
Prepositional
Prepositional Plunderings
Plunderings
πurh (ME also πruh) gives us both ‘through’ and
‘thorough’ in the same meaning:
thoroughbred ‘bred through a long line’
thorough bass ‘basso continuo’, playing all the
way through the piece
throughly ‘(archaic) in a thorough manner’
thoroughfare ‘passage through’
through street, throughway
Old
Old English
English Lives!
Lives!
100 most frequent words in Old English
Those with little or no change in form or meaning:
god
mann
heofon
eor∂e
weorold
l|f
lufu
word
weorc
dæg
hand
cynn
πanc
engel
ic
πu≠
he≠
hit
πæt
hwa≠
God
hwæt
man
πis
heaven
self
earth
hwelc
world
sittan
life
se≠can
love
healdan
word
beran
work
giefan
day
cuman
hand
se≠on
kin
be≠on, wæs
thank
do≠n, dyde
angel
go≠d
I
w|d
thou
fæst
he
ha≠lig
it
r|ce
that
a≠n, na≠n
who he≠ah, h|erra
what
micel, ma≠ra much, more
this
mæ≠st most
self, same
to≠ too
which
eall all
sit
swa≠ so, as
seek
πæ≠r there
hold
πanne then
bear
nu≠ now
give
æ≠r ere, before
come
in, on in, on
see
to≠ to, toward
be, was
for for
do, did
ofer over
good
under under
wide
æfter after
fast
æt at
holy
πurh through
rich
and, ond and
one, none
gif if
high, -er
πe≠ah though
Harder
Harder to
to Recognize
Recognize
100 most frequent words in Old English
Those with substantial change in form or meaning
(modern cognate in parentheses):
cyning
mo≠d
folc
mynd
do≠m
fe≠ond
fæsten
ga≠st
so≠π
burg
wieldan
habban,hæfde
mæg, meahte
willan, wolde
sculan, sceolde
a≠gan
mo≠tan, mo≠ste
king (Ger. König)
(mood), courage
secgan
(folk), people
faran
cunnan, cu≠∂e
(mind), memory
cwe∂an, cwæ∂
(doom), judgment
(fiend), enemy
scieppan
(fastness), fortification
swelc
(ghost), spirit
le≠of
e≠ac
(sooth), truth
swelce
(borough), walled town
(wield), control
a≠, na≠
have, had
gel|c
may, might
wi∂
will, would
shall, should
own
be able, must
say
(fare), travel
(can, couth), know
(quoth), say, said
(shape), create
such
(lieve), beloved
(eke), also
(so-like), likewise
aye; never, not at all
like
(with), against,
opposite
Old
Old English
English Doesn’t
Doesn’t Live
Live
100 most frequent words in Old English
Those which are lost in modern English: (but not always in
other Germanic languages):
dryhten
hyge
r|ce
πe≠od
wuldor
æ∂eling
scop
l|c
feorh
wer
he≠o
se≠, se≠o
πe≠s, πe≠os
ha≠tan, ha≠tte
weor∂an
beorgan
witan
lord, Dan. drotning
thought, Dan. hygge
munan
dominion, Ger. Reich
e≠ce
sw|∂
people, nation, Ger. deutsch
æ∂ele
glory
nobleman, prince, Ger. edel
eft
poet, singer
ne
body, corpse, Ger. Leiche
πa≠
sw|∂e
life
mid
man (but werewolf)
she
ac
the (m. & f. forms)
this
(ME hight) be called, G heißen
(ME worth), G werden
protect, G bergen
(wit), know; G wissen
remember, Ice. muna
eternal
strong
noble, G edel
later, Dan. efter
not, neither
then, when, G da
very, extremely
with, G mit, Ice me∂
but
The
The Same
Same but
but Different
Different
Words whose meanings have changed since medieval times:
now
then
naughty
dip
knave
lewd
crafty
nice
silly
crude
hussy
harlot
of no value
baptize
young fellow, servant
uncultured
wise, knowledgeable
foolish, silly, wanton
blessed, innocent
bloody
housewife
drifter, no-goodnik
farce
stuffing; later, a filler
between acts of play
meat
flesh
compare with
naught (nothing)
Ger taufen
Ger Knabe ‘boy’
OE læ≠wede ‘laical, ignorant’
witchcraft, know one’s craft
Fr. niais ‘stupid, silly’
OE sæŁ≠lig ‘happy’, Ger selig
L crudus, Fr cru ‘raw’
OE hu≠s ‘house’
Harley rider? Ha ha. OFr herlot
‘rogue’; herler ‘yell, make noise’
Fr. farcir ‘stuff’
Ger Fleisch
Invading
Invading Danes:
Danes: Old
Old Norse
Norse
Wasn’t there a lot of Scandinavian
influence in Old English? If so, do we still
see any residual effects from that?
Invading
Invading Danes:
Danes: Old
Old Norse
Norse
Danes and Norwegians, speaking a tongue very
close in many ways to OE (Old Norse, or ON),
invaded, settled and thoroughly integrated
themselves into northeastern Britain starting in
the 9th century. Their contact with the native
population was extremely intimate, and they were
assimilated into it thoroughly by intermarriage.
Since ON was so closely akin to OE, many
confusions and mutual influences arose
between the two languages (grammar endings
and syntax as well as lexical items).
Invading
Invading Danes:
Danes: Old
Old Norse
Norse
One visible ON element in our vocabulary is the K or SK
sound, which had become a CH or SH sound in English.
Interesting doublets arise:
kirk / church
dike / ditch
skirt / shirt
raise / rear
shriek / screech
ship / skiff
Other loans from Scandinavian are:
kid, get, egg
skill, skin, bask
sky (OE lyft, Ger Luft, Du lucht),
take (OE niman, Ger nehmen, Du nemen)
nay, swain
Invading
Invading Danes:
Danes: Old
Old Norse
Norse
Other Scandinavian loans, all part of our basic everyday vocabulary:
leg, neck, skin
cake, knife, window (‘wind-eye’)
flat, ill, odd, ugly, wrong
call, cast, die, happen, raise, take, want
though
An extremely important ON loan into English are the pronouns
they/them. OE had a rather ill-defined mess:
he/him
she/her
they/them
OE:
he≠, him, hine
he≠o, hire, he≠o
he≠o, him, he≠o
You can see why they/them won out!
(Subj, I.O., D.O.)
Those
Those Pesky
Pesky Normans
Normans
Why does it seem so easy to learn
many French words? They seem just
like English, just pronounced
differently. How did this come about?
Those
Those Pesky
Pesky Normans
Normans
William the Conqueror and his band of Normans
showed up in England in 1066 and took over the
helm at the Battle of Hastings. They were actually
Norsemen originally who had invaded northern
France and been assimilated. Their language
was thus French.
French rulers dominatee culturally and linguistically for the next 200 years or so. French became
the language of the feudal courts, church institutions, civilized life in general. Loan words reflect
this cultural importance--although Norse words
still enter the language faster until about 1132.
ME has a vastly different look from that of OE.
French
French in
in Public
Public Life
Life
noble, royal, juggler, castle, prince, duke, viscount, baron
government, administer, attorney, chancellor, country,
court, service
crime, prison, estate, judge, jury, peasant, trespass,
punish, oppress, prohibit, discipline, tax, penalty, torture,
supplication, exile, treason, rebel, dungeon, execution,
mortgage (lit. ‘death-pledge’)
abbot, clergy, preach, sacrament, vestment
army, captain, corporal, lieutenant, sergeant, soldier
dignity, enamor, feign, fool, fruit, horrible, letter, literature,
magic, male, marvel, mirror, oppose, question, regard,
remember, sacrifice, safe, salary, search, second, secret,
seize, sentence, single, sober, solace
carriage, courage, language, savage, village
French
French Sources
Sources
Fr gentil > gentle, later loans genteel, jaunty
Loans had different forms depending on original dialect:
Anglo-Norman: c-, wCentral (Parisian): ch-, gu/gchapter (L caput)
cattle
chattel (L capita≠le)
wage
gage
warranty
guarantee
ME borrowings have ch pronounced as in OFr of the time:
chase, chamber, chance, chant, change, champion,
charge, chaste, check, choice
Later borrowings reflect the evolved French pronunciation:
chauffeur, chamois, chevron,chic, chiffon, chignon,
douche, machine
Those
Those Pesky
Pesky Normans
Normans
English
Old French
Modern French
retains -s- from Old French
(pronounced at time of loan)
has –s(pronounced early)
-s- lost in later OFr;
indicated by é-
school
scholar
strait
strange
stable
spine
spangle
stallion
state; estate
stanch
establish
spouse
spice
spinach
espy
spell
discourage
discover
scout
scale (of fish)
despoil
describe
squire, esquire
escole
escoler
estreit, estroit
estrange
estable
espine
espingle
estalon
estat
estanchier
establir
espos, espose
espice, espece
espinach, espinoch
espier
espeldre, espeler (explain)
descoragier
descovrir
escolte (spy)
escale, escaille
despoillier
descrire
escuier
école
écolier (school pupil)
détroit (étroit = narrow)
étrange
étable
épine
épingle (pin)
étalon
état
étancher
établir
époux, épouse
épice
épinard
épier
épeler (spell)
décourager
découvrir
écouter (listen)
écaille
dépouiller (skin; plunder)
décrire
écuyer (squire; rider)
Those
Those Pesky
Pesky Normans
Normans
English
Old French
Modern French
retains -s- from Old French
(pronounced at time of loan)
has –s(pronounced early)
-s- lost in later OFr;
indicated by circumflex
forest
hostel
host
vested
beast
master
mistress
ghastly
paste
pastry
hospital
hostage
priest
plaster
forest
hostel
hoste, oste
vesti
beste
maistre, mestre
maistresse
gast (ruined)
past, paste
pastoirie
ospital
ostage
prestre
plastre
forêt
hôtel (now hotel)
hôte
vêtu
bête
maître
maîtresse
dégât
pâte
pâtisserie
hôpital
otage (no circumflex)
prêtre
plâtre
French
French is
is Fancy
Fancy
French words are used to describe ‘cultured’ and official life. Everyday
things involved with lower classes retained the Anglo-Saxon words.
Prepared meats for eating at a fine table are for instance French, as are
the terms for their preparation. The animals from which the meats come
are Germanic:
French terms
Anglo-Saxon terms
beef, pork, veal, mutton, pullet;
steer, pig, calf, sheep, chicken
(bœuf, porc, veau, mouton, poulet)
boil, broil, fry, stew, roast
Also, the French terms are elegant:
English ones earthy or crude:
odor, perspiration, dine, deceased
depart, return, desire, obtain
regard, receive, urine, excrement
smell, sweat, eat, dead
go away, come back, want, get
look at, get, ****, ****
Gallic
Gallic Tidbits
Tidbits
Rotten Row in London’s Hyde Park is from
French ‘route du roi’, ‘king’s path’ (a riding path)
Hoity-toity refers to upper classes looking down
at lower folks from their high roof, or ‘haut toit’
Mayday! perhaps from Fr. Venez m’aider!
Fun
Fun Facts
Facts
beware: OE warian ‘preoccupy, claim the attention of’;
ME war ‘on guard, attentive’
OE weard ‘guardian, keeper’
lord
PrOE *hla≠f-ward ‘keeper of the loaf’, > OE hla≠ford >
ME loverd > MnE lord
lady
PrOE *hla≠f-d|ge > OE hlæ≠f-d|ge ‘bread (loaf) kneader’
> MnE lady
(cf. OE da≠g ‘dough’, ME dogh)
Fun
Fun Facts
Facts
Hocus-pocus may come from Latin Hoc est corpus in
the Mass (“This is the Body”)
The “loo”: Garde à l’eau!
Cinderella’s slipper was made of squirrel fur (Fr. vair ),
but mistranslated by retellers poor in French (or who
couldn’t afford fur) who thought it was verre, glass.
Vulgus is Latin for crowd. Vulgar referred originally to
non-nobles. French gentil gives us gentleman, gentility.
Willy-nilly from OE wille nylle (contraction of ne wille)
‘if he wants or doesn’t want’
Hope
Hope you
you had
had fun!
fun!