Download Call Handouts

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of the Quran wikipedia, lookup

Al-Nahda wikipedia, lookup

Islam and war wikipedia, lookup

Biblical and Quranic narratives wikipedia, lookup

War against Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and modernity wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of the Quran wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of Islamism wikipedia, lookup

Imamate (Twelver doctrine) wikipedia, lookup

Criticism of Twelver Shia Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and violence wikipedia, lookup

Fiqh wikipedia, lookup

Women as imams wikipedia, lookup

Twelver wikipedia, lookup

Salah wikipedia, lookup

Schools of Islamic theology wikipedia, lookup

Islamic culture wikipedia, lookup

Sources of sharia wikipedia, lookup

Islamic schools and branches wikipedia, lookup

Tazkiah wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Mormonism wikipedia, lookup

Islam in Bangladesh wikipedia, lookup

Zakat wikipedia, lookup

Origin of Shia Islam wikipedia, lookup

Islam and Sikhism wikipedia, lookup

Hajj wikipedia, lookup

Ramadan wikipedia, lookup

Islam and other religions wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Slide 1
World Religions
Part 7: Islam
Session 3: The Five Pillars
Dirk’s Contact Info
Phone: 603.431.3646 (Bethany Church’s main number)
Email: [email protected]
Facebook Page: Pastor Dirk Rodgers
Twitter: @dirk_at_bethany
Tumblr: www.tumblr.com/blog/dirkscorner
Dirk’s Web Site: www.dirkscorner.com
Bethany Church Web Site: www.bethanychurch.com
Slide 2
A Quote from the Hadith
“Narrated Ibn 'Umar:
Allah's Messenger ( ) said: Islam is based on (the
following) five (principles):
1. To testify that none has the right to be worshipped
but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Messenger ( ).
2. To offer the (compulsory congregational) prayers
dutifully and perfectly.
3. To pay Zakat (i.e. obligatory charity) .
4. To perform Hajj. (i.e. Pilgrimage to Mecca)
5. To observe fast during the month of Ramadan.”
Bukhari 8; Book 2, Hadith 1 (http://sunnah.com/bukhari/2 , accessed 5/19/2016)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 3
The Five Pillars
(For Sunni Muslims)
1. Shahada: Declaration of
Faith
2. Salat: Prayer
3. Zakat: Charity
4. Sawm: Fasting
5. Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 4
Part 7.3: The Five Pillars
1 SHAHADA: DECLARATION OF FAITH
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 5
The Five Pillars: Shahada
Declaration of Faith
English: “There is no God
but Allah and Muhammad is
His Messenger.”
Arabic: “Ash-hadu al laa
ilaaha illallah wa ash-hadu
anna Muhammad ur
rasulullah.”
The Testimony of Faith inscribed as calligraphy
on top of the Babussalam gate of the Topkapi
Palace Museum, Istanbul, Turkey.
Image Source: Ali Esfandiari at the Persian language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=12047217
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 6
The Five Pillars: Shahada
Declaration of Faith
Repetition…
 In Arabic
 With Intention
 In front of Witnesses
Single requirement for
conversion to Islam
Tile panel in the Wazir Khan Mosque, Lahore,
Pakistan. The shahada is on the top half of the
panel.
Image Source: Atif Gulzar - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1329967
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 7
The Five Pillars: Shahada
Tawhid: Absolute Oneness of God
 Oneness of Lordship
(Tawhid Ar-Rububiyah)
 Oneness of Worship
(Tawhid Al-Uluhiyah)
 Oneness of Allah's
Attributes and Names
(Tawhid Adh-Dhat walAsma' was-Sifat)
The first phrase of the shahada in kufic
calligraphy (1309), Kashan, Iran.
Image Source: Wolfgang Sauber - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19154346
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 8
The Five Pillars: Shahada
Shirk: The ‘Unforgivable Sin’
“God does not forgive the worship of others
beside Him— though He does forgive whoever
He will for lesser sins— for whoever does this
has gone far, far astray.”
Quran 4:116
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 9
A Few Quotes from the Quran
About Jesus
“The angels said, ‘Mary, God gives you news of a Word from
Him, whose name will be the Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary,
who will be held in honour in this world and the next, who
will be one of those brought near to God. He will speak to
people in his infancy and in his adulthood. He will be one of
the righteous.’”
Quran 3:45-46
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 10
A Few Quotes from the Quran
About Jesus
“People of the Book, do not go to excess in your religion,
and do not say anything about God except the truth: the
Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was nothing more than a
messenger of God, His word, directed to Mary, a spirit from
Him. So believe in God and His messengers and do not
speak of a ‘Trinity’— stop [this], that is better for you— God
is only one God, He is far above having a son, everything in
the heavens and earth belongs to Him and He is the best
one to trust.”
Quran 4:171
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 11
Quotes from the Quran & Hadith
About Muhammad, the Prophet
“Muhammad is not the father of any one of you men; he is
God’s Messenger and the seal of the prophets: God knows
everything.”
Quran 33:40
“Ali said to him: ‘Allah's Messenger, you leave me behind
along with women and children.’ Thereupon Allah's
Messenger ( ) said to him: ‘Aren't you satisfied with being
unto me what Aaron was unto Moses but with this
exception that there is no prophethood after me.’”
Muslim 2404 d; Book 44, Hadith 50 (http://sunnah.com/muslim/44/50, accessed 5/19/2016)
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 12
A Few Quotes from the Quran
About Prophets
“We have sent revelation to you [Muhammad] as We did to
Noah and the prophets after him, to Abraham, Ishmael,
Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, to Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and
Solomon— to David We gave the book [of Psalms]— to
other messengers We have already mentioned to you, and
also to some We have not. To Moses God spoke directly.”
Quran 4:163-164
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 13
Part 7.3: The Five Pillars
2 SALAT: PRAYER
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 14
The Five Pillars: Salat
Prayer
“So woe to those who pray
but are heedless of their
prayer; those who are all
show and forbid common
kindnesses.”
Quran 107:4-6
Image Source: Antonio Melina/Agência Brasil - Agência Brasil by Antonio Melina/Agência Brasil. 01.Dec.2003 as 11605.jpg, from where it
was downloaded, cropped, and resized by Hajor., CC BY 3.0 br, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=171458
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 15
The Five Pillars: Salat
Five Times a Day
 Salat al-fajr: dawn, before
sunrise
 Salat al-zuhr: midday, after
the sun passes its highest
 Salat al-'asr: the late part of
the afternoon
 Salat al-maghrib: just after
sunset
 Salat al-'isha: between sunset
and midnight
Diagram showing position
of sun during prayer times
Image Source: LooiNL - Own work, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2467698
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 16
The Five Pillars: Salat
Adhan: Call to Prayer
Bilal – The First Muezzin
"Who will watch out for dawn for us,
so that we do not sleep and miss the
dawn prayer?" Bilal said: 'I will.' He
turned to face the direction where the
sun woke them up, then they got
up...Then Bilal called the Adhan….”
Nasa'i, Vol. 1, Book 6, Hadith 625
(http://www.sunnah.com/urn/1006280 , accessed 5/19/2016)
An Islamic miniature from Siyer-i Nebi (16th century, Turkey),
depicting Bilal giving the call to prayer
Image Source: Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2632980
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 17
The Five Pillars: Salat
Adhan: Call to Prayer
“Allah is Most Great. Allah is Most Great.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of being
worshipped except Allah.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of being
worshipped except Allah.
I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.
I bear witness that Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.
Come to prayer. Come to prayer.
Come to Success. Come to Success.
Allah is Most Great. Allah is Most Great.
There is none worthy of being worshipped except Minaret, Grand Mosque,
Testour, Tunisia
Allah.”
Source: https://www.whyislam.org/on-faith/azan-call-to-prayer-2/
Image Source: El Golli Mohamed - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=43775736
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 18
A Change in Direction, 624?
“Foolish people will say, ‘What has turned them away
from the prayer direction they used to face?’”
Quran 2:142
“Many a time We have seen you [Prophet] turn your
face towards Heaven, so We are turning you towards a
prayer direction that pleases you. Turn your face in the
direction of the Sacred Mosque….”
Quran 2:145
“Jews and the people of the scriptures used to be pleased
to see the Prophet facing Jerusalem in prayers but when he
changed his direction towards the Ka'ba, during the
prayers, they disapproved of it.”
Hadith, Sahih Bukhari, 2, No 40, Narrated by Al-Bara bin Azib
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 19
The Five Pillars: Salat
Praying in Arabic
“In the performance of Salat all the
prayers have to be said in Arabic
besides reciting some verses of the
Holy Quran. Therefore, it becomes
essential for a new Muslim to start
learning those prayers in Arabic as
well as some short 'Suras'
(chapters) of the Holy Quran
immediately after embracing Islam
so that he can perform his Salat in
the proper manner.”
Women praying in Najaf, Iraq
Source: http://www.islamicity.com/Mosque/salat/salat1.asp
Image Source: Sonia Sevilla - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=35545621
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 20
The Five Pillars: Salat
Body Positions
Image Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/galleries/salah/
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 21
The Five Pillars: Salat
Wudhu – Preparation for Prayer
Women
at
Istiqlal
Mosque,
Jakarta
Image Source: Midori - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17243178
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 22
Part 7.3: The Five Pillars
3 ZAKAT: CHARITY
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 23
The Five Pillars: Zakat
“Alms are meant only for the
poor, the needy, those who
administer them, those whose
hearts need winning over, to free
slaves and help those in debt, for
God’s cause, and for travellers in
need. This is ordained by God;
God is all knowing and wise.”
Quran 9:60
A slot for giving zakat at the
Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in Fez,
Morocco
Image Source: Mr. Granger - Own work, CC0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=48391140
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 24
The Five Pillars: Zakat
What is Zakat?
“Translated from Arabic, the word
‘zakat’ means ‘to purify’…The
obligation is to give 2.5% of one’s
wealth to those in need. Zakat is
essentially an act of worship through
which Muslims can purify their
wealth, cleanse their souls and
benefit themselves as well as others
– it is a symbol of Islamic social
justice.”
Source: http://islam.ru/en/content/story/zakatmeans-eradicating-poverty
Image Source: http://islam.ru/en/content/story/zakat-means-eradicating-poverty
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 25
The Five Pillars: Zakat
Who must pay the Zakat?
“Every sane, adult Muslim who
possesses equal to or more wealth
than the Nisab for one lunar year is
eligible to pay Zakat. This person is
known in Arabic as a ‘Sahib-unNisab’ (Translated: ‘Owner of
Wealth’ – The word ‘wealth’ in this
context refers to the minimum
amount of wealth required to be
eligible to give Zakat).”
Source:
http://www.islamicity.com/mosque/zakat/
Zakat_calculator.shtml
Image Sourcehttp://www.meleklermekani.com/threads/nisap-miktari-ne-demek.204811/
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 26
The Five Pillars: Zakat
What is the Nisab?
“The nisab is the minimum value of
wealth one must possess in order
to pay Zakat. It is defined as the
value of 87.5g of pure gold or 625g
silver. Most scholars favour the
lower value as it means that more
people can pay Zakat and therefore
there are more beneficiaries.”
Source: https://muslimhands.org.uk/zakat
Image Source: https://muslimhands.org.uk/zakat
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 27
The Five Pillars: Zakat
When is the Zakat due?
“The Zakat year of an individual begins on the day that they first
become ‘Owner of Wealth’ for that year. Zakat can be paid at
anytime of the year; it is dependent on the person’s individual
circumstances – (different people will become owners of Nisab at
different times of the year). Many people choose to pay Zakat during
Ramadan for the increased reward, but this is not part of the
obligation; the obligation is to pay Zakat as soon as it becomes due.
As paying Zakat is an act of duty, it is not permissible to delay it.”
Source: http://islam.ru/en/content/story/zakat-means-eradicating-poverty
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 28
The Five Pillars: Zakat
Who Is Authorized to Accept Zakat?
“Individuals pay Zakât (including
corporations). Its collection and distribution,
however, is a function of (a) an Islamic
polity, if one exists, or (b) the Muslim
community, if it lives independent of an
Islamic polity, which is by far the case with
Muslims outside the traditional lands of Islam.
Indeed, the reality is that most Muslims
independently determine where to place their
Zakât.”
Source: The Zakat Handbook: A Practical Guide for Muslims in
the West, The Zakat Foundation of America, 2007,
http://zakat-publications.s3.amazonaws.com/2275/zakatbook.pdf, 77-78
Image Source: http://life-insaudiarabia.blogspot.com/2015/01/saudiarabia-taxation-system.html#.V0IG1r6snIg
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 29
Part 7.3: The Five Pillars
4 SAWM: FASTING
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 30
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
“It was in the month of Ramadan that the
Qur’an was revealed as guidance for
mankind, clear messages giving guidance
and distinguishing between right and
wrong. So any one of you who sees in that
month should fast, and anyone who is ill
or on a journey should make up for the
lost days by fasting on other days later.
God wants ease for you, not hardship. He
wants you to complete the prescribed
period and to glorify Him for having
guided you, so that you may be thankful.”
Quran 2:185
Image Source: Ahmed Rabea - Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2382250
A crescent moon can be seen
over palm trees at sunset in
Manama, Bahrain, marking the
beginning of the Muslim month
of Ramadan.
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 31
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
Ramadan and the Western calendar
“Because Islam uses a lunar
calendar, the month of
Ramadan comes around 11
days earlier each successive
year, so there is no Western
season associated with
Ramadan.”
Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/
islam/practices/sawm.shtml
Azim Azimzade. Ramadan of the poor
people. 1938
Image Source: By Azim Azimzade - Azimzade, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9772556
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 32
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
Nature of the Fast
“During the 29/30 days of
Ramadan all adult Muslims must
give up the following things
during the hours of daylight:
 Food or drink of any sort
 Smoking, including passive
smoking
 Sexual activity”
Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/
practices/sawm.shtml
Men praying during Ramadan at the
Shrine of Hazrat Ali or "Blue Mosque"
in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan
Image Source: vetman - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/75928918?tag=Afghanistan, CC BY-SA 3.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26115460
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 33
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
Nature of the Fast
“Muslims do not only abstain from
physical things during Ramadan.
They are also expected to do their
best to avoid evil thoughts and
deeds as well.”
Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices
/sawm.shtml
Ramadan lanterns in Cairo, Egypt
Image Source: B. Simpson Cairocamels - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=2727010
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 34
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
Eating during Ramadan
“During Ramadan many Muslims will
try to eat a large meal called suhur just
before dawn. When daylight is over,
most Muslims will break or open the
fast with dates or water, following the
example of the Prophet Muhammad,
before having a proper meal later.”
Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices
/sawm.shtml
Iftar (evening meal, "breakfast") at Sultan Ahmed Mosque
in Istanbul, Turkey
Image Source: By balavenise - http://www.flickr.com/photos/gandara/2864983684/, CC BY-SA 2.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=11157708
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 35
The Five Pillars: Sawn (Fasting)
Eid ul-Fitr
“The month of Ramadan ends with
the festival of Eid ul-Fitr. This is
marked by dressing up and visiting
the mosque for prayer, and with visits
to family and friends for celebratory
meals.”
Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/practices
/sawm.shtml
A family celebrating Eid (End of Ramadan) in Tajikistan.
Image Source: Steve Evans - originally posted to Flickr as Celebrating Eid in Tajikistan, CC BY 2.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4150335
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 36
Part 7.3: The Five Pillars
5 HAJJ: PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 37
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
“Complete the
pilgrimages, major and
minor, for the sake of God.
If you are prevented [from
doing so], then [send]
whatever offering for
sacrifice you can afford,
and do not shave your
heads until the offering
has reached the place of
sacrifice.
Quran 2:196
Pilgrims at the Masjid al-Haram on Hajj in
2008
Image Source: Al Jazeera English - Al-Haram mosque, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=17512722
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 38
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Required…
 All Muslim
adults
 Once in a lifetime
 Physically able
 Financially able
Image Source: Karim Manji - Own work, GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3249281
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 39
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
When Does the Hajj Occur Each Year?
 5-day period
 8 -12 DhulHijjah, 12th and
last month of
Islamic calendar
 Season changes
over time due to
lunar calendar
Image Source: Aiman titi - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14871523
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 40
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Preparing for the Hajj
 Miqat
 Ihram
Miqat the people of Medina, Named
Abiar_Ali or Zu_'l-Hulafa
Image Source: Aiman titi - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14860516
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 41
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Retracing the steps of Abraham
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Miqat
Mecca
Mina
Arafat
Muzdalifah
Mina
Mecca
Graphic indicating the stages of the
Greater Hajj
Image Source: User:AsceticRose, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39715975
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 42
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Tawaf: Circuit around the Kaaba
Image Source: Zakaryaamr at the English language Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6949467
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 43
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Between the Hills of Safa and Marwah
Image Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-xXOxlja_Tvs/TvwKmGBVJfI/AAAAAAAAAZk/rF0ThTcrP0I/s1600/Safa-Marwah.jpg
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 44
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Tents at Mina
Image Source: Mubeen Rahman - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3366671
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 45
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Plain of Arafat, Site of Muhammad’s Last Sermon
Image Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/galleries/hajj/
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 46
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Rite of Stoning of the devil
Image Source: Amellie from Brisbane, Australia - Flickr, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1906978
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 47
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Eid al-Adha – Rite of Animal Sacrifice
Image Source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/galleries/hajj//
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________
Slide 48
The Five Pillars: Hajj (Pilgrimage)
Stampede Tragedy during the Hajj, 2015
Image Source: http://www.cnn.com/2015/09/25/middleeast/hajj-pilgrimage-stampede/index.html
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
__________