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Transcript
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL
CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION
OPTICAL SYSTEM ACCESSORIES
STANDARD TELESCOPE
TELESCOPE PERFORMANCES
MODEL D=75MM / F=750MM STARTRACKER 80
MODEL D=80MM / F=800MM STARTRACKER 80
MODEL D=90MM / F=1000MM STARTRACKER 80
MODEL D=100MM / F=1000MM STARTRACKER 80
MODEL D=125MM / F=1025MM STARTRACKER 90
MODEL D=150MM / F=1025MM STARTRACKER 95
MODEL D=150MM / F=1300MM SUPER PLANETARY EXPLORER
MODEL D=200MM / F=1300MM STARTRAKER 2000
SETTING UP THE MODEL
MAGNIFICATION FACTOR OBTAINED WITH STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPE
YOUR FIRST OBSERVATION THROUGH THE TELESCOPE
EYEPIECE FOCUSING ADAPTOR TUBE
FOCUSING
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
PRIMARY MIRROR
SECONDARY MIRROR (OPTICAL FLAT)
SURFACE COATING OF THE MIRROR
EYEPIECE OUTSIDE DIAMETER (OD)
EYEPIECE (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER)
EYEPIECE VIEWING COMFORT (For individual liking)
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER
2x / 3x / 4x BARLOW LENS 1.25" OD
THE LENSLESS FINDER SPOT
ALTAZIMUTH (AXIS) LOCK
MANUAL SLOW MOTION CONTROL TRACKING (OPTIONAL)
THE METAL TRIPOD
PIER STAND (METAL CONSTRUCTION)
ACCESSORIES SHELF
TELEPHOTOGRAPHY AND IT’S ACCESSORIES
CAMERA ADAPTOR
PRIME FOCUS
EYEPIECE PROJECTION
FOCUSING
VARIABLE CAMERA ADAPTOR
CALCULATING MAGNIFICATION FACTORS
STEPS FOR FOCUSING WITH CAMERA
TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY
LUNAR PHOTOGRAPHY
FILTERS (PHOTO-VISUAL) FOR PHOTOGRAPHY
HINTS FOR VISUAL FILTER OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLANETS AND MOON
MOON FILTER
GUIDED ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY (PIGGYBACK CAMERA)
TO MOUNT PIGGYBACK BRACKET
1
48)
49)
50)
51)
52)
53)
54)
55)
56)
57)
58)
59)
60)
61)
62)
63)
64)
65)
66)
67)
68)
69)
70)
71)
72)
TUBE BALANCES (PROVISION FOR THE PHOTO HOBBYIST)
STARFINDER TELESCOPE
USING THE RED DOT FINDER
ASTRO SOLAR SAFETY FILM
PHOTO TRIPOD ADAPTOR
CLEANING THE OPTICS AND STORAGE
GENERAL PURPOSE LENS CLEANER (30ml Bottle)
GENERAL HINTS ON OBSERVING WITH THE TELESCOPE GENERAL
OBSERVING THE SKY
EYEPIECES / FOCAL LENGTH / EYE RELIEF
MAGNIFICATIONS
LIMITS OF MAGNIFICATION (In General)
ALIGNMENT (COLLIMATION) OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM
ADJUSTMENT
NOTE FOR AMATEUR ASTRO-PHOTO ENTHUSIAST/ HOBBYIST
FACTORY SERVICING AND REPAIRS
GENERAL NOTES
STARTRACKER SYSTEM DRIVE TELESCOPE
THE GERMAN EQUATORIAL MOUNT WITH METAL PIER STAND
SUPER GERMAN EQUATORIAL MOUNT WITH MOTOR DRIVE SYSTEM
PRECISION POLAR ALIGNMENT WITH EQUATORIAL MOUNT
ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE
TUBE BALANCE WEIGHT SYSTEM (For Equatorial Mount Telescope)
BASIC ASTROPHOTOGRAPHIC METHOD
COLLIMATING A NEWTONIAN REFLECTOR
2
INSTRUCTION MANUAL FOR
STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPES AND ACCESSORIES :
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
MODEL:
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
D
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
75mm / F =
80mm / F =
90mm / F =
100mm / F =
125mm / F =
150mm / F =
150mm / F =
200mm / F =
750 mm
800 mm
1000 mm
1000 mm
1025 mm
1025mm
1300mm
1300mm
STARTRACKER
STARTRACKER
STARTRACKER
STARTRACKER
STARTRACKER
STARTRACKER
SUPER Planetary Explorer
STARTRACKER
80
80
80
80
90
95
95
2000
CAUTION :
Be sure to read this manual or at least the introductory assembly and operational procedures before attempting to use
the telescope.
INTRODUCTION :
STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPE are specially designed for astronomical and terrestrial application. They are the most
sophisticated and precisely manufactured telescopes available in India. The Telescope enables the visual astronomer to
make detailed observation of the Solar System (The Planets : Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune)
and beyond to distant nebulae, star clusters and galaxies. The photo-hobbyist will find a virtually limitless range of
possibilities, which will be an achievable success.
The capabilities of the instrument are essentially limited not by the telescope, but by the acquired skills of the observer and
photo-hobbyist. Kindly read this manual thoroughly, so that you will be fully acquainted with it.
OPTICAL SYSTEM ACCESSORIES :
A wide range of optical system and accessories are available for STARTRACKER SYSTEM Telescopes, essentially
permitting an unlimited opportunity to the advanced amateur for serious research. Each accessory, as part of an integrated
system, attaches easily and directly to the instruments described in this manual, once you have a STANDARD STARTRACKER
SYSTEM TELESCOPE you can update your telescope with optical system accessories at a later date, as and when the
need arises. This means your investment is well protected and your telescope will never be outdated.
STARSCOPE Telescope accessories, system, and parts can be used on a wide variety of special purpose / home-made
telecope or optical systems. STARSCOPE parts have been used in the construction of thousands of privately built
telescopes.
STANDARD TELESCOPE :
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
The Model D = 75mm / F = 750mm STARTRACKER 80 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (30x to 188x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 75mm / F = 750mm STARTRACKER 80 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
TWO EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (30x) and 12mm (62.5x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x). 45x to 188x Magnification.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
METAL TRIPOD with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
The Model D = 80mm / F = 800mm STARTRACKER 80 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (32x to 200x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 80mm / F = 800mm STARTRACKFR 80 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (32x), 16mm (50x) and 12mm (66.6x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 48x to 199.9x Magnification.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
METAL TRIPOD with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
3
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
The Model D = 90mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (40xto 250x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 90mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (40x), 16mm (62.5x) and 12mm (83.3x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 60x to 250x Magnification.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
METAL TRIPOD with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
The Model D = 100mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (40x to 250x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 100mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (40x), 16mm (62.5x) and 12mm (83.3 x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x), 60x to 250x Magnification.
4x BARLOW LENS (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 160x, 250x and 333.2x Magnification.
7x25 STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
METAL TRIPOD or PIER STAND with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
The Model D = 125mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 90 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (41x to 342x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 125mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 90 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25"OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (41x), 16mm (64x) and 12mm (85.4x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 61.5x to 256.2x Magnifications.
4x BARLOW LENS (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 164x, 256x and 341.6x Magnification.
7x25 STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
METAL TRIPOD or PIER STAND with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
The Model D = 150mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 95 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE (41x to 342x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 150mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 95 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (41x),16mm (64x) and 12mm (85.4x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 61.5x to 256.6x Magnification.
4x BARLOW LENS (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 164x, 256x and 341.6X Magnification.
7x25 STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
PIER STAND with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
The Model D = 150mm / F = 1300mm SUPER PLANETARY EXPLORER 95 ASTRONOMICAL
TELESCOPE (40.6x to 433.3x)
includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 150mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 95 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (52x),16mm (81.2x) and 12mm (108.3x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 78x to 324.9x Magnification.
4x BARLOW LENS (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 208x, 324.8x and 433.3X Magnification.
7x25 STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
4
G)
H)
I)
J)
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
PIER STAND with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
F)
G)
H)
I)
J)
K)
The Model D = 200mm / F = 1300mm STARTRACKER 2000 ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE
(52x to 433.2x) includes the following Standard Equipment and is a complete working telescope for visual observation.
D = 200mm / F = 1300mm STARTRACKER 2000 Optical Tube Assembly.
RACK & PINION FOCUSER 1.25" OD with dust cover.
THREE EYEPIECES (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 25mm (52x),16mm (81.2x) and 12mm (108.3x).
VARIABLE BARLOW (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) (1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x) 78x to 324.9x Magnification.
4x BARLOW LENS (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) 208x, 324.8x and 433.2X Magnification.
7x25 STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
DUST COVERS One for the front opening and one for the rear end.
UNIVERSAL METAL MOUNT holds the Tube Assembly.
PIER STAND with AZIMUTH ADAPTOR.
Protective Carry Bag.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM OPERATING MANUAL.
TELESCOPE PERFORMANCES :
Under good "seeing" conditions, in-focus real or artificial star should show a bright ary or central disc surrounded by one
or more evenly illuminated, concentric rings of light. The angular size of the central disc and the spacing of the rings are
functions of the telescope's aperture and central obstruction, if any. The visible extent of the disc as well as the number
of the rings visible varies from a given instrument with the brightness of the star.
Each STARTRACKER SYSTEM telescope will show a stellar diffraction pattern. Each will equal the resolution and contrast
limits that are theoretically prescribed for it.
DIFFRACTION LIMITED Optics are rated "EXCELLENT" in resolution and performances.
STARTRACKER Mirrors are manufactured with the most rigid wave rating which means that each mirror surface is
carefully measured, tested, and corrected until it meets the theoretically required specifications for curvature and are free
from surface imperfectness. Measurements are extraordinarily precised. Minimum tolerance for high precision optics is 1/
4th the width of a single wave-length of green light meaning that no part of the glass surface can deviate from the specified
shape by more than 5.5 millionth of an inch. Here STARSCOPE Astronomical Supplies is proud to be first to offer
STARTRACKER SYSTEM manufactured to a tolerance of 1/8 to 1/10 wave, i e 2.5 to 2.2 millionth of an inch.
CERTIFIED OPTICS : All STARTRACKER Astronomical Telescopes are individually tested to yield the finest optical
performance obtained from any Indian Telescope Manufacturer.
5
6
SETTING UP THE MODEL : STARTRACKER SYSTEM
D = 75mm / F = 750mm STARTRACKER 80
D = 90mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80
D = 125mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 90
D = 150mm / F = 1300mm SUPER PLANETARY EXPLORER
D = 80mm / F = 800mm STARTRACKER 80
D = 100mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80
D = 150mm / F = 1025mm STARTRACKER 95
D = 200mm / F = 1300mm STARTRACKER 2000
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
ASTRONOMICAL MIRROR (PRIMARY MIRROR)
OPTICAL FLAT (SECONDARY MIRROR)
MIRROR CELL WITH 3 POINT COLLIMATION OF PRIMARY MIRROR
SETSCREW FOR ADJUSTING COLLIMATION OF PRIMARY MIRROR
OPTICAL FLAT HOLDER IN THREE VANE SPIDER MOUNT WITH 3 POINT COLLIMATION OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM
SET SCREW FOR ADJUSTING COLLIMATION OF SECONDARY MIRROR
GUNSIGHT(LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) REAR (SLIP TIGHT) (Includes 7X25 finder with 100mm/125mm/150mm
and 200mm MODEL)
8) GUNSIGHT (LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) FRONT (SLIP TIGHT)
9) DUST COVER REAR
10) DUST COVER FRONT
11) RACK FOCUSING MOUNT
12) FOCUSING MOUNT LOCK
13) EYEPIECE FOCUSER-ADAPTOR TUBE (HOLDS EYEPIECE / VARIABLE BARLOW OR CAMERA ADAPTOR)
14) EYEPIECE FOCUSER LOCK
15) DUST COVER FOR EYEPIECE FOCUSER ADAPTOR TUBE
16) RACK FOCUSING KNOB
17) SLOW MOTION CONTROL KNOB IN AZIMUTH (HORIZONTAL) OPTIONAL
18) SLOW MOTION CONTROL KNOB IN ALTITUDE (VERTICAL) OPTIONAL
19) 19/19A ALTAZIMUTH MOUNT, GIVING FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT IN AZIMUTH AND ALTITUDE
20) LOCK ON AZIMUTH
21) LOCK ON ALTITUDE
22) PVC TUBE (RIGID)
23) METAL TRIPOD
24) AZIMUTH PIVOTING SHAFT
25) AZIMUTH SHAFT HOLDER (WHICH TAKES IN AZIMUTH PIVOTING SHAFT)
26) ALTITUDE SHAFT AXIS
27) TUBE HOLDER "SET SCREW"
28) NYLON GEAR IN AZIMUTH (OPTIONAL)
29) NYLON GEAR IN ALTITUDE (OPTIONAL)
30) TUBE HOLDER
31) MIRROR CELL HOLDER (3 SET SCREWS)
31A) MIRROR CELL HOLDER (3 SET SCREWS) FOR TELEPHOTOGRAPHY ADJUSTMENT
32) DIAGONAL / SPIDER MOUNT HOLDER (3 SET SCREWS)
33) NON-COLLAPSIBLE METAL TRIPOD BRACKET
34) LOCK NUT
NOTE : All numbers referred to are normally applicable for all the STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPE Models.
MAGNIFICATION FACTOR OBTAINED WITH STARTRACKER SYSTEM (TELESCOPE),
STANDARD EYEPIECE.
MODEL : D = 75mm / F = 750mm STARTRACKER 80 magnification factors :
ASTRO
EYEPIECE
** 38mm :
** 32mm :
* 25mm :
** 16mm :
* 12mm :
** 9mm :
NORMAL
MAG
19.7x
23.4x
30x
47x (46.8x)
62.5x
83.3x
MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED WITH VARIABLE BARLOW at :
1.5x
*
2x
*
2.5x
*
3x
29.5x
34.4x
39.4x
44.3x
49.2x
54.1x
59.1x
35.1x
40.9x
46.8x
52.6x
58.5x
64.3x
70.2x
45x
52.5x
60x
67.5x
75x
82.5x
90x
70.5x
82.2x
94x
105.7x 117.5x 129.2x 141x
93.7x
109.3x 125x
104.6x 156.2x 171.8x 187.5x
124.9x 145.7x 166.6x 187.4x 208.2x 229x
249.9x
* A TOTAL OF 16 MAGNIFICATION : PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATIONS OBTAINED FROM
45x TO 187.5x.
7
** OPTIONAL EYEPIECE AT EXTRA COST: AN ADDITION OF MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED OPTIONS IN ALL FROM
19.7x TO 250x.
MODEL : D = 80mm / F = 800mm STARTRACKER 80 magnification factor :
ASTRO
NORMAL
MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED WITH VARIABLE BARLOW at:
EYEPIECE
MAG
1.5x
*
2x
*
2.5x
*
3x
** 38 mm :
21x
31.5x
36.7x
42x
47.2x
52.5x
75.7x
63x
** 32mm :
25x
37.5x
43.7x
50x
56.2x
62.5x
68.7x
96x
* 25mm :
32x
48x
56x
64x
72x
80x
88x
96x
* 16mm :
50x
75x
87.5x
100x
112.5x 125x
137.5x 150x
* 12mm :
66.6x
99.9x
116.5x 133.2x 149.8x 166.5x 183.1x 199.8x
** 9mm :
68.8x
133.3x 155.4x 177.6x 199.8x 222x
244.2x 266.4x
* A TOTAL OF 24 MAGNIFICATIONS :PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATIONS OBTAINED
FROM 48x TO 200x.
** OPTIONAL EYEPIECE AT EXTRA COST : AN ADDITION OF MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED OPTIONS IN ALL FROM
21x TO 266.4x.
MODEL : D = 90mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 and
MODEL : D = 100mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER 80 magnifincation factor :
ASTRO
NORMAL
MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED WITH VARIABLE BARLOW at:
EYEPIECE
MAG
1.5x
*
2x
*
2.5x
*
3x
4x
** 38mm ;
26.3x
39.4x
46x
52.6x
59.1x
65.7x
72.3x
78.9x
105.2x
** 32mm :
31.2x
46.8x
54.6x
62.4x
70.2x
78x
85.8x
93.6x
124.8x
* 25mm :
40x
60x
70x
80x
90x
100x
110x
120x
160x
* 16mm :
62.5x
93.7x
109.3x 125x
104.6x 156.2x 171.8x 187.5x 250x
* 12mm :
83.3x
124.9x 145.7x 166.6x
187.4x 208.2x 229x
250x
333.2x
** 9mm :
111.1x
166.6x 194.4x 222.2x
249.9x 277.7x 305.5x 333.3x 444.4x
* A TOTAL OF 27 Magnifications : PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATIONS OBTAINED FROM 60x
TO 333.2x.
** OPTIONAL EYEPIECE AT EXTRA COST : AN ADDITION OF MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED OPTIONS IN ALL FROM
26.3x TO 444.4x.
MODEL : D =125mm / F =1025mm STARTRACKER 90 and
MODEL : D =150mm / F =1025mm STARTRACKER 95 magnifincation factor:
ASTRO
NORMAL
MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED WITH VARIABLE BARLOW at:
EYEPIECE
MAG
1.5x
*
2x
*
2.5x
*
3x
4x
** 38mm :
26.9x
40.3x
70.5x
53.8x
60.5x
67.2x
73.9x
80.7x
107.6x
** 32mm :
32x
48x
56x
64x
72x
80x
88x
96x
128x
* 25mm :
41x
61.5x
71.7x
82x
92.2x
102.5x 112.7x 123x
164x
* 16mm :
64x
96x
112x
128x
144x
160x
176x
192x
256x
* 12mm :
85.4x
128.Ix
149.4x 170.8x 192.1x 213.5x 234.8x 256.2x 341.6x
** 9mm :
113.8x
170.8x 199.1x 227.6x 256x
284.5x 312.9x 341.4x 455.2x
* A TOTAL OF 27 MAGNIFICATIONS : PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATIONS OBTAINED FROM
61.5x TO 341.6x.
** OPTIONAL EYEPIECE AT EXTRA COST : AN ADDITION OF MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED OPTIONS IN ALL FROM
26.9x TO 455.2x.
Before approaching Highpower. refer LIMITS OF MAGNIFICATION (ingeneral).
8
MODEL : D = 150mm / F = 1300mm SUPER PLANETARY EXPLORER 95 magnification factor:
MODEL : D = 200mm / F = 1300mm STARTRACKER 2000 magnification factor:
ASTRO
NORMAL
MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED WITH VARIABLE BARLOW at:
EYEPIECE
MAG
1.5x
*
2x
*
2.5x
*
3x
4x
** 38mm :
34.2x
51.3x
59.8x
68.4x
76.9x
85.5x
94x
102.6x 136.8x
** 32mm :
40.6x
60.9x
71x
81.2x
91.3x
101.5x 111.6x
121.8x 162.4x
* 25mm :
52x
78x
91x
104x
117x
130x
143x
156x
208x
* 16mm :
81.2x
121.8x 142.1x 162.4x 182.7x 203x
223.3x 243.6x 324.8x
* 12mm :
108.3x
162.4x 189.5x 216.6x 243.6x 270.7x 297.8x 324.9x 433.2x
** 9mm :
144.4x
216.6x 252.7x 288.8x 324.9x 361x
397.1x 433.2x 577.6
* A TOTAL OF 27 MAGNIFICATIONS : PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATIONS OBTAINED FROM
78x TO 433.2x.
* A TOTAL OF 37 MAGNIFICATIONS in Planetary explorer: PLUS VARYING ZOOMS OF MAGNIFYING COMBINATION
OBTAINED FROM 60.9x TO 433.2x.
** OPTIONAL EYEPIECE AT EXTRA COST : AN ADDITION OF MAGNIFICATION OBTAINED OPTIONS IN ALL FROM
34.2x TO 577.6x.
Before approaching Highpower. refer LIMITS OF MAGNIFICATION (Ingeneral).
TELESCOPE OPERATION :
YOUR FIRST OBSERVATIONS THROUGH THE TELESCOPE :
It is very simple with the Telescope standing upright on a wooden / metal tripod stand as shown in Fig 1, you will notice the
RACK FOCUSING MOUNT (11) on which the EYEPIECE FOCUSER-ADAPTOR TUBE (13) is inserted. Insert a 25mm eyepiece
into the EYEPIECE FOCUSER-ADAPTOR TUBE (13), which yields 40x power on Model D = 100mm / F=1000mm STARTRACKER
80. Insert a 25mm eyepiece which yields 30x power on Model D = 75mm / F = 750mm STARTRACKER 80. Rack the
FOCUSER knob (16) outward. A terrestrial object will be fairly easy to locate and then centre in the telescope's field of view
with the low power eyepiece. You can locate the terrestrial object simply by Gunsighting along the side ot the main
Telescope tube.
CAUTION : NEVER POINT THE TELESCOPE DIRECTLY AT THE SUN, OR ATTEMPT TO OBSERVE THE SUN, EITHER THROUGH THE MAIN
TELESCOPE OR THE VIEW FINDER WITHOUT PROPER PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMENT INSTANT AND IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE TO YOUR EYE MAY OTHERWISE RESULT !
(SEE "SOLAR FILTERS” IN THIS MANUAL)
EYEPIECE FOCUSING ADAPTOR TUBE :
It slides and fits into the RACK FOCUSING MOUNT (11), then unlock the eyepiece focuser lock (14). Insert an eyepiece
of either power i.e. 25mm, 16mm or 12mm supplied as a standard equipment and then focus. Remove inserted eyepiece
and replace it with the tube dust cover (15) for storage. This dust cover prevents dust entering from the side of the
eyepiece. See the section of this manual “FOCUSING”
FOCUSING :
FOCUSER (13) : Focusing is accomplished by a RACK AND PINION FOCUSING knob (16) movement. The focuser is
designed to provide an extremely sensitive means of bringing an object into clear, sharp focus. Nearby objects require the
focuser tube to be pushed outward. Do not attempt to focus the focuser when the FOCUSER MOUNT LOCK (12) is in the
locked position. This would damage the focuser tube assembly.
STORAGE / TRANSPORTATION :
Remove inserted “EYEPIECE” and replace it with TRANSPORTATION DUST CAP (9), (10) and (15) for storage. This dust
cap prevents the dust entering inside the tube during transportation and storage. Further RACK FOCUSING MOUNT,
complete mount can be removed from the tube, and to be replace with the dust cover supplied. (This means the RACK and
PINION can be dismental completely from the tube fitting for further transportation to avoid damage to the unit.
PRIMARY MIRROR :
Our production technique has every Astronomical mirror set to a high standard of accuracy. They are hand figured, on the
basis of rigid optical testing, performed at 100x per inch of the aperture assuring the best optical figure that the glass can
9
support. Although the theoretical limit is 50x to 60x per inch of an aperture, under excellent conditions, magnification can
be pushed much higher.
See the section of this manual for "MAGNIFICATIONS”.
Under steady atmospheric conditions, each mirror resolves to the theoretical limit for its aperture.
Each mirror is alluminised and over coated, ready for placement in the Telescope.
SECONDARY MIRROR :
Our elliptical secondary mirror optical flat is generated in elliptical shape, so that the incoming light rays are not cut off, as
it happens in the case of a rectangular diagonal. Our elliptical diagonal is centered in the optical ray tracking in the telescope
tube with a displacement of not more than +/-2mm.
This OPTICAL FLATS are warranted to yield optimum performance when combined with ASTRONOMICAL MIRROR.
Each mirror is alluminised and over coated ready for placement in the telescope.
SURFACE COATING OF THE MIRROR :
A durable and highly reflective coating is of prime importance for mirrors that are surface coated and exposed directly to
the atmosphere for long periods. A first coating of alluminium with an over layer of Silicon Monoxide provides for best
coating requirements for such mirrors. It increases light transmission through the STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPE.
EYEPIECE OUTSIDE DIAMETER (OD) :
Most of the telescope manufacturers today manufacturer eyepieces of one or more of the following barrel daimeter :
24.5mm (.965") ; 1.25" or 2". Eyepieces of 1.25" OD are Standarad Barrel Diameter. Eyepieces are designed with a fix focal
length and their normal image is upside down and reverse from right to left.
EYEPIECE (1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER) :
All STARTRACKER SYSTEM Standarad telescope offers eyepiece of 1.25" OD BARREL DIAMETER, depending upon the
standard model purchased. It either includes two three or four eyepieces of 25mm, 16mm and 12mm. The standarad model
D = 100mm / F = 1000mm STARTRACKER includes three eyepieces of 25mm (40x), 16mm (62.5x) and 12mm (83.3x).
Lower power (longer focal length) and Higher power (shorter focal length). Eyepiece are supplied to suit individual requirements. Low power is ideal for the observation of faint extended objects, such as diffuse nebulae and galaxies, while high
power is generally suitable for obsevation of lunar and planatery detail.
EYEPIECE VIEWING COMFORT : (For Individual liking) :
The telescope tube can be rotated in its Tube Holder to suit individual liking, i.e. the eyepiece can be kept at any convenient
position you may feel appropriate.
The TUBE HOLDER slip tight bracket (30) holds the Altitude Axis movement. Below the Tube Holder slip tight bracket you
will notice the two set screws (27). Simply by unscrewing the set screws and rotating the Telescope tube, you can set the
eyepiece angle at the position you desire.
VARIABLE BARLOW 1.5x = 2x = 2.5x = 3x (1.25" OD) BARREL DIAMETER :
It is designed to increase effective eyepiece power. It slides directly
into the EYEPIECE FOCUSER ADAPTOR TUBE (13). A particular
advantage of BARLOW LENS is that the eye relief of longer focal
length eyepiece is maintained, while different higher power is utilised
with the standard eyepiece supplied.
The assembly comes in two parts : One includes a precision internal
sliding Barlow lens assembly, permitting continuously variable magnifications from 1.5x to 3x. The second Includes a Barlow Tube, which
holds the sliding Barlow lens assembly on one side, with eyepieces on
the other end. The sliding Barlow lens assembly can be removed from
its tube cell and stored separately. The tube can further be used as an
eyepiece holder in normal observing mode with the eyepiece supplied.
If used this way, the tube can be further extended outward to obtain
focus as close as 35 feet using standard eyepiece supplied.
To get a particular magnification, i.e. 2x, you just slide the glass lens
which is fitted in a plastic cell (with markings "2x = 3x" VARIABLE
10
BARLOW facing the eyepiece) to the desired position till the glass lens itself is in line with the 2x marking on the tube. You
are then using a 2x Barlow lens.
Further you may feel that the graduation markings indicate that you only insert the unit into the Eyepiece Focuser Adaptor
Tube (13) to a particular point. This is not the case. However how far you insert the unit into the Eyepiece Focuser Adaptor
Tube, it has no bearing on the magnification. Magnification is determined by the distance between the Eyepiece and Barlow
lens.
2x BARLOW LENS 1.25" OD / 3x BARLOW LENS 1.25" OD /
4x BARLOW LENS 1.25" OD :
STARSCOPE offers three Barlow Lenses that will multiply the magnifying power of your eyepiece by reducing their
effective focal length. For example, a 12mm occular mount on a 3x Barlow lens would have the magnifying power of a 4mm
eyepiece. It's like having two eyepieces in one; an economical way to increase your range of magnification without buying
a new eyepiece. Barlow lenses also increase eye relief, (Viewing distance from the eyepiece) and allows more comfortable
viewing. It slides directly into the EYEPIECE FOCUSER ADAPTOR TUBE (13).
THE LENSLESS FINDER SPOT :
This is provided in a way of "GUNSIGHTING".
Simply aim and the field is within the low power eyepiece used. Adjust if necessary. The view finder will require alignment or
collimation, to the main Telescope using the 25mm eyepiece. Point the main Telescope at some easy land object, e.g. the
top of the building corner at least 150 metres away. Centre a wall defined object in the main Telescope. Then tighten both the
axes i.e. AZIMUTH (HORIZONTAL) & ALTITUDE (VERTICAL) lock (20) & (21). See the section of this manual
"ALTAZIMUTH (AXIS) LOCK", then with your eye at the back of the Telescope, simply aim through the "GUNSIGHT
FINDER"and adjust the position either the front (8) or rear (7). Gunsight unit, which is press fit / slip tight collimate until the
Lensless "Finder Spot" is in alignment and centred with the main Telescope eyepiece view. Once adjusted, the setting may
be left permanently mounted without disturbing it. Take care in transit / handling, not to disturb the alignment (These are
standarad equipments on D = 75mm, D = 80mm and D = 90mm telescope.
ALTAZIMUTH (AXIS) LOCK :
By unlocking the AZIMUTH (HORIZONTAL) and ALTITUDE (VERTICAL) lock, (20) & (21) the telescope may be turned rapidly
through a wide angle in azimuth movement. AZIMUTH means "Horizontal" and Altitude means 'Vertical'.
The Azimuth movement may be done if desired with the Azimuth lock (20) in a "Partially locked" position. In this way a
comfortable "drag" in Azimuth Is created. It is necessary to operate the lock in a normal observing mode.
The Altitude movement may be done if desired with the Altitude lock (21) in a "Partially locked' position. In this way a
comfortable "drag" in Altitude is created.
CAUTION :
AVOID LOCKING FULLY. SUCH OPERATION MAY RESULT IN PERMANENT DAMAGE TO THE SHAFT / AXIS AND GEAR
SYSTEM. The supplied Telescope can be fully balanced and a partial locking, if necessary, may be done.
MANUAL SLOW MOTION CONTROL TRACKING (OPTIONAL) :
AZIMUTH (HORIZONTAL) / ALTITUDE (VERTICAL) movements :
With the above mechanical operation in mind, select an easily available terrestrial object, as your first subject, i.e. a building
about half a kilometre (Distance). While unlocking, centre the object in the telescopic field of view. Further precise image
centering is accomplished by using THE SLOW MOTION CONTROL KNOB either HORIZONTAL (17) or VERTICAL (18).
NOTE :
While you mount and unmount the Telscope from the Tripod, be cautious to match both the gear teeth in its setting position,
or else, sudden uneven pressure may break the gear of AZIMUTH Axis, Optional slow motion control is to be ordered at
the time of placing a telescope order or send to works for fittings. To attach the slow motion at a later period, simply send
the complete NEW METAL MOUNT assembly along with 19/19 A ALTAZIMUTH MOUNT, thoroughly packed in a small
wooden box and send to us for fittings Return postage and slow motion control charges will be collected through V.P.P. on
returning. Be sure to write your full name, address, phone number, and Telescope Model No. if any.
11
THE METAL TRIPOD :
The METAL TRIPODl is supplied as a completely assembled unit, having an Altazimuth Adaptor on the top which directly
takes in the pivoting shaft of AZIMUTH MOVEMENT (24).
Make it a point to see that all the Tripod legs are spaced equally during observation, otherwise it would unbalance the
mounting arrangement. However, for 32" Height Metal Tripod a non-collapsable metal tripod bracket (33) & lock nut (34) is
provided. Assembly and dismantling takes just a fraction of your time.
PIER STAND (METAL CONSTRUCTION) : PIER STAND is designed to increase maximum rigidity, stability and relatively heavy in weight. Top of the PIER (PILLAR)
STAND is an adaptor similar to AZIMUTH SHAFT HOLDER (25) which directly takes in AZIMUTH PIVOTING SHAFT (24)
Fig 1. of the Telescope tube. The three cast iron detachable pedestal legs, fits on the lower end of PIER (PILLAR) STAND.
Place, the three cast tripod legs in its positon with supplied Bolt & Lock Nut, as a standard equipment. Other advantage of
PIER STAND is you can directly point the Telescope tube to zenith.
ACCESSORIES SHELF :
PIER STAND / ALTAZIMUTH PIER STAND / EQUATORIAL PIER STAND. The Accessories SHELF attaches to any of our
STARTRACKER SYSTEM TRIPODS / PIER STANDS and allows for the placement of eyepieces and other accessories
during observation.
The Accessories shelf comes in two parts 1) Accessories Tray 2) Shelf Bracket
ATTACHMENT TO METAL TRIPOD :
The shelf shaft can be attach directly below the (34) LOCK NUT shaft between the three METAL TRIPOD legs.
ATTACHMENT OF PIER STAND :
The shelf bracket (Ring type) slides from the lower end of the PIER STAND This is done before fitting the lower three cast
iron detachable pedestal legs. Shelf bracket can be positioned to the desired height. Then lock the three nylon lock screws
supplied with the bracket.
TELEPHOTOGRAPHY AND IT’S ACCESSORIES :
CAMERA ADAPTOR Basic to Terrestrial or lunar photography through the models is done with the Camera Adaptor. With
the camera adaptor, almost any 35mm SLR Camera with removable lens can be attached to the Telescope at prime focus.
The Camera Adaptor slides directly into the EYEPIECE FOCUSSER ADAPTOR TUBE (13) followed by the camera body (The
camera lens is not used at all. The Telescope itself acts as a Camera "lens").
CAMERA ADAPTOR :
For terrestrial, deep space and planetry photography through reflector and refractor telescopes that accepts standarad
slip-fit eyepieces. A T-ring is used to match the universal adaptor to your particular brand and type of 35mm camera. The
adaptor attaches to the telescope eyepiece focuser adaptor tube (13) or eyepiece holder where the eyepiece or diagonal
prism would normally be placed. The adaptor includes two seperate pieces which may be threaded together, the Prime
Focus Adaptor and the Eyepiece Projection Body.
PRIME FOCUS :
Prime Focus (or direct focus) is photography using the telescope objective or primary mirror as a replacement for the
camera’s lens, without additional magnification. In this configuration, you use only the Prime Focus Adaptor and your T-ring
; the Eyepiece Projection Body is not used. Prime Focus is the method nearly always used for long exposer deep sky
photography and for most terrestrial photography. Photographic focal length and f / ratio are identical to the specification
of your telescope.
EYEPIECE PROJECTION :
This method is used for very high power photography. This is popular for Planetry and Lunar photography and for day time
terrestrial photography of extremely small or distance objects under favourable atmospheric conditions. It is rarely used for
long-exposer deep sky photography.
Insert an eyepiece in the adaptor before attaching the camera. The eyepiece must be secured tightly with a thumb screw.
CAUTION : Loosening the thumb screw while the camera is attached may cause the eyepiece to drop loose and damage
the camera and the eyepiece !
12
The use of low and medium power eyepieces (32mm - 12mm) is recommended, as the magnification effect of the eyepiece
projection is very enhanced.
FOCUSING :
It can be quite difficult to focus the telescope, especially when using Eyepiece Projection. Infact, with most camera’s, the
image in the view finder can be so dim that it may be difficult to find the focal point at all. Use a bright object such as a moon
or a bright star for focusing ; and find and centre the object in the Telescope’s field before installing the camera adaptor.
If you cannot reach focus : the telescope has insufficent focus travel to reach focus using the camera adaptor. With this
telescope, using plus 2x telephotography combine barlow lens between the telescope and the camera adaptor may extend
the focal plane sufficiently to allow focusing. Alternately, it is sometime possible to move the primary mirror on some
reflector telescope forward an inch or two to explain the focal plane (31A) Mirror Cell holder (3 Set Screws) for telephotography adjustment.
VARIABLE CAMERA ADAPTOR :
The Variable Universal Combined Camera Adaptor works just like the standarad model, but with one added feature. The
distance between the eyepiece and the camera film plane can be adjusted, which changes the effective magnifications,
without having to change the eyepieces. Simply loosen the larger two plastic set screws on the upper part of the adaptor
of the body. Slide the camera forward or backward until the desired magnification is achieved when looking through the
camera focusing screen. Slight refocusing of the telescope may be necessary. Then tighten the set screw and you are
ready to take pictures.
FILTER PHOTOGRAPHY :
The standarad camera adaptor are threaded for Starscope 1.25” photo-visual colour filters.
CALCULATING MAGNIFICATION FACTORS :
Using the following table to calculate the approximate focal length and the focal ratios when using eyepiece projection
telephotography combine.
EFL = TFL . (DF-efl) EFR = EFL
efl
D
FL = Effective Focal Length
TFL = Telescope Focal Length
efl = Eyepiece Focal Length
DF = Approximate Distance between eyepiece lens and camera film plane
EFR = Effective Focal Ratio
D = Diameter of mirror or objective
STEPS FOR FOCUSING WITH CAMERA :
With the Camera Adaptor attached to the camera, unlock the EYEPIECE FOCUSER LOCK (14) Slide the Camera Adaptor
tube into the EYEPIECE FOCUSER ADAPTOR TUBE (13) and lock the FOCUSER LOCK (14) With the camera in hand, rack
the FOCUSER (16) to achieve the sharpest focus. After final focusing is achieved and oriented, lock the FOCUSING MOUNT
LOCK (12) "YOU ARE NOW READY TO SHOOT THROUGH A 750mm / 800mm / 1000mm / 1025mm or 1300mm telescope
purchased. AVOID OVER LOADING THE TELESCOPE WITH YOUR CAMERA PREFERABLY HOLD THE CAMERA IN YOUR
HAND even though you have secured the Focuser Screw in lock position. Do not over tighten the Focusing Mount Lock (12)
/ Eyepiece Focuser Lock (14). See the section of this manual 'TUBE BALANCE’.
TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAPHY :
Compare the magnification of a standard 50mm lens. The Telescope with Camera Adaptor results in a magnification of 20x,
i.e. 1000mm Telephoto photography operating at F/10 and magnification of 15x i.e. 750mm Telephoto photography, operating at F/10. Because of the telescopes long focal length, quality terrestrial photos crucially depends on careful focusing.
Using a Terrestrial Telephoto lens is not as simple as photography through a standard 50mm lens. Be prepared to use a few
rolls in B/W to gain experience with longer focal length. Also experiment with different exposure times under varying
conditions and practice the focusing procedure required for quality works. Keep in mind that STARTRACKER 80 are
operating at F/11 or F/10 depending upon the model in use. Check the instruction manual, which is accompanied with your
camera for the proper metering procedure to use with a non-automatic lens of this focal length.
FOR 750mm : 35mm Film coverage at a distance of 100 feet is 4.5" x 3.0" and 1000 feet is 45" x 30"
FOR 1000mm : 35mm Film coverage at a distance of 50 feet is 13.3" x 19.6" ,500 feet is 11.8" x 17.2" and 3000 feet is 70.5"
x 103.5".
13
LUNAR PHOTOGRAPHY :
The Camera Adaptor is also the basic means for coupling the camera body to the telescope tor lunar photography. For
lunar (Moon) photography the proper exposure time depends on the film used and on the phase of the Moon. A range of
exposure time is needed to decipher the correct exposure for the particular phase of the moon. Colour slide films enhance
the quality of your photo. Quality lunar photography requires experience, but the rewards are more than commensurate
with the effort required.
FILTERS (PHOTO-VISUAL) FOR PHOTOGRAPHY :
A variety of filters are available for different applications of the telescope, including LUNAR and PLANETARY viewing. For
increased contrast and resolution of lunar and terrestrial detail, the filters incorporate top quality, plain parallel optical glass,
with excellent spectral homogeneity. The aluminium filter cells are threaded for direct insertion into the camera adaptor. A
second thread is provided on each cell to allow two or more filters to be Piggybacked increasing the number of filterable
spectral regions.
Note : Earth’s atmosphere is in constant fluctuation ; turbulances, air currents, blur fine surface detail on Solar System
objects viewed through a telescope. Faint contrasting areas blend together due to “irradiation” - a distortion of the
boundaries between light and dark surface. With this filter, the scattering of interfering wavelenghts is enormously
reduced. Suddenly, the smeared, pale bands of Jupiter resolves into Loops and Festoons. Delecate markings appear on
Saturn’s globe and the Cassini ring division darkens and solidifies. Mars polar cap stands out like tiny pearls and Lunar rilles
acquires greater depth and contrast. Bed “seeing” becomes acceptable ; good seeing becomes superb ! For visual use
simply thread these filters into the 1.25” eyepiece barrel of any imported or Super Astro Eyepiece / Plossl Eyepiece. For an
ASTRO EYEPIECE 1.25” OD an extra adaptor is supplied at an extra cost since Astro Eyepiece does not have an inbuilt
thread to accept these new variety of colour filters.
NOTE : FILTERS REFERRED HERE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN OBSERVING THE SUN AND IRREVERSIBLE EYE DAMAGE
MAY OTHERWISE RESULT.
HINTS FOR VISUAL FILTER OBSERVATIONS OF THE PLANETS & MOON :
MERCURY : Red filter will make the planet’s disks stand out against a blue sky, permitting day time or twilight viewing.
Mercury is usually best observed just after sunset when the sky is awash in orange light. Orange filters with high
magnifications suits the best to see the planets phases.
VENUS : No matter what telescope aperture you use, Venus’s excessive brightness usually causes a very “over
exposed” image. VIOLET filter is useful for low contrast shading of Venus. Dark surface shading may occasionally be
glimpsed with the aid of RED, VIOLET or GREEN FILTER.
MARS : Most of the scattered blue light In Mar's atmosphere can be filtered out with a YELLOW or ORANGE FILTER. This
filter reduces the light from the blue and green area, darkens the Maria and canal markings while lightening the orange hue
desert regions of the planet Mars. Light Yellow filter also stops the scattered blue light, but will allow transmission of more
green light from the Maria. A red filter transmits red and some yellow light, but blocks out all blue and green giving maximum
contrast. The green filter may be employed for further cloud comparisons directly above the planet's surface. YellowGreen filter will sharpen the boundary of a Martian polar cap by darkening the desert while allowing adequate penetration
of Mar's atmosphere.
JUPITER : Light yellow and orange filters are useful in judging the colours of the low hue cloud belts and zones. To bring
out white area on a reddish background, the green filter is helpful. The green filter is also effective for observing the low
contrast hues of blue and red that exist in jupiter's atmosphere. The green filter blocks out the red and blue colours,
enhancing the contrast of red and blue detail. The Blue filter is useful in the observation of faint cloud formations and for
enhancement of the Great Red Spot.
SATURN : The surface characteristics and atmosphenc structure of Saturn are generally similar to those of Jupiter Filters
recommended are similar in both cases. Use light yellow, orange, blue for the observation of Saturn's faint cloud belt's.
Green may help to increase contrast between white surface area and dark belt marking.
14
MOON FILTER :
Observing the Moon :
The Moon is not only the easiest celestial object to observe, it is also the most spectacular.
With a telescope, it’s possible not to be awed by the incerdible wealth of craters, mountains and other features visible on
its battered surface. Consider this : you can see more surface detail on the Moon with a telescope that can be detected on
any of the planets with the largest observatory telescopes. And moongazing does not require a dark country sky ; even city
dwellers will enjoy a fantastic view.
When and Where to look :
The best nights for observing the Moon are when its face is half, or less than half, illuminated. Focus your attention along
the border between the illuminated and dark portions of the disk, called the terminator. The long shadows cast by crater
walls and mountain peaks along the terminator enhance their relief, making even the smallest details jump out at you. As
the Terminator moves accross the Moon’s face hour by hour, night by night, different features are highlighted. Much less
detail is seen in fully sunlight areas of the lunar surface, where shadowing is absent.
Starscope Moon Filter :
The Moon’s disk, even at partial phases, is intensely bright with reflected sunlight. The glare washes out most of the craters,
rifles and other surface details from view.
Our Moon Filter reduces the glare, allowing less transmission of the reflected light. Not only will you see more surface
features, but you can study them in greater comfort. The filters reduces irradiation, which is the distortion at the boundary
between light and dark areas, such as along the lunar terminator.
The Starscope Moon Filter is especially useful to owners of large-aperture scopes, in which the Moon’s brightness can be
overwhelming.
The MOON FILTER is a precision neutral density filter. The Moon filter reduces the Lunar intensity uniformly over the visual
spectrum. This removes glare while maintaining the full aperture and resolving power of the telescope, thus enabling the
eye to see finer lunar details. Further, single filters may also be employed to increase the image contrast of LUNAR features
: LIGHT YELLOW, GREEN, ORANGE, LIGHT RED.
For use, just attach it (MOON FILTER) to the filter adaptor and slide the filter adaptor into the EYEPIECE FOCUSER
ADAPTOR TUBE (13). Then lock the EYEPIECE FOCUSER SCREW (14). Insert an astro eyepiece of your choice and you
are ready to observe.
NOTE : - Cannot be used in conjunction with BARLOW.
GUIDED ASTROPHOTOGRAPHY (PIGGYBACK CAMERA) :
The simplest form of deep - sky astrophotography is by mounting a 35mm Camera on top of the STARTRACKER 80 in a
"PIGGY-BACK” fashion. Using a standard 50mm lens camera and a cable release wide-angle photography of remarkable
star clouds of milky-way, long comet tails, meteor showers and other objects is readily accomplished. This type of
Astropholography ranging from one minute to two minutes is perhaps the easiest and most rewarding for the beginners.
The Piggyback mounted camera is guided through the main Telescope. Guiding is accomplished by using a high power
eyepiece, and a magnification of 125 to 200X at the Telescope focus. Keep a star point precisely centred into the Telescope
field, during the period of the Piggyback exposure. While the AZIMUTH - HORIZONTAL / ALTITUDE - VERTICAL of the
telescope axis is used to bring the star point back into the centre of the eyepiece. In short, a continuous use of slow motion
is required because of a small image scale involved, a considerable error margin will exist in such a guided Piggyback
photography but guiding error is nearly unnoticeable. The Piggyback Bracket employs a standard 1/4"- 20 thread.
NOTE : PIGGYBACK PHOTOGRAPHY is only possible with optional slow motion controls.
TO MOUNT PIGGYBACK BRACKET :
PIGGYBACK BRACKET will directly fit on any of the STARTRACKER SYSTEM Astronomical Telescopes without any
modifications. To attach PIGGYBACK BRACKET on the Telescope tube simply slide the mounting bracket over the main
telescope tube (22).
TWO WAYS TO MOUNT :
Temporary mounting can be done on the front end of the telescope tube for each observing session as may be desired.
This is done by removing DUST COVER FRONT (10) and sliding the finder mounting bracket till it touches RACK FOCUSING
MOUNT (11) and lock the "set screw" of the mounting bracket.
15
*Permanent mounting can be done by the following way : First remove the GUNSIGHT (LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) REAR
(SLIPTIGHT) (7) & TUBE HOLDER GUNSIGHT (30) to be pushed outward. Then slide and fit the STAR FINDER mounting
bracket near the GUNSIGHT (LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) FRONT (8) to your desired position and orient it. Lock the "SET
SCREW" of the STAR FINDER mounting bracket. Refit the items removed in its original position. Counter balancing will be
required by sliding TUBE HOLDER (30), and lock the TUBE HOLDER "SET SCREW" (27). See the section of this manual
TUBE BALANCE (PROVISION FOR THE PHOTOHOBBYIST).
THE PIGGYBACK BRACKET employs a standard 1/4"-20 thread to mount your 35mm SLR Camera.
NOTE : PIGGYBACK PHOTOGRAPHY is only possible with optional slow motion controls with the standard Telescope.
If you have Motorised Auto Drive System Equatorial Mount, then Optional Slow Motion control is not necessary. See the
section of this manual BASIC ASTROPHOTOGRAPHIC METHODS, PIGGYBACK PHOTOGRAPHY with Equatorial
Mount Auto Drive System.
TUBE BALANCES (PROVISION FOR THE PHOTOHOBBYIST) :
For terrestrial, Lunar and guided Piggyback Astrophotography.
If you load the camera on to the Telescope Focuser you will notice that the Telescope tube is heavier towards the front end
of the tube. To overcome the imbalance below the Tube Holder slip tight bracket, you will notice the two set screws (27).
Now simply unscrew the set screw and slide the tube holder, slip tight bracket towards the front side to the telescope until
you find perfect balancing of the tube assembly with your camera and retighten the set screw (27). (Do not over tighten or
it may damage the tube).
CAUTION :
DO NOT PUSH OR PULL THE BEARING THAT PIVOTS ALTITUDE MOVEMENT NOR APPLY ANY UNEVEN FORCE BY WHICH
YOU MAY BREAK THE MOUNTING SYSTEM DURING THIS OPERATION. UNLOCK THE ALTITUDE LOCK WHILST DOING THIS,
BE CAREFUL NOT TO DROP THE CAMERA.
STARFINDER TELESCOPE :
7 x 25 STAR FINDER is supplied in its mounting bracket for convenience. Optional STAR FINDER will directly fit on any
STARTRACKER Astronomical Telescopes without any modifications.
To attach STARFINDER (viewfinder) on the Telescope Tube, simply slide the finder mounting bracket over the main telescope tube (22).
TWO WAYS TO MOUNT :
Temporary mounting can be done on the front end of the telescope tube for each observing session as may be desired.
This is done by removing DUST COVER FRONT (10) and sliding the finder mounting bracket till it touches RACK FOCUSING
MOUNT (11) and lock the "set screw" of the mounting bracket.
*Permanent mounting can be done by the following way : First remove the GUNSIGHT (LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) REAR
(SLIPTIGHT) (7) & TUBE HOLDER GUNSIGHT (30) to be pushed outward Then slide and fit the STAR FINDER mounting
bracket near the GUNSIGHT (LENSLESS FINDER SPOT) FRONT (8) to your desired position and orient it. Lock the 'SET
SCREW’ of the STAR FINDER mounting bracket. Refit the items removed in its original position. Counter balancing will be
required by sliding TUBE HOLDER (30) and lock the TUBE HOLDER "SET SCREW" (27). See the section of this manual
TUBE BALANCE (PROVISION FOR THE PHOTOHOBBYIST).
COLLIMATION - ADJUSTMENT :
The STAR FINDER will require alignment or collimation to the main
Telescope using the 25mm eyepiece. Point the main Telescope at some
easy land object. Centre a well defined object in the main Telescope and
focus. Then view the object through the STAR FINDER using 3 collimation set screws provided. Tighten or loosen as appropriate until the
cross hair of the STAR FINDER are precisely centered on the object
already centered in the main telescope. With this, collimation is accomplished. Now the object located first in the wide field STAR FINDER will
then be centered in the main telescope's field of view. Once attached the
STAR FINDER may be left permanently mounted on the telescope's
tube. It need not be removed when storing the telescope.
16
USING THE RED DOT FINDER :
The Red Dot Finder is a zero magnification pointing tool that uses a
coated glass window to superimpose the image of a small red dot onto
the night sky. The Red Dot Finder is equipped with a variable brightness
control, azimuth adjustment control, and altitude adjustment control
(Fig.A). The Red Dot Finder is powered by a 3-volt lithium battery
located underneath at the front. To use the Finder, simply look through
the sight tube and move your telescope until the red dot merges with the
object. Make sure to keep both eyes open when sighting.
A
Aligning the Red Dot Finder
Like all finderscopes, the Red Dot Finder must be properly aligned with
the main telescope before use. This is a simple process using the
azimuth and altitude control knobs.
1)
2)
3)
4)
Open the battery cover by pulling it down and remove the plastic
shipping cover over the battery (Fig B).
Turn on the Red Dot Finder by rotating the variable brightness
control clockwise until you hear a “click”. Continue rotating the
control knob to increase the brightness level.
Insert a low power eyepiece into the telescope’s focuser. Locate a
bright object and position the telescope so that the object is in the
centre of the field of view.
With both eyes open, look through the sight tube at the object. If
the red dot overlaps the object, your Red Dot Finder is perfectly
aligned. If not, turn its azimuth and altitude adjustment controls
until the red dot is merged with the object.
B
7 X 50 SUPER STARFINDER TELESCOPE :
This large aperture view finder replaces the standard 7 x 25 view finder on any of the STARTRACKER SYSTEM
TELESCOPES. It provides bright wide-field capability, facilitating the visual location of faint and nebulous objects.
The 7 x 50 SUPER STAR FINDER TELESCOPE & SUPER RIGHT ANGLED FINDER Telescope, follow a similar procedure described for the standard 7 x 25mm STARFINDER TELESCOPE.
7 X 50 SUPER RIGHT ANGLED FINDER TELESCOPE :
In a Right Angled Finder the image is a mirror image. Right Angled Finder Telescope have two advantages : First, the image
is not inverted and is therefore better suited for terrestrial use and secondly it is more comfortable for viewing objects
overhead specially for Newtonion Telescopes. Clearly, this is a right choice. If you find the STANDARD straight through
Finder Telescope inconvenient you have the option of a right angled model.
WARNING :
FOCUSING :
NOTE :
Never use set screws on any part, except those supplied by us.
Focusing the object through the finder is accomplished with the push - pull movement of the front lens
focusing tube.
If the eyepiece is removed from the finder, be careful not to touch in any way the cross hairs of the
eyepiece which are exposed inside the barrel end of the eyepiece holder.
BAADER ORIGINAL :
ASTRO SOLAR SAFETY FILM :
High quality objective filters for observation / photographing the SunSpots, Solar / Partial Eclipse,
transit of Mercury and Venus.
Specially CE-tested safety film with high quality optical characteristics reduces intensity of sun light by 99.999%. Astro
Solar safety film is a specially manufactured streak and blister free foil only 0.012mm thick and attains the optical quality
of plane parallel glass filters. The base material is not “Mylar”. The highly uniform molecular structure of this material is the
result of research in nuclear and elementary particle physics. The coating is subject to constant quality control. It’s
reflective property of over 99.999% has been the German Republic Bureau of Standards and Confirmity with EU norm 89/
686 is certified with the CE symbol. It reduces the intensity of sun light by factor of over 100,000. Coating on both sides of
the foil ensures a highly uniform filtering. While neutralising the occassional microscopic holes in the coating (which are also
17
much more present in glass filters). One layer of this foil is sufficient for the construction of a safe, high-resolution solar filter.
The quality of the solar image is immeasurable better than what can be achieved by using a so-called Mylar “rescue
blankets” or similar materials which must be used in several layers.
Base-Astro-Solar is extremely clear and homogenous. It is specially treated 1) To absorb internal reflections (reducing
haziness present in other film) 2) To reduce internal stresses which dramatically improve the optical performance over
Mylar and similar filters. 3) Gives neutral white image of the SUN without any colour against a black background sky.
For observing the SUN in white light, Solar Filters are for looking at or photographing the SUN as far as safety is concerned.
Optional SOLAR FILTER will directly fit on any STARTRACKER Astronomical Telescopes without any modifications. There
comes a completely assembled unit in its own cell which is accurately machined to fit on the front end of the telescope tube.
This is done by removing DUST COVER (10) and replacing with the Solar Filter Cell. Tighten the safety "set screws"
supplied with the cell. Care should always be exercised when viewing the SUN. Never use any solar filter which is not
specially designed for use with STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELECOPES. In particular do not use small "SUN FILTERS"
which fit on the eyepiece, Sun diagonals or Sun projection screen devices. Instant and irreversible eye damage as well as
physical damage to the telescope itself can result from the use of improper or inadequate Sun Filters not designed for the
STARTRACKER.
Please read the following safety precautions :
1) Before each and every solar observing session, check that the filter's fit and if neccesary tape it to prevent slipping.
Never use the filter on the eyepiece (where you look from into the telescope). Only fit it in front of the objective or at the
front end of the Newtonian telescope (where light enters the telescope); otherwise the inside of the telescope will
become hot. Failing to use a solar filter may also lead to loss of eyesight. In case of binoculars make sure both
objective's are safely covered, the above implies to SLR cameras also.
2) A filter made of this durable quality is relatively resistant to breakage in compansion with a glass filter. However care
should be taken with sharp pointed objects. The coating can be damaged by scratching or rubbing. A filter with
damaged foil should be destroyed immediately to avoid accidental use.
3) Children should be allowed to use the telescope under parental guidance. Never leave the telescope unattended during
day time.
4) If your telescope has a finder, it's objective should be protected with dust covers applied with a tape. Unprotected
viewing through the finder would have the same catastrophic consequences as through the main telescope. Additionally, an uncovered finder directed at the sun can produce exceedingly unpleasant scalp burns.
5) Never point the telescope at or near the Sun without the Solar Filter already in place.
6) With all the foregoing steps accomplished, locate the Sun by looking at the shadow of the telescope on the ground,
not by setting along the telescope tube.
7) After using the SOLAR FILTER during an observing session, always point the telescope away from the Sun, before
removing the SOLAR FILTER.
8) Finally do not try to view the Sun directly for the sake of curiosity.
Important tips for visual safety.
Please read before use : If used properly the result is completely safe in the operation of the telescope during Solar observations. The following
guidelines should always be observed :
1) Absolutely avoid all forms of unprotected solar viewing. Your eyes could suffer irrepairable damage. Smoked glass,
darkened film negatives, CD's or doubled sun glasses do not offer sufficient protection even at sunrise or sunset.
2) Astro Solar Safety Film reduces the intensity of incident sun light by over 100,000. According to current medical
research, the filter when properly used provides complete protection against thermal damage to the retina
(photocogulation).
3) Under certain circumstances, any intense source of light (e.g. spotlight, laser beam, welding-arc.the sun.etc.) can
trigger so called photo toxic process in the eye. In extreme cases, such reactions can have a additive effect over time
leading to deterioration of vision.
4) Please note : The filter provides protection against solar radiation similar to that offered by welding glasses. However,
as long as it is not absolutely certain that even welders glasses completely hinder photo-toxic reactions, the same
reservations must apply to this solar filter. Therefore, excercise your own best judgement when using this product.
5) Although never heard of a single case of eye damage in ten years of sale of this product to thousands of telescope
users in European market and knowing that welders ply their trade for years, while the Solar filter's use can be
measured in minutes, we believe it is appropriate to inform you of the current state of scientific knowledge.
18
6) In any case, it is advisable to interrupt solar observation occassionally and look at other object. If you have any doubts
at all, especially in case of known excessive eye sensitivity consult your opthalmologist or optician.
HANDLE WITH CARE : Do not use if damaged in anyway. Dust may be removed with a photographic brush only. Do not rub
the surface with a cloth. Serious degrading of the image may result and will not be safe for observation if scratches are
formed on the surface. Dust will be less harmful than scratches as far as the quality is concerned.
PHOTO TRIPOD ADAPTOR :
This adaptor allows you to mount the optical tube assembly of the STARTRACKER SYSTEM Telescope on to a suitable
sturdy photographic tripod with the standard 1/4" x 20 thread mount. You must remove the New Metal Mount and use the
supplied hardware to attach the adaptor.
PHOTOGRAPHIC TRIPOD STANDS are normally available from local Photo Dealers.
CLEANING THE OPTICS AND STORAGE :
In most common Telescopes, maintenance error is cleaning the optics very often. The optics would require less cleaning
if protected from moisture and dust particles. When not in use, the Telescope tube may be kept in a sleeping position
(horizontal). This prevents dust from falling on to the mirror (the heart of the Telescope).
CAUTION :
The Telescope's greatest enemy is moisture and dust particles. You will never need re-aluminizing for a long period, if you
are really careful for placing the dust cover (9) and (10) at both ends and the dust cover (15) at the eyepiece end.
GENERAL PURPOSE LENS CLEANER (30ml Bottle) :
This is recommended for cleaning any of the STARTRACKER SYSTEM Optical lenses like Eyepiece, Super Astro Eyepiece,
Barlow lens Camera lens, Filter, Solar Filter, Finder Telescope, etc. For aluminised mirror, LENS CLEANER should be used
with caution and with very light pressure.
GENERAL HINTS ON OBSERVING WITH THE TELESCOPE :
STARTRACKER SYSTEM Telescopes permit an extremely wide range of serious observation opportunities. Even in normal
city conditions, with all related air and light pollution, there are many interesting celestial objects to observe. There is no
substitute for a clear steady, dark sky which is found away from city light pollution or on mountain tops. The objects
previously viewed in the city are seen in greater detail, or become visible at all for the first time.
The advanced Astronomer's have two problems when viewing astronomical objects through the Earth's atmosphere : First
the clarity or transparency of the air and second the steadiness of the air. Latter is referred to as the quality of seeing. A
clear dark sky is worthless for serious observations if the air is not steady. This steadiness of atmosphere is seen by
"Twinkling" of the stars. Rapid twinkling referred to air motion in the atmosphere and under this conditions resolution of fine
detail will be limited but when the air is steady, stars appear steady as a point of unchanging brightness and it is in such a
situation that the full potential of the telescope is achieved. Higher power may be used to advantage closer double stars
resolved at distinct points and finer details can be observed on the Moon and Planets.
These are few basic guidelines to be followed for the best results in using your Telescope.
1) While observing do not touch the eyepiece. Any vibration resulting from such contact will immediately move the image.
2) Allow your eyes to become "dark adapted" prior to making any serious observation. Generally 15 to 20 minutes are
required for most persons.
3) Your Telescope should "Cool down" to the outside temperature before making any observations. Temperature difference between the warm house and cold outside requires about 25 to 30 minutes for the telescope optics to regain its
correct figure.
4) Avoid setting up the telescope inside a room and observing through an open window. The difference in air currents
caused by inside and outside temperature will make optical performance difficult.
5) If you are wearing glasses and do not suffer from astigmatism, take your glasses off when observing through the
eyepiece and refocus the image to suit your own eyes.
6) IMPORTANT : Avoid "OVERPOWERING" your telescope. The maximum usable magnification at any given time is
governed by the seeing conditions. If the STAR IMAGE becomes fuzzy drop down the power to a lower magnification.
A smaller but brighter and sharper image is preferable to a larger but fuzzy and indistinct one.
19
OBSERVINGTHE SKY :
SKY CONDITIONS : Sky conditions are usually defined by two atmospheric characteristics, seeing, or the steadiness of the air, and transparency, light scattering due to the amount of water vapour and particulate material in the air.When you observe the Moon and
the planets, and they appear as though water is running over them, you probably have bad “seeing” because you are
observing through turbulent air. In conditions of good “seeing”, the stars appear steady, without twinkling, when you look at
them with unassisted eyes (without a telescope). Ideal “transparency” is when the sky is inky black and the air is
unpolluted.
SELECTING AN OBSERVING SITE : Travel to the best site that is reasonably accessible. It should be away from city lights, and upwind from any source of air
pollution. Always choose as high an elevation as possible; this will get you above some of the lights and pollution and will
ensure that you aren’t in any ground fog. Sometimes low fog banks help to block light pollution if you get above them. Try
to have a dark, unobstructed view of the horizon, especially the southern horizon if you are in the Northern Hemisphere
and vice versa. However, remember that the darkest sky is usually at the “Zenith”, directly above your head. It is the
shortest path through the atmosphere. Do not try to observe any object when the light path passes near any protrusion on
the ground. Even extremely light winds can cause major air turbulence as they flow over the top of a building or wall.
Observing through a window is not recommended because the window glass will distort images considerably. And an open
window can be even worse, because warmer indoor air will escape out the window, causing turbulence which also affects
images. Astronomy is an outdoor activity.
CHOOSING THE BEST TIME TO OBSERVE : The best conditions will have still air, and obviously, a clear view of the sky. It is not necessary that the sky be cloud-free.
Often broken cloud conditions provide excellent seeing. Do not view immediately after sunset. After the sun goes down, the
Earth is still cooling, causing air turbulence. As the night goes on, not only will seeing improve, but air pollution and ground
lights will often diminish. Some of the best observing time is often in the early morning hours. Objects are best observed as
they cross the meridian, which is an imaginary line that runs through the Zenith, due North-South. This is the point at which
objects reach their highest points in the sky. Observing at this time reduces bad atmospheric effects. When observing near
the horizon, you look through lots of atmosphere, complete with turbulence, dust particles and increased light pollution.
COOLING THE TELESCOPE : Telescopes require at least 10 to 30 minutes to cool down to outside air temperature.This may take longer if there is a big
difference between the temperature of the telescope and the outside air. This minimizes heat wave distortion inside
telescope tube (tube currents). Allow a longer cooling time for larger optics. If you are using an equatorial mount, use this
time for polar alignment.
ADAPTING YOUR EYES : Do not expose your eyes to anything except red light for 30 minutes prior to observing.This allows your pupils to expand
to their maximum diameter and build up the levels of optical pigments, which are rapidly lost if exposed to bright light. It is
important to observe with both eyes open. This avoids fatigue at the eyepiece. If you find this too distracting, cover the nonused eye with your hand or an eye patch. Use averted vision on faint objects:The center of your eye is the least sensitive
to low light levels.When viewing a faint object, don’t look directly at it. Instead, look slightly to the side, and the object will
appearbrighter.
20
GENERAL :
EYEPIECES : Eyepiece or occulars are in principle sophisticated magnifying glasses. The main Telescope forms an image of the object
being observed, while the eyepiece permits the observer to magnify this image to a convenient size for visual inspection.
Here STARTRACKER SYSTEM EYEPIECES consists of a series of lenses from 2 lens elements in a simple eyepiece to
5 elements in the sophisticated eyepieces mounted in a 1.25"OD BARREL DIAMETER. Using the proper eyepiece, the
observer can see in detail with the same Telescope. Each eyepiece is suitable for different applications depending on the
observer’s particular interests and budget.
FOCAL LENGTH : EYEPIECE FOCAL LENGTHS are available from about 38mm to 6mm in general from low to high powers. Keep in mind that
on a given telescope, It is solely the EYEPIECE FOCAL LENGTH that determines the operating power.
EYE RELIEF : EYE RELIEF is defined as the distance the eye must be placed from the eyepiece in order to see the entire field of view.
Long EYE RELIEF is especially desirable for eye glass wearers. Short focal length eyepieces generally have shorter eye
relief than longer focal length eyepieces.
NOTE : - If you wear eye glasses because of near sight or far sight, you may remove them while observing through a
Telescope, without reducing image resolution. You simply need to re-focus the image If you are suffering from
astigmatism, an asymmetric defect of the eye and if your astigmatism is severe, you should wear your eye
glasses while using the Telescope, images may otherwise appear distorted.
MAGNIFICATIONS : The power of the telescope depends on two optical characteristics : The focal length of the main telescope and the focal
length of the eyepiece used during a particular observation. The focal length of the Telescope mirror is fixed at 1000mm. To
calculate the power in use with a particular eyepiece, divide the focal length of the main telescope mirror by the focal length
of the eyepiece e.g. using a 25mm eyepiece supplied with, the power is calculated as follows :
Power = 1000mm divided by 25mm gives 40x.
The maximum practical magnification is determined by the nature of the object being observed and most important is the
prevailing atmospheric condition. Under very steady atmosphere, the telescope can be used at 200x to 250x on astronomical objects. Generally, however, lower power will perhaps be the maximum permissible, consistent with high image
resolution. When unsteady air conditions prevail (as seen by rapid 'Twinkling' of the star) an extremely high power eyepiece
results in "empty magnification" where the detail is diminished by the excessive power.
When beginning to observe a particular object such as a star with a low power eyepiece, get the object centered and focus
sharp. Then try next step up in magnification. If the image starts to become fuzzy on higher magnification then back down
to a lower power. The atmospheric steadiness is not sufficient to support high powers at the time you are observing. Keep
in mind that a bright, clearly resolved, but, smaller image will show far more detail than a dimmer, poorly resolved, larger
image.
"The Barlow Lens" is available to increase the operating eyepiece's power of the telescope. See the section of this manual
"Variable Barlow".
LIMITS OF MAGNIFICATION (In general) : There is no theoretical limit on the highest power which can be used on a telescope, although there are very definite
practical limits on useful powers. Similarly, a telescope cannot be used below a certain minimum magnification.
The following formulae serve to define the magnification range of most telescopes :
MINIMUM useful Power = 3.5x (per inch of an aperture of the mirror diameter).
MAXIMUM useful Power = 60x (per inch of an aperture of the mirror diameter).
Example : A telescope of 4" diameter may be used in a magnification range between 3.5x multiply by 4 = 14x on low power
and 60x multiply by 4 = 240x on the high power. The above formula should be regarded as a general guide for determining
the magnification of most telescopes. Always keep in mind that magnification by itself is one of the least important
characteristics of a telescope. Mainly more important is the diameter or aperture of the telescope for it is the telescope
aperture which ultimately determines the level of detail that can be observed, not the magnification.
21
ALIGNMENT (COLLIMATION) OF THE OPTICAL SYSTEM :
Optical alignment of any Astronomical Telescope used for serious observation is extremely important. Such collimation is
absolutely essential for good performance.
All Telescopes sold by us are well collimated and centered and it is possible that you will not need to make any optical
adjustments before observing. However, rough handling may probably need to re-collimate the optical system. This
recollimation is not so difficult.
To check the collimation of your telescope, locate a moderately bright star near Zenith. Give 30 minute to normalize the
temperature of the telescope.
The Test performed : Centre the point source (e.g. STAR IMAGE) in the telescope field with low power eyepiece. Defocus
the image. You will see in the out-of-focus image a circle of light, within it a darker circular shadow of the secondary mirror
obstruction. If the darker shadow is well centered within the lighter circle, your telescope is well centered. Further use of
high power will decide more sensitive placement of the darker shadow.
The only optical alignment adjustment possible is the tilt angle adjustment of the primary and secondary mirror. Adjustment
of this tilt angle is achieved by turning the three set screws (4) located on the back of the (33) mirror cell. Do not force the
3 collimation screws to pass beyond their normal travel, and do not rotate any screw in a anti-clockwise direction more, i.e.
"LOOSENING" direction or else the mirror may become loose from its support.
CAUTION :One screw is loosened while the other screw is tightened to achieve the rigid support. Never over tighten or the mirror
surface will get deformed.
In case of secondary mirror collimation, adjustment is extremely sensitive and it would be advisable not to change or
disturb the collimation (6). You would certainly not be in a position to align accurately at 45 degrees and orient the correct
position. The setting of the secondary mirror is done with precision on an optical UNIT. In case of necessity, align accurately
at 45 degrees and orient the correct position with respect to the optical tube i.e. at right angle (Perpendicular to the plane
of the tube).
ADJUSTMENTS :
STARTRACKER Telescopes are sent as a completely finished product. For safety and compactness some components
are packed separately. These components are readily re-attached to the optical tube without difficulty. All adjustments of the
mounting and optics are made at our works prior to being despatched.
NOTE FOR AMATEUR ASTRO-PHOTO ENTHUSIAST / PHOTO HOBBYIST :
We are interested in receiving free copies of ASTRO / TERRESTRIAL photography taken through our STARTRACKER
SYSTEM. We hope, the users of the STARTRACKER TELESCOPE / TELEPHOTOS will forward samples of their
photographic works.
Examples of fine Astronomical Objects / Piggyback photography of particular interest like lunar phases / lunar eclipse,
Asteroids and planetary tracking with respect to the Astro / Terrestrial subjects which you may feel of special importance,
may be sent to us.
While sending copies to us please be sure to include the following information for each B/W prints or colour prints slides
submitted.
1) Exposure time. 2) Type of film. 3) Telescope model No. 4) Camera. 5) Your name and address. 6) Telephone number if any.
Any photographs sent to us becomes the property of STARTRACKER and are non returnable. May be your name will be
prominently mentioned as the photographer to record in any publication or advertisement we feel appropriate. No claim
what-so-ever may be made by the submitters.
FACTORY SERVICING AND REPAIRS :
STARTRACKER SYSTEM has been designed and manufactured for years of trouble free operation, and repairs should
rarely be necessary. If operated with reasonable care and if a problem does occur, first write or call. Do not return the
Telescope for servicing, until you have communicated with us in this way, since the majority of problems can be handled
without returning the Telescope to us. Explain In detail, the exact nature of the problem, so that we may offer a prompt
remedial procedure. If need arises in routine, we can service the Telescope with prior appointments.
22
NOTE : To aluminise the mirrors, simply unscrew the three set screws of the mirror cell holder (31) and secondary mirror / spider
mount holder (32) (Complete assembly) which directly fits into the Telescope tube and draw it outwards. The complete
assembly should be carefully packed in a small wooden box and sent to us for aluminizing. Return postage and aluminizing
charges will be collected through V.P.P. on returning. Be sure to include your full name, address, phone number and
Telescope Model No.
GENERAL NOTES : We reserve the right to alter prices, amend or withdraw any item listed and make any alterations that are deemed
necessary and to change any specifications mentioned in this manual for improving the quality of its products without prior
notification. All offers are subject to availability of goods at the time of ordering. SUBJECT TO MUMBAI JURISDICTION
ONLY.
As an OPTICAL Telescope Manufacturing Company, with more than 25 years of experience in designing and manufacturing Telescopes, we have become experts and innovators in the science of economically manufacturing optics to the
extremely close tolerances necessary for a perfect image.
STARTRACKER SYSTEM DRIVE TELESCOPE :
The most advanced SYSTEM ever manufactured for the serious amateur considering these STATE-OF-THE-ART features
: Fully automatic tracking of Astronomical Objects. The most advanced SYSTEM manufactured commercially and the
finest in Portable telescopes, but in addition with the drive system of unparalleled precision.
STARTRACKER DRIVE SYSTEMS are priced competitively with the other manufacturers.
Drive series for D = 75mm, D = 80mm, D = 90mm, D = 100mm, D = 125mm & D = 150mm model includes the same opilcal
tube assembly but mounted on the Heavy Duty German Equatorial Mount and with automatic tracking electric motor
provided as an additional equipment.
EQUATORIAL MOUNT AND DRIVE :
The German Equatorial Mount with Metal Pier stand : The Equatorial Mount provides stable observing platform for the STARTRACKER SYSTEM Telescopes described in this
section, and yet the instruments track through the skies precisely as a watch. Worm & Worm wheel, clutch, and bearing
components are used exclusively, permitting the addition of heavier auxiliary equipment without risk of strain on the
mechanism. The Polar Shaft is of 25mm diameter solid Stainless steel ground, turned and polished. The Polar Axis is rigidly
mounted in a preloaded sealed ball bearing. All machined to close tolerances. A front ball bearing on both Polar and
Declination axes, permits micro smooth tracking and precise balancing, even with the addition of any auxiliary system.
SUPER German Equatorial Mount with Motor Drive System :
For the demanding Astronomer STARTRACKER MOTOR DRIVE Telescope includes an optional equipment an electric
drive system for fully automatic tracking of astronomical objects from a 230v AC. Also included is a self- acting clutch
mechanism so that, even when the motor is in operation, the telescope tube may be moved freely at will in any direction.
When the observer releases manual contact with the telescope, the drive automatically resumes tracking. Telescope
tracking
is
enabled by a motor actuated through a gear system. A worm gear drive system, for extremely low photo-visual periodic
error and zero back-lash.
PRECISION POLAR ALIGNMENT with Equatorial Mount :
Unless you intend to engage in guided astrophotngraphy, it is not necessary to follow the precise polar alignment
procedure. For the purpose of casual visual telescopic observations lining up the telescope's polar axis to within a degree
or two of the pole is more than sufficient. With this level of pointing accuracy, the telescope's motor drive will track
accurately and keep objects in the telescopic field-of-view for perhaps 15 to 30 minutes.
ELECTRIC MOTOR DRIVE :
Supplied as an optional equipment to the Equatorial Mount it is an extremely accurate worm gear drive system, operating
from a 220v - 240v / 50Hz Synchronous electric motor. The Power cord plugs into 230v AC and plug into the Telescope RA
Drive. With the telescope set up in the equatorial mode, plug the power cord into a power outlet. The drive system turns the
RA shaft of the telescope through one complete revolution every 24 Hours, and resulting in the stars "STANDING STILL"
as you view them through the telescope eyepiece.
23
TUBE BALANCE WEIGHT SYSTEM (For Equatorial Mount Telescope) : (EXTRA COUNTER WEIGHT) :
For Equatorial Mount Telescope.
Additional Accessories such as camera Piggyback bracket, finder etc can greaty alter the normal balance of your
STARTRACKER SYSTEM TELESCOPE.
COUNTER WEIGHTS restore this balance, greatly increasingly handling, and maintaining tracking accuracy.
This balance need not be perfect. Infact it's not always possible to achieve perfect balance with fixed-positon weights. All
that is required is to reduce or eliminate swing when the RA and declination locks are released. You will find it necessary to
rebalance the telescope by adding or subtracting counter weights. Only the minimum weight required for balancing of the
accessories in question should be used. Slide the weight on to the declination shaft at the appropriate position of balance
& tighten down each weight firmly with the knob screws provided.
BASIC ASTROPHOTOGRAPHIC METHODS :
PIGGYBACK PHOTOGRAPHY with Equatorial Mount (Auto) Motorised Drive System on RA Axis : In this the easiest form
of astiophotography is that the 35mm Camera with camera lens in place is attached on top to the telescope by means of
a Piggyback Bracket. The camera system is pointed at the desired object and a photographic time exposure is taken. The
telescope serves several purposes in this application.
1) To provide a stable mounting platform for the camera and camera lens system.
2) To move the camera correctly in tracking the subject during the time of the exposure (this tracking of the telescope is
so equipped of automatic tracking by means of the telescope motor drive) And,
3) To serve as a guiding instrument for the camera system, whereby the observer looks through the main telescope with
a cross-hair eyepiece centered on the object during the period of an exposure, notes any small deviations from correct
tracking of the object and corrects the position of the telescope appropriately either by manual or electronic means.
Almost any camera lens of 50mm to 250mm focal length are probably the most commonly used. The camera lens
should be set to the infinity focus position for this type of photography.
The Piggyback method can be very rewarding in the wide-angle photography of the milkyway, comets and constellations,
because it gives less tracking errors. It is probably the best way for the amateur astronomer to approach the subject of
astrophotography.
NOTE: However, due to the small image scale involved the Piggyback method is not suitable for photography of the
moon, planets or of most deep space objects. Exposure time ranges from 30 seconds to 30 minutes depending
on the type of the object and the level of the detail desired. Standard 50mm F/1.8 camera lenses can produce
very fine results with a 10 minutes exposure on Equatorial Mount Motorised Drive.
Further see the section of this Manual "TO MOUNT PIGGYBACK BRACKET AND CAMERA".
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COLLIMATING
COLLIMATING A NEWTONIAN REFLECTOR :
Collimation is the process of aligning the mirrors of your telescope so
that they work in concert with each other to deliver properly focused
light to your eyepiece. By observing out-of-focus star images, you can
test whether your telescope’s optics are aligned. Place a star in the
centre of the field of view and move the focuser so that the image is
slightly out of focus. If the seeing conditions are good, you will see a
central circle of light (the Airy disc) surrounded by a number of diffraction rings. If the rings are symmetrical about the Airy disc, the telescope’s
optics are correctly collimated (Fig.s).
If you do not have a collimating tool, we suggest that you make a
“collimating cap” out of a plastic 35mm film canister (black with gray
lid). Drill or punch a small pinhole in the exact center of the lid and cut
off the bottom of the canister. This device will keep your eye centered
of the focuser tube. Insert the collimating cap into the focuser in place
of a regular eyepiece.
Collimation is a painless process and works like this:
Pull off the lens cap which covers the front of the telescope and look
down the optical tube. At the bottom you will see the primary mirror
held in place by retaining ring, and at the top the small oval secondary
mirror held in a support and tilted 45º toward the focuser outside
the tube wall (Fig.s1).
The secondary mirror FIG 1(6) is aligned by adjusting the three smaller
screws surrounding the central bolt. The primary mirror is adjusted by
the three adjusting screws at the back of your scope. FIG 1(4) The
three adjusting screws hold the primary mirror in place after collimation. (Fig.s2)
ALIGNING THE SECONDARY MIRROR : Point the telescope at a lit wall and insert the collimating cap into the
focuser in place of a regular eyepiece. Look into the focuser through
your collimating cap. You may have to twist the focus knob a few turns
until the reflected image of the focuser is out of your view. Note: keep
your eye against the back of the focus tube if collimating without a
collimating cap. Ignore the reflected image of the collimating cap or
your eye for now, instead look for the outer retaining ring that is holding
the primary mirror in place. If you can’t see them complete (Fig.s3), it
means that you will have to adjust the three bolts on the top of the
secondary mirror holder FIG 1(6), with possibly screwdriver, you will
have to alternately loosen one and then compensate for the slack by
tightening the other two. Stop when you see the mirror retaining ring
complete (Fig.s4). Make sure that all three small alignment screws are
tightened to secure the secondary mirror in place.
Fig.s3
Ignore the reflected
image for now
ALIGNING THE PRIMARY MIRROR : Find the three locking screws at the back of your telescope and
loosen them by a few turns. FIG 1(4)
Fig.s4
Now run your hand around the front of your telescope keeping your
eye to the focuser, you will see the reflected image of your hand. The
idea here being to see which way the primary mirror is defected, you
do this by stopping at the point where the reflected image of the secondary mirror is closest to the primary mirrors’ edge (Fig.s5).
Retaining Ring Fig.1(3)
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When you get to that point, stop and keep your hand there while
looking at the back end of your telescope, is there an adjusting screw
there? If there is you will want to loosen it (turn the screw to the left) to
bring the mirror away from that point. If there isn’t an adjusting screw
there, then go across to the other side and tighten the adjusting screw
on the other side. This will gradually bring the mirror into line until it
looks like Fig.s6. (It helps to have a friend to help for primary mirror
collimation. Have your partner adjust the adjusting screws according
to your directions while you look in the focuser.)
After dark go out and point your telescope at Polaris, the North Star.
With an eyepiece in the focuser, take the image out of focus. You
will see the same image only now, it will be illuminated by starlight. If
necessary, repeat the collimating process only keep the star
centered while tweaking the mirror.
Fig.s5
Secondary
Mirror
Primary mirror
stop and k eep your
hand here
Fig.s6
Both mirrors aligned
with collimating cap in
Both mirrors aligned with
eye looking in focuser
CAUTION!
NEVER USE YOUR TELESCOPE TO LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN. PERMANENT
EYE DAMAGE WILL RESULT. USE A PROPER SOLAR FILTER FIRMLY MOUNTED
ON THE FRONT OF THE TELESCOPE FOR VIEWING THE SUN. WHEN OBSERVING
THE SUN, PLACE A DUST CAP OVER YOUR FINDERSCOPE OR REMOVE IT TO
PROTECT YOU FROM ACCIDENTAL EXPOSURE. NEVER USE AN EYEPIECE - TYPE
SOLAR FILTER AND NEVER USE YOUR TELESCOPE TO PROJECT SUNLIGHT
ONTO ANOTHER SURFACE, THE INTERNAL HEAT BUILD-UP WILL DAMAGE THE
TELESCOPE OPTICAL ELEMENTS.
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