* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download 7203.attach - Reptile Forum
Document related concepts
Bush League Breeders Club January 2012 Edition 15 Chief Editor: Pitoon - BLBC Member of the Month - Ask the Dr. “How to quarantine ” - Plethora of Morphs in Garter Snakes Albino Red-Sided Garter Snake Picture Courtesy of Jeff Benfer Panhead’s "dumb luck" BLBC ‘s Website of the Month Coastal Bend Captive Breeding How to “Pop” a snake BLBC January Picture of the Month Big Tom’s Gecko Claus The BLBC wishes you a Happy New Year! BLBC Member of the Month Name/Screen Name: Joshua Mentrup/Joe23 Location: Osnabrück/ Germany Career: I’m doing an apprenticeship as a Businessman for Marketing Communication right now First Reptile: I'd really like to tell a story on how i caught my first reptile as a kid, and from there on I always kept them. But my first reptile ever, was a Boa constricor imperator which i bought 7 years ago at a reptile show Species You Most Prefer To Work With: I guess Burmese Pythons are still my favorite species cause theyr’e so easy going and never make any problems. I guess i could feed em Schnitzel...but Ball Pythons come close after. How many years have you been working with reptiles? Since i was 18, so basically 7 (ok- almost 8 right now) years ago. Species you’d love to work with more and just haven’t: Definetly Blood Pythons. I'm just a sucker for bigger snakes Biggest Accomplishment (can be anything in your life): puh... toughest question. I'm 25 years old right now and to be honest i havent achieved many goals of my own yet. So i hope when u ask me the same question in ten years i've a better answer. What do you enjoy doing when not working with the reptiles? I really enjoy spending time with family and friends, but i also really like to watch documentaries on TV and playing some poker What is your favorite flavor of Ice Cream? Panna Cioccolato with Advocaat for sure If you could travel anywhere in the world where would it be? Hands down- the US of A. I just know it from TV, and someday i’ll just have to visit you guys over there Additional Comments: Thanks for the honor and i really appreciate the effort every user puts into the BLBC to make it the best reptile forum around!!! So much knowledge in that place... its wonderful!!! Ask the Dr. - How to Quarantine Article by Quality Serpents 1. I recommend for the first week trying to keep the new additions under conditions as close to what they were before you got them (unless that was harmful to the snake of course). Then, ideally the new additions should be housed in identical conditions to what they will be kept after the quarantine period is over. Preferably, the quarantine area would be in a completely different room than your reptile room. However, if your room is large enough to keep them completely separated from the others, this will usually suffice. 2. Make sure when you do any work in your reptile room that whatever work is done on the quarantined animals is done very last. Also make sure to wash your hands before and after you work with the new additions. 3. Closely observe and treat any issues that arise during the quarantine period. I do not recommend unwarranted preventive treatment of any kind during a quarantine period. I recommend a 30 day quarantine period for snakes, but an argument could easily be made for a longer one. 4. I recommend not feeding any new additions for 1 week after arrival (unless of course the new addition is already malnourished for whatever reason). After this feeding should be started as it will be continued after the quarantine period is over. Hope this helps and good luck. Dr. Shane Whitaker D.V.M. *This is what Dr. Whitaker recommends for quarantine of newly acquired snakes. There are other effective ways to do it, but this is his recommendation. If you have specific questions, feel free to visit the “Ask the Dr.” page to submit those for Dr. Whitaker. Plethora of Morphs in Garter Snakes Article by Jeff Benfer There are a ton of different garter snake morphs and morph combos available in the hobby today. What can be confusing is that not only is there a bunch of different base color and pattern mutations in garters, there are also many different species and sub-species of garters with vastly different naturally occurring colors and patterns. Keeping up with all the different species, sub-species, colors, patterns, mutations and combos can be mind boggling. In this article I will be focusing on the better known, documented, and characterized (proven) base morphs of some of the more commonly kept species and subspecies. In future articles I will elaborate on the various designer combinations of morphs produced to date and may even attempt to cover the 30 some species and numerous additional subspecies. Most if not all base morphs originate from naturally occurring mutations discovered in the wild. So if one individual is found in an area, chances are there are others, or at least carriers of “the” gene or genes. There are a few morphs to my knowledge that have popped up in captive collections; however they are yet to be proven inheritable. Likely at least a couple of these will “prove out” in the next few years. The vast majority of the morphs in garter snakes are simple recessive genes, however there are a few genes that are considered co-dominate or possibly polygenic (meaning there are several or many closely associated genes involved in the visual phenotype). Evidence for the theory of a polygenic heritable trait is observed in the resulting outcrossed offspring exhibiting a wide range or interval in the visual saturation of the phenotype. Discussion of base morphs, I believe starts with the albinos. Arguably, they are the heart of the morph craze and where a lot of the morph breeding projects began. Perhaps second only to the flame morph which has a long infamous history. Albinos of some species and sub-species are actually quite commonly found in certain parts of the country. Let’s start with the different albinos of Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis, commonly called the eastern garter snake. The eastern garter is one of the most widely dispersed garters, covering almost the entire eastern United States and they are one of the most commonly Albino Red-Sided Garter Snake kept and bred garter snakes in captivity. Therefore it should be no surprise that several different albino types of the eastern garter are currently being bred in the hobby. There are no less than 5 different eastern albino types currently in existence in the hobby: Schuett, New York, Midwest, Bluegrass, and Florida. These are just the ones that I am familiar with. There undoubtedly have been more types discovered that simply failed or have yet to surface to the hobby. The Schuett albino is a very dark caramel looking albino that is almost certainly a tyrosinase positive (T+) type albino. This is evident in crosses with this albino type retaining quite a bit of color. It is a beautiful albino type with a lot of potential for future combinations. The New York albino was a paradox animal, that unfortunately that has failed to be reproduced in captivity the past couple years, even though hets were produced. Not because it didn’t “prove out” but simply the F1 hets haven’t produced babies yet. Plethora of Morphs in Garter Snakes Article by Jeff Benfer The Midwest and the Bluegrass albinos have similar looks in that they are a lighter, cleaner looking albino, most likely a T- type. Unfortunately, these two albino types are not yet widely available in the hobby. The Florida albino has become very popular and more commonly available in recent years. It is a beautiful albino with clean bright light yellows and blue/purple hues and a very busy head pattern. Most likely it is a T- type. Interestingly the Florida albino has Nebraska Albino Garter Snake exhibited an inheritable paradox trait. I personally have a trio of Florida albinos and all three have tiny black paradox spotting. The black spots are not seen on the wild type related individuals. Several other keepers have reported the same thing. Florida Albino Garter Snake The next most widely kept albinos are from Thamnophis radix, commonly called the plains garter. There are two main types of plains garter albinos circulating in the hobby; the Nebraska strain, and the Iowa strain. The Nebraska is a dark albino with a lot of straw yellow, caramel, and purple hues, likely a T+ type. The Iowa strain is a bright clean albino with lemon yellow and pinkish purple ground and likely a T- type. Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, the red-sided garter has produced at least two different types of albinos. In my humble opinion is the most colorful albino type. The Kansas strain is very light and bright, with lots of red-orange and yellow. The Iowa strain albinos are much darker, with deep red and purple hues. There are many other species and sub-species with albinos, including T. elegans terrestris (the coast garter), T. butleri, T.sirtalis concinnus, T.marcianus marcianus, and T. ordinoides, and possibly others. There are several different forms of anerythristic and/or axanthic type snakes in the eastern, radix, and red-sideds. I listed them as anery and/or axanthic because this has been a debated topic and nobody really knows exactly which term is the more correct classification. Regardless, when these morphs are combined with albinos they have produced classic snows. The anerythristic T.radix is a very dark, almost Anery Red-Sided Garter Snake jet black snake, yet still shows some gray patterning. In addition to lacking the reds, yellows and browns, it appears this mutation may be also causing additional production of dark pigment, which is a feature typically described as hypermelanistic, or often commonly referred to as simply melanistic. This further complicates putting a classical base mutation type name to it. When combined with the albino types to produce a snow, this snake does almost completely remove the yellows from the albino. Plethora of Morphs in Garter Snakes Article by Jeff Benfer There is also an axanthic morph that has a bluish tint to it in the plains garter. There is still a lot of work to figure out this gene, but there may be preliminary evidence that it is co-allelic to the anerythristic gene. Hypermelanistic or melanistics occur in several species as well. Two of the more common are the eastern melanistic which is a solid jet black snake with variable amount of white under the chin, and the melanistic wandering garter which is a solid velvety black snake. These snakes are quite popular in the hobby. Interestingly when the eastern melanistic is combined with the Schuett albino it produces a very dirty snow-like animal with a solid brownish purple color, lacking pattern, but lighter colored under the chin. Anerythristic plains Garter Snake One of the most dramatic pattern base morphs occurs in T.marcianus marcianus, the checkered garter. It is called the granite gene, with amazing irregular polygonal shaped black flecking. This is one of the more striking base morphs as seen in the photo, but unfortunately there are not many other base morphs in the checkered garter to combine with….yet. One of my personal favorite morphs to look at, and yet at the same time the most frustrating to work with is the silver morph of the eastern garter. This snake has a very lavender look, with ruby eyes. There seems to be not only an absence of xanthins and erythrins, but also a reduction of melanin as well. This snake has so much potential for combos, but unfortunately like a lot of these dramatic mutations, there is a price. It is a considered a proven recessive trait, however the hets seem to have a very distinctive look. Unfortunately there seems to Silver Garter Snake be some issues with the silver, similar to the stargazing seen in spider ball pythons. They also tend to be sporadic feeders. Interestingly they have produced a high ratio of males in the homozygous animals (visuals). There have been very few silver females produced during the past several years. None the less, this is an incredible animal to see in person. Granite Garter Snake GET YOUR BLBC TEESHIRTS HERE!!! Plethora of Morphs in Garter Snakes Article by Jeff Benfer Last but not least I want to touch on the infamous “Flame” gene. This is a base morph that really lives up to its name. This is a beautiful snake with bright yellows flaming up the sides turning into oranges and reds, with black and white checkering on the back. Flames have been the poster child for selective breeding for over a decade. Some have been produced that are nearly solid red. Flame babies in a single litter tend to exhibit a variable amount of saturation of the red-orange, often marketed as different grades. This gene is Flame Garter Snake often referred to as a co-dominate trait, confused by the resulting ratio in offspring. Due to the extreme variability this trait is likely polygenic. I recently vended at a local reptile show and nothing gets the OOOhs and WOWs like the flames. There are many, many other base morphs that I haven’t even covered, but this is plenty to digest for now. There are new base morphs found in the wild every year. Some become mainstay in the hobby and some fail. There are also many base morphs that are currently in the process of being “proven out” as inheritable traits. Since garters are commonly found all over North America, there will undoubtedly be more base morphs found in the near future and brought up to the surface in this great hobby. I personally look forward to working with as many new base morphs as possible. Like most snake species, “the garters are all morphed out now too.” Hopefully you have a new appreciation for the incredible diversity of base morphs in garter snakes. Panhead’s “dumb luck” Growing up in northern California I used to collect western fence lizards. These guy's were very fast and super wary. The best way to catch them was to make a "noose" and slip it over their head to snag them. We usually used a stalk of tall wheat type grass. Just strip it down and make a slip noose on the end for catching the lizards. Fast foward a few years. I was stationed at Camp Pendleton when I was in the Marines. One day I decided to go out and see if I could find a few lizrads just to kill some time. I had a fellow Marine go with me just for fun. I made some noose's and we went out into the brush to see what we could find. We split up and about a half hour later this guy comes up to me and say's, "Is this a rattlesnake?". I'm looking at him as he's holding this piece of wheat noose in front of him with about a 10" Western Diamondback hanging off the end of it. I took the snake and threw it out into the weeds and then I asked him how he had caught it. He told me "Well I was flipping some boards, and it was curled up under one of them. I tried to noose it but it was coiled up pretty tight". So how did you get it I asked. "Oh, I just tapped it on the head a couple of time's till it lifted it's head so I could noose it" How to pop a snake Article by Pitoon I’ve received several emails on how to pop a snake. I wrote a “How To” on a forum a while back. So I figured I’ll just post it on my website as another article. Popping a snake is very easy, but it does take practice to get them to pop quickly. First you need to pick up the snake, support the body on your forearm or have someone hold it. Then you place your thumb in a way that the tip of your thumb should be right at the snakes vent pointing towards the tail. Then with the other hand place your thumb a little way past the mid point on the tail towards the tip. With the thumb on the vent gently pull back putting light pressure, so that you open the vent slightly, while at the same time with the thumb on the tail roll your thumb at the same time putting pressure towards the vent. Keep in mind that both thumbs should be moving in unison. How to pop a snake Article by Pitoon When doing this once your thumb on the tail gets to the vent everything will pop out….if it doesn't then re-roll again. If you have a male and know for sure that it's a male then you need to move your thumb on the tail more towards the tip of the tail and re-roll. Below are pics of popping an adult male. Many people that don't know how to pop think that you just put pressure on the tail while opening the vent and the hemi’s will pop out. When you put pressure on the tail you are also putting pressure on the hemi's, and that's why they can't pop out. The key is to roll from mid point or slightly past mid point towards the tail, then you put the pressure and then you roll towards the vent. The hemi’s will pop out for sure. Practice a few times on one snake and then give that snake a break and move to another to practice. Popping an adult is no different than popping a hatchling. The adult does have more control, but you can get adult hemi’s to pop out the same. Probing is a lot faster, and a more secure way of sexing. However since it’s so easy on hatchlings it’s the preferred method. Practice makes perfect! Pitoon Are you a member yet?