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Transcript
Report from the Subaru Telescope
for External Review
FY2009 – FY2013
Report from the Subaru Telescope for external review (FY 2009 – FY 2013)
1. Overview ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
2. Science highlight ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
2.1.
Early Universe and Cosmology -------------------------------------------- 4
2.2.
Galaxies and Cluster of Galaxies ------------------------------------------ 6
2.3.
Active Galactic Nuclei and Galaxy Mergers --------------------------- 10
2.4.
Nearby Galaxies, Milky Way, Stars, and Supernovae --------------- 14
2.5.
Star Formation -------------------------------------------------------------- 16
2.6.
Exoplanets ------------------------------------------------------------------- 18
2.7.
Solar System ---------------------------------------------------------------- 21
3. Publications -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25
4. Scientific Operations --------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
4.1
status of telescope ---------------------------------------------------------- 57
4.2
status of instruments ------------------------------------------------------ 59
4.3
status of facility ------------------------------------------------------------- 62
4.4
status of computing system ---------------------------------------------- 66
4.5
day-time operation --------------------------------------------------------- 70
4.6
night-time operation ------------------------------------------------------- 71
4.7
Time exchange -------------------------------------------------------------- 74
4.8
HSC ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 76
5. Manpower ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 80
6. Development highlight ------------------------------------------------------------------ 81
6.1
PFS ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 81
6.2
High-contrast instruments (SCExAO and CHARIS) ----------------- 88
6.3
Raven ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
6.4
Upgrade of facility instruments ---------------------------------------- 104
7. Future plan ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 106
7.1
Telescope ------------------------------------------------------------------ 106
7.2
Facility ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 106
7.3
New operation mode ---------------------------------------------------- 107
7.4
New instruments --------------------------------------------------------- 108
7.5
Decommission ------------------------------------------------------------ 113
7.6
International collaboration -------------------------------------------- 114
8. Public Information and Outreach --------------------------------------------------- 116
9. Education --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 139
10. Safety and Internal Communication ------------------------------------------------ 140
Appendix: Incident of the Coolant leakage -------------------------------------------- 145
Self-Evaluation: Subaru Telescope – Summary
1 Overview
1.1 Organization
Subaru Telescope (observatory) is a branch of the National Astronomical Observatory of
Japan operating the 8.2-meter (effective aperture) optical-infrared telescope “Subaru”
located at the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. About 100 staff members (20 tour of duty
staff, 70 locally hired staff, and 10 posdocs/students) are located in its headquarters in Hilo,
whereas about 20 work in the Mitaka campus. The construction of the telescope began in
1991 and was completed in 1999 with the total capital cost of JPY 39,500M (USD 329M at
USD 1= JPY 120), including facilities in the NAOJ Mitaka campus as well as those in Hilo
and at the summit. The observatory was legally established in April 1997 in Hawaii and
achieved a successful first light on January 28 (Hawaii Time) in 1999. The observatory
began the open-use (or common-use) operations of Subaru Telescope in December and
currently operates eight instruments. About 206 nights a year are used for open-use
observations. The rest of the nights are used by the University of Hawaii astronomers (52)
and for engineering (30–50) and other purposes (20–40) such as coordinated or time critical
observations and staff use. The average oversubscription rate over the last five years was
3.1, a “canonical” value for world top-level telescopes. The open-use time is “open” for all the
researchers in the world; the fraction of proposals submitted by non-Japanese researchers
is over 20%, and so is for accepted proposals. About 88 proposals are accepted every year,
including on average 320 Japanese and 64 overseas researchers.
1.2 Outline of Middle-Term Objectives and Achievements of Project in
2009 - 2013
The project (observatory) has a mission to operate Subaru Telescope providing
astronomers in Japan and the world with frontier observational capabilities so they achieve
top-level astronomical research, while improving the performance of the telescope and
developing state-of-the-art instruments. The middle-term plan for 2009 - 2013 states that
Subaru promotes smooth open-use operations to accomplish high level of research
achievements. We believe that Subaru Telescope has been producing frontier research
results through its open-use operations for the years 2009 – 2013 in wide fields of
astronomy with some outstanding results. The major discoveries include the most distant
galaxy and primeval clusters of galaxies, the lowest mass exoplanet GJ 504 b,
proto-planetary disks with various morphologies. In addition, frontier pieces of research
-1-
have been made on distant galaxies, the large-scale structure, galaxy cluster formation,
AGNs, spatial distribution of dark matter, evidence of pair instability supernova in the
early universe, dwarf galaxies in the local group, direct imaging of proto-planetary systems,
exoplanetary atmospheres, and active asteroids. The average number of refereed
publications is 134 a year, which is no less than those from other 8–10 m class telescopes,
over the period of 2009 - 2013 and is increasing. The scientific achievements are backed-up
by the high performance of the telescope, state-of-the-art instruments, and high observing
efficiency. The telescope has a delicate balance and extremely high tracking accuracy, which
have been continuously improved as a result of staff members' dedicated efforts. The prime
focus camera Suprime-Cam has been providing unique capabilities among 8–10 m class
telescopes, allowing observers to obtain deep, wide field images with their limited amount
of telescope time. Development of Hype Suprime-Camera (HSC) has completed and the
HSC is available for open use since March 2014. The combination of a larger mirror, a wide
field of view, and sharp imaging represents a giant step into a new era of observational
astronomy. A new adaptive optics system with 188 element curvature sensors (AO188) and
Fiber Multi Object Spectrograph (FMOS) has been opened to the general users with high
demand. The downtime due to telescope, instrument or software failure is less than 10 % of
the observable (fine weather) time. However, in 2013 a number of troubles occurred, partly
due to the ageing of the Subaru Telescope, and the fraction of observation time was down to
88.6%.
1.3 Future Directions
Important issues to be noted for the future of Subaru Telescope and the future of Japanese
ground-based optical-infrared astronomy includes instrumentation, time exchange and the
role of Subaru Telescope in the 30 m class telescope era. It is obvious that Subaru Telescope
has to continuously develop unique instruments. For the coming decade, Subaru Telescope
plans to equip three large facility instruments: Hyper Sprime-Camera (HSC), Prime Focus
Spectrograph (PFS) and adaptive optics systems with deformable secondary mirror in
conjunction with upgraded and/or a new wide field instruments (Ultimate-Subaru). HSC
and PFS will lead the wide-field astronomy for the coming decades and also will provide
effective combination with TMT. Ultimate-Subaru is the upgrade of the telescope which
enables us to produce unique science in the TMT era. In addition to developing the large
facility instruments, Subaru accepts rather small instruments designed for a specific
science or prototype instruments for larger telescopes as PI-type or visiting instrument
such as SCExAO and RAVEN. This way, Subaru will keep diversity of astronomical field
and opportunity for the continuous development activities while conducting large
astronomical surveys. As is evident in the above plan, Subaru has become more
-2-
concentrated on instrumentation that requires its unique capabilities, i.e. the prime focus
and high imaging performance, than at its initial phase. This is natural considering the
increasing cost per instrument and high level of competition among 8-10 m class telescopes.
It is, however, very important that the observatory provides Japanese users with access to
wide variety of instruments. We believe that time exchange between major Mauna Kea
telescopes, each equipped with respective unique instruments, is a promising way to satisfy
this requirement, seeking co-prosperity of the Mauna Kea observatories. The Japanese
astronomy community is now elaborating the role of Subaru Telescope in the era of 30 m
class telescopes. Although the future plan given above is consistent with it, a critical factor
is TMT will be sited on Mauna Kea. Subaru Telescope must seek a complementary and
cooperative role for such a telescope, facilitating the further advance of optical-infrared
astronomy in Japan.
Nobuo Arimoto, Director
Subaru Telescope
National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
-3-
2. Science Highlight for FY2009–2013
2.1 Early Universe and Cosmology
2.1.1 Early Universe and cosmic reionization
Suprime-Cam mounted on the Subaru Telescope captures images of objects in a wide field of
view and is well-known for discovering faint, distant galaxies. Shibuya et al. (2012) have
used the Subaru telescope to discover the most distant galaxy ever found, SXDF-NB10062, at z = 7.215 at that time. This galaxy is slightly farther away than GN-108036, which
the Subaru Telescope discovered in the previous year (Ono et al. 2012), at z = 7.213 and
was the most distant galaxy discovered at the time. The team found that the proportion
of neutral hydrogen was increasing in the distant Universe. They concluded that about
80 percent of the hydrogen gas was neutral in the ancient Universe, 12.91 billion years
ago at a redshift of z = 7.2. These findings help us to understand the nature of the
early Universe during the ”cosmic dawn,” when the light of ancient celestial objects and
structures appeared from obscurity.
To detect the faint light from distant galaxies, the Subaru research team had often used
narrow-band filters to catch the redshifted Lyman α emissions from distant galaxies.
Observations of Lyα selected galaxies, also known as Lyα emitters (LAEs), have indicated
that the Lyα luminosity functions (LFs) of LAEs do not evolve between z = 3.1 and z =
5.7. In contrast, the Lyα luminosity of LAEs does evolve at z > 6 (e.g., Ouchi et al.
2010; Kashikawa et al. 2011). This evolution appears to continue at higher redshifts (z >
7) as well, where Lyα detections are rare (Ota et al. 2010; Shibuya et al. 2012), indicating
a key signature of reionization.
Iwata et al.(2009) detected strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation from galaxies that lie about
12 billion light-years away. Although this cosmic reionization was spurred by ionizing
radiation from the first generation of galaxies, there have been only two definite
detections reported so far. Thanks to the unprecedented performance of Suprime-Cam
and the use of a special narrow-band filter designed to collect only ionizing radiation,
the team detected effectively ionizing radiation from 17 galaxies at once. This result
indicates that young galaxies in the distant Universe (at least some of them) emit more
ionizing radiation than expected and that they may have played an important role in the
cosmic reionization. This is consistent with Ouchi et al. (2009b), which estimated the
total ionizing photon budget from the observation for dropout galaxies at z = 7.
Ouchi et al.(2009a) have discovered a mysterious, giant object, nicknamed Himiko,
which existed at z = 6.595. Objects such as this one are dubbed extended Lyα blobs;
they are huge bodies of gas that may be precursors to galaxies. This blob had a size of
typical present-day galaxies when the age of the universe was about 800 million years old,
only 6% of the c u r r e n t age of t h e U niverse. Although the nature of this object is not
yet clearly understood, this could be an important object for studying cooling clouds
accreting onto a massive halo, or forming-massive galaxies with significant outflows
contributing to cosmic reionization and metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium.
-4-
Figure 1: Left: Color composite image of the Subaru XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field. The
red galaxy at the center of the right panel image is the galaxy, SXDF-NB1006-2 at z=7.215
(Shibuya et al. 2012). Right: A f alse co lo r co mpo site image of the Himiko object (Ouchi
et al. 2009a).
2.1.2 Cosmology by gravitational lensing
Gravitational lensing provides an important means of studying the spatial distribution of
dark matter. Lensing studies of clusters have indeed confirmed several important
predictions of the standard-cold dark matter dominated (CDM) model. Okabe et al.(2010)
used high-quality Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam imaging data to conduct a detailed weak
lensing study of the distribution of dark matter in a sample of 30 X-ray luminous galaxy
clusters at 0.15 < z < 0.3. Oguri et al.(2010) applied weak-lensing mapping to the sample and
obtained clear evidence that the distribution of dark matter in the clusters has, on average,
an extremely flattened shape rather than a simple spherical contour. This finding
represents the first direct and clear detection of flattening in the dark matter distribution
with the use of gravitational lensing. Oguri et al.(2012) extended the study by using
different sample and analysis method f o r both ’strong’ and ’weak’ gravitational lensing
phenomena observed in images of 28 galaxy clusters. The team found that the degree of
central concentration in dark matter distribution is in good agreement with the CDM
model prediction, unlike previous claims that dark matter distribution may be overly
concentrated towards the center. Umetsu et al. (2009) performed a joint analysis of
Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect data with the weak gravitational lensing data from Subaru
Telescope observations, and concluded that when compared with the cosmic baryonic
fraction Ωb/Ωm = 0.171 ± 0.009, 22% ± 16% of the baryons are missing from the hot phase of
clusters.
2.1.3 Contribution by NAOJ Researchers
The noteworthy results of Iwata et al. (2009), Kashikawa et al. (2011), Oguri et al.
(2010), and Shibuya et al. (2012) have been highlighted in the previous section.
Matsuda et al. (2010) carried out a survey for giant Lyα blobs (LABs) at z = 3 with
Suprime-Cam. This survey triples the number of known LABs over 100 kpc. Matsuda et
al. (2012) stacked Lyα images of 2128 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 3.1 and found that the
slopes of the Lyα radial profiles become flatter as the Mpc-scale LAE surface density
increases, but that they are almost independent of the central UV luminosity. The rest-
-5-
frame Lyα equivalent width of the LAEs in the densest regions approaches EW0 ~ 200Å,
the maximum value expected for young (< 107 yr) galaxies. This suggests that Lyα
photons formed via shock compression by gas outflows or cooling radiation by
gravitational gas inflows may partly contribute to the illumination of Lyα haloes;
however, most of their Lyα luminosity can be explained by photoionization by or by the
scattering of Lyα photons produced from H II regions in and around the central galaxies.
Toshikawa et al. (2012) have discovered the most distant protocluster of galaxies ever
found at z = 6.01. The overdensity of the protocluster is significant at the 6σ level, based
on the surface number density of i’-dropout galaxies. Follow-up spectroscopy revealed
that 8 are clustering in a narrow redshift range (∆z < 0.05 centered at z = 6.01),
corresponding to a seven-fold increase in number density over the average in redshift
space. They speculated that the characteristic features of cluster galaxies in the nearby
Universe occurred in the later stages of cluster development, not during their birth. Close
examination of the internal structure of the protocluster showed that it could consist of
subgroups of galaxies, merging together to form a more massive cluster. The combination
of the Subaru Telescope’s large light-gathering power and the advantage of Suprime-Cam
with its wide-field imaging capability are particularly beneficial for discovering faint and
rare objects in the distant Universe. Tamura et al. (2010) found a “protoquasar”-like
object, with large extinction and a very hard X-ray spectrum, near the core of the SSA22
protocluster.
①Hamana et al.(2009) presented a follow-up spectroscopic campaign to cluster candidates
located via weak lensing and confirmed a secure cluster identification for 28 targets. Their
lensing-selected clusters are consistent with σv= sigmaSIS , with a similar scatter to that
of optically and X-ray selected clusters. They also derived an empirical relation between
the cluster mass and the velocity dispersion, M200E(z) = 11.0 × 1014× (σv /1000km s-1)3.0
h-1 M , which is in reasonable agreement with the predictions of N-body simulations in the λ
CDM cosmology. Hamana et al. (2012) further employed both an analytic model of dark
matter haloes and numerical mock data of their weak lensing cluster surveys and confirmed
that the expected number count is consistent with the observation.
References
Hamana, T. et al. 2009, PASJ, 61, 833; Hamana, T. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 425, 2287;
Iwata, I. et al. 2009, APJ, 692, 1287; Kashikawa, N. et al. 2011, APJ, 734, 119; Matsuda,
Y. et al. 2011, MNRAS, 410, 13; Matsuda, Y. et al. 2012, MNRAS, 425, 878; Oguri, M. et
al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 2215 Oguri, M. et al. 2012, MNRAS.420, 3213; Okabe, N. et al.
2010, PASJ, 62, 811; Ono, Y. et al. 2012, APJ, 744, 83; Ota, K. et al. 2010, APJ, 722, 803
Ouchi, M. et al. 2009a, APJ, 696, 1164 Ouchi, M. et al. 2009b, APJ, 706, 1136 Ouchi, M.
et al. 2010, APJ, 723, 869; Shibuya, T. et al. 2012, APJ, 752, 114; Tamura, Y. et al.
2010, APJ, 724, 1270; Toshikawa, J. et al. 2012, APJ, 750, 137 Umetsu, K. et al. 2009,
APJ, 694, 1643
2.2 Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies
2.2.1 Discovery of distant clusters
The Subaru Telescope has a unique wide-field imaging capability in both the optical and
infrared regimes. Because of this, the Subaru Telescope has made great contributions to the
search for and identification of rare objects such as massive clusters at high redshifts.
-6-
Using deep, multi-band Subaru Telescope, UKIRT, and XMM wide-field images available in
the Subaru-XMM deep survey field (SXDF), Tanaka et al. (2010) discovered a cluster at
z=1.62, that was subsequently confirmed by multi- object spectroscopy with MOIRCS. This
was the most distant X-ray detected cluster at that time. Similarly, Gobat et al. (2011)
discovered and confirmed an even more distant cluster at z~2. Furthermore, Hayashi et al.
(2012) took a different approach, and found a prominent concentration of Hα emitters
associated with a radio galaxy, leading to the discovery of a star bursting proto-cluster under
rapid construction at z=2.53.
Figure 2: Left: A z=1.62 cluster discovered in the SXDF by Tanaka et al. (2010) based on
multi-colour imaging data including t h e Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam Right: A z=2.53
cluster discovered by Hayashi et al. (2012) based on a narrow-band Hα imaging survey
with the Subaru Telescope/MOIRCS.
2.2.2 Narrow-band survey of distant star forming galaxies
Subaru Telescope wide-field cameras (Suprime-Cam and MOIRCS) have unique sets of
narrow-band filters. These filters are used to search for emission line galaxies at high
redshifts.
Figure 3: Lyα emitters with extended emission (Lymanα blobs; LABs) are identified with
Suprime-Cam by Matsuda et al. (2011). The giant LAB sample shows a ‘morphology-density
relation’: filamentary LABs reside in average density environments, while circular LABs
reside more in overdense environments.
Koyama et al. (2010) used a narrow-band filter on MOIRCS to search for Hα emitters
associated with a rich galaxy cluster RXJ1716+670 at z=0.81, and found that star formation
activity peaks in the outer surrounding region. With the same technique, Hayashi et al.
(2012) and Koyama et al. (2013) searched for Hα emitters in two proto-clusters further back
in time at z > 2 as a part of the Mahalo-Subaru project. They found that the peak of star
formation is shifted to the core of the cluster. Combining these results, it is found that
clusters grow from the inside-out and the peak of star formation shifts outward from the
cluster core to the outer surrounding regions as time progresses.
-7-
A similart narrow-band technique is also applied to general field galaxies. Sobral et al.
(2012; 2013) used a narrow- band filter on Suprime-Cam to identify [OII] emitters at z=1.5,
together with another narrow-band filter on UKIRT to identify Hα emitters at the same
redshift (HiZELS survey). The dual line survey can measure the line ratios, and provide us
information on dust extinction. Koyama et al. (2013) investigated the environmental
dependence of the star formation rate versus stellar mass relation and did not find any
significant dependence.
Diffuse nebular emissions around distant galaxies hold important clues about the gas flows
and interactions with the surrounding environments. Such diffuse emission can be obtained
only by deep Lyα imaging to overcome the cosmological dimming. Also, these spatially
extended Lyα emitters (Lyα blobs; LABs) are rare and require wide field imaging. Matsuda
et al. (2011; 2012) made such a wide and deep survey of LABs with the Subaru
Telescope/Suprime-Cam and discussed their relation to the environment and gas flows.
2.2.3 Physical properties of distant star forming galaxies
The properties of star forming galaxies are much better understood through follow-up
spectroscopy. The fiber-fed, panoramic NIR spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope Suprimcam has started operation. Yabe et al. (2012) and Kashino et al. (2013) presented NIR
spectra (emission lines) for a large sample of star forming galaxies at z > 1.
They showed star formation activity (Hα) and chemical evolution (gaseous metallicities
derived from line ratios). These studies provided the first statistical sample of NIR spectra
and quantified the evolutionary stages of star forming galaxies and their mass dependence.
Kewley et al. (2013) compared their new ionization model with Yabe et al.’s multi emission
line data, and put some constraints on the ISM conditions of these galaxies at z > 1 such as
gaseous metallicity and ionization parameters.
Figure 4: A high quality spectrum of quiescent galaxy at z=1.82 taken with the Subaru
Telescope/MOIRCS by Onodera et al. (2011). Many absorption lines are clearly identified.
2.2.4 Mass assembly and the quenching of galaxies
The Subaru Telescope has a wide-field NIR camera and spectrograph called MOIRCS.
Kajisawa et al. (2010) performed a wide- field, very deep NIR imaging survey (MODS
survey), and derived a mass assembly history since z=3 down to the present-day based on
the stellar mass functions as a function of redshift.
Compared to star forming galaxies which are brighter with blue continua and emission
-8-
lines, passively evolving galaxies without on-going star formation are much more difficult to
probe because of their faintness. Onodera et al. (2010; 2011) obtained very deep NIR spectra
of quiescent galaxies at high redshifts (z ~ 1.4) with MOIRCS, and found that at such high
redshifts there are already well-evolved, mature galaxies, indicating early formation of at
least some early-type (elliptical) galaxies.
Stott et al. (2010) investigated the mass growth history of the brightest galaxies in distant
clusters and found that they are already very massive, indicating that they grow fast at high
redshifts.
Together with UKIRT/WFCAM and Spitzer/IRAC data, wide-field Suprime-Cam imaging
data have also contributed significantly to the constructution of a large sample of red
galaxies up to z ~ 2 in the Subaru-XMM Deep Survey area by Williams et al. (2009). Based
on this unique statistical sample of high redshift red galaxies, they devised a useful
technique to distinguish between quiescent galaxies and dusty star forming galaxies on the
rest-frame UVJ diagram. This technique is now used frequently.
2.2.5 The COSMOS survey
COSMOS is a 2 sq. deg. survey originally conducted by HST/ACS, and the field has been
intensively followed up at all possible wavelengths from X-ray to radio at many kinds of
facilities. Among them, Subaru Telescope’s deep optical imaging with super multi-bands
including broad-band filters and many medium-band filters played a major role in providing
very accurate photometric redshifts for the galaxies in the survey field (Ilbert et al. 2009).
Those data are also used for later studies in the COSMOS, such as Giodini et al. (2009) and
McCracken et al. (2010).
2.2.6 Contribution by NAOJ researchers
NAOJ staff members made significant contributions to many of the above works. The
narrow-band imaging survey of Hα emitters in distant clusters was conducted by the
Mahalo-Subaru project led by T. Kodama (NAOJ) with some NAOJ-based team members,
such as Y. Koyama, M. Hayashi, and I. Tanaka.
The Lyα blob survey, the FMOS spectroscopic survey and MOIRCS imaging survey (MODS)
were also all conducted by the NAOJ-based researchers Y. Matsuda et al., K. Yabe et al.,
and M. Kajisawa, et al., respectively.
References
Giodini, S., et al., 2009, ApJ, 703, 982; Gobat R., Daddi E., Onodera M., et al., 2011, A&A,
526, 133; Hayashi, M., Kodama T., Tadaki K., et al., 2012, ApJ, 757, 15; Ilbert, O., et al.,
2009, ApJ, 690, 1236; Kajisawa M., Ichikawa T., Yamada T., et al., 2010, ApJ, 723, 129;
Kashino, D., Silverman, J. D., Rodighiero, G., et al., 2013, ApJ, 777, L8; Koyama, Y.,
Kodama T., Tadaki K., et al., 2013, MNRAS, 428, 1551; Koyama, Y., Kodama T., Shimasaku
K., et al., 2010, MNRAS, 403, 1611; Koyama, Y., Smail, I., Kurk, J., et al., 2013, MNRAS,
434, 423; Kewley L., Maier C., Yabe K., et al., 2013, ApJ, 774, L10; Matsuda Y., Yamada T.,
Hayashino T., et al., 2012, MNRAS, 425, 878; Matsuda Y., Yamada T., Hayashino T., et al.,
2011, MNRAS, 410, L13; McCracken, H. J., et al., 2010, ApJ, 708, 202; Onodera M., Renzini
A., Carollo M., et al., 2012, ApJ, 755, 26; O Onodera M., Daddi E., Gobat R., et al., 2010,
ApJ, 715, L6; Sobral, D., Best P., Matsuda Y., et al., 2012, MNRAS, 420, 1926; Sobral, D.,
Smail I., Best P., et al., 2013, MNRAS, 428, 1128; Stott, J. P., et al., 2010, ApJ, 718, 23;
Tanaka, M., Finoguenov, A., Ueda, Y., 2010, ApJ, 716, L152; Williams, R. J., et al., 2009,
ApJ, 691, 1879; Yabe K., Ohta K., Iwamura F., et al., 2012, PASJ, 64, 60
-9-
2.3 Active Galactic Nuclei and Galaxy Mergers
2.3.1 Galaxy mergers
According to the widely-accepted standard cold dark matter-based galaxy formation①
scenario, small gas-rich galax- ies merge and grow into the massive galaxies, seen in the
present day Universe. Galaxy merger is very common in our Universe. Recent observations
reveal that supermassive blackholes (SMBHs) with masses of >106M are ubiquitously
present in galaxy centers. When gas-rich galaxies with central SMBHs collide and merge, in
addition to active star-formation, due to merger-induced molecular gas collision and
compression, material (gas and dust) can also accrete onto the existing SMBHs igniting
strong active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We need to evaluate the role of star-formation
and AGN, if we are to understand the physical process occur during gas-rich galaxy mergers
in our Universe. In gas-rich galaxy mergers, such star-formation and AGN activity is
obscured by gas and star-formation-produced dust. Energetic radiation from star-formation
and AGN is absorbed by dust, and the heated dust grains emit this energy as strong infrared
thermal radiation. Thus, such gas-rich merging galaxies usually become infrared luminous.
Local merging infrared luminous galaxies are thus an excellent laboratory to study the
physical process of gas-rich galaxy mergers in our Universe.
Deep, wide-field optical imaging observations of local gas-rich merging infrared luminous
galaxies using the Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam clearly revealed spatially very extended
faint tails for the first time (Figure 5). Computer simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers
predict that such striking structures are reproduced only when the orbit and galactic
rotation are synchronized to each other, and that in this case, intense star-formation activity
is triggered quickly, explaining the large observed infrared luminosities of these galaxies.
In addition to optical broad-band-filter observations, a well-studied, local, gas-rich merging
infrared luminous galaxy, Arp 220, was imaged at the optical Balmer α (Hα) emission line
(0.6563 µm), using the Subaru Telescope/FOCAS, to better locate the sites of starbursts (=
ongoing active star-formation) and post-starburst (where active star- formation occurred in
the past) (Figure 5, right). The two long tidal tails seen in the optical broad R-band (0.65 µm)
image (white dashed lines) were found to be post-starburst regions. With the aid of computer
simulations, it was concluded that a mergers of four galaxies is needed to reproduce the
observed properties of Arp 220 (Taniguchi et al. 2012).These optical imaging studies
provided an important clue for the origin and formation mechanism of merging infrared
luminous galaxies.
Figure 5: Suprime-Cam optical deep false-color images of merging infrared luminous
galaxies, Anten- nae (Left) and Mrk 231 (Middle). Spatially very extended faint tidal
emissions are seen. Please see http://www.naoj.org/Pressrelease/2009/06/09/index.html for
more details. Right: Images of Arp 220 in Hα (left) and R-band (0.65 µm) (right) (Credit:
- 10 -
Ehime University / NAOJ). In the Hα image, the dark parts (Hα absorp- tion) indicate poststarburst regions, while the bright parts correspond to ongoing starburst regions. Two long
tidal tails, marked with dashed white lines in the R-band image (rightmost figure) spatially
coincide with dark regions (= post-starburst regions) in the Hα image (figure second from the
right).
2.3.2 AGNs
To fully understand the physical process of gas-rich galaxy mergers, in addition to
starbursts, we have to investigate the energetic role of AGNs. The investigation is not a
trivial task, because the putative compact AGNs (= actively mass-accreting SMBHs, less
than a parsec in size) in gas-rich merging galaxies can easily be buried deep inside a large
amount of gas and dust. Such deeply buried AGNs are elusive in the optical, due to the large
effects of dust extinction, and their detection requires observations at wavelengths with low
dust extinction. Infrared wavelengths at >2 µm is one such wavelength band, and so should
be sensitive to deeply buried AGNs. Using the Subaru Telescope/IRCS with an aid of
Adaptive Optics (which compensate for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere and enables us
to take sharp images), high-spatial-resolution (0.1–0.2”), infrared K- (2.2 µm) and L’-band
(3.8 µm) imaging observations of gas- rich, merging, infrared-luminous galaxies were
conducted. Optically-elusive AGNs were detected in many sources, demonstrating the power
of infrared observations for the study of deeply buried AGNs in gas-rich, merging, infraredluminous galaxies.
If the pre-merger galaxies contain SMBHs in their nuclei, multiple SMBHs are expected to
be common in merging galaxies. If these multiple SMBHs begin active mass accretion, the
merging galaxies could be observed as multiple AGNs (=dual AGNs). Figure 6 shows
examples of detected dual AGNs in high-spatial-resolution (0.1– 0.2”) infrared images. By
disentangling AGN emission from starburst emission in these merging galaxy nuclei, it was
found that AGN luminosity, normalized to the SMBH mass (the so-called Eddington ratios),
is remarkably different between the two nuclei; the more massive SMBHs are generally
accreting mass more actively (=higher Eddington ratios) than less massive SMBHs
(Imanishi & Saito 2014). Since more massive SMBHs reside in more massive galaxies, these
results suggest that AGN feedback to the surrounding gas and dust may be stronger in more
massive galaxies; which may in turn be related to the widely-proposed AGN feedback
scenario as the possible origin of the galaxy downsizing phenomenon 1.
Figure 6: Infrared K- (2.2 µm) and L’-band (3.8 µm) images of four luminous, gas-rich, merging
galaxies with dual AGN signatures, obtained with the Subaru Telescope/IRCS and adaptive
optics. Two nuclei are detected, and the infrared K-band to L’-band emission strength ratios
characterize the emissions as AGN-heated hot dust, not a star-formation-related emissions.
- 11 -
(Credit: NAOJ)
1Observationally,
more massive galaxies generally have red colors and so should have finished their major starformation in an earlier cosmic age than less massive galaxies. This is called the galaxy downsizing phenomenon, and
is apparently contradictory to the standard cold dark matter-based galaxy formation scenario which postulates that
small galaxies formed first and evolve into more massive galaxies at a later age. It is widely proposed that if AGN
feedback in more massibe galaxies was stronger in the past and quenched star-formation in a short time scale, then the
galaxy downsizing phenomenon could be explained.
After the central luminous, buried AGN①sweeps out the bulk of the surrounding obscuring
gas and dust by radiation pressure, the opening angle around the central AGN becomes
large and the AGN becomes visible from many lines of sight. If the central AGN radiation is
directly visible, without being blocked by obscuring material, then such unobscured AGNs
can become very bright in the optical and be easily detected even at very high-redshift close
to the edge of the Universe. Deep optical imaging observation of a luminous unobscured
AGN at a redshift of 6.43, using the Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam, revealed spatially
extended emission from the host galaxy (Figure 7). The host galaxy’s stellar mass was
estimated to be 109–1010 M, showing that this luminous AGN is already harbored by alarge
massive galaxy in the early Universe (Goto et al. 2009). Using an unobscured bright AGN at
high-redshift as a beacon, the co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxy stars in the early Universe
was observationally constrained. Using the Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam, a similar study
of extended emission-line regions around nearby unobscured AGNs at z < 0.5 was conducted,
and the observational signatures of AGN feedback were revealed (Matsuoka 2012).
In unobscured AGNs, outflow of gas and dust, driven by AGN radiation pressure, are
directly observable in the optical (Figure 8). Since such outflow can spread material from
AGNs to the intergalactic medium and can have large effects on the evolution of galaxies in
the Universe, understanding the nature of the outflow is important. With high-dispersion
optical spectroscopy, the properties of AGN outflow can be investigated in detail. Although
AGN outflow is spatially too compact to resolve observationally, if an AGN is gravitationallylensed by massive foreground objects, such as a cluster of galaxies, the outflow paths with
different directions are observed at different sky positions. In this case, difference in the
properties of the outflows based on direction can be investigated (Figure 8). Using Subaru
Telescope/HDS, such a gravitationally-lensed unobscured luminous AGN at z = 2.2 with
widely separated images was observed spectroscopically. It was discovered that outflow
properties are different along different directions, providing the first three-dimensional (3D)
view of AGN outflows (Figure 8) and an important, unique method for better understanding
AGN outflow in future studies (Misawa et al. 2013).
The Subaru Telescope has also greatly contributed to the statistical studies of unobscured
AGNs. The luminosity function of unobscured AGNs at z = 4 and 5 was observationally
constrained, using the Subaru Telescope/FOCAS. The so-called downsizing evolution of
unobscured luminous AGNs 2, previously seen at low-redshift, was confirmed at z=4–5
(Ikeda et al. 2011; 2012). Using the Subaru Telescope/FMOS, we can obtain infrared spectra
at 0.9–1.8 µm, for 400 objects simultaneously within a diameter of 30 arcmin. Many
unobscured AGNs at z=1–2 were spectroscopically observed with FMOS. A reliable method
to estimate SMBH masses in unobscured AGNs at z=1–2, using the Hα emission line (0.6563
µm), was established (Matsuoka et al. 2013). Based on FMOS spectroscopic data of many
- 12 -
unobscured AGNs at a similar redshifts, the mass function of active SMBHs and the①
Eddington ratio distribution (= SMBH-mass-normalized AGN luminosity, which is a good
indicator of SMBH activity) were observationally derived. It was found that the fraction of
active SMBHs at the high mass end (>108M) is systematically higher at z=1–2 than the local
Universe at z=0, supporting the model of down-sizing mass function evolution for active
SMBHs (Nobuta et al. 2012). 3
2The
3The
number density peak of more luminous unobscured AGNs is shifted to higher redshift.
number distribution peak of active SMBHs is shifted to higher mass at higher redshift.
Figure 7: Left: Subaru Telescope/Suprime-Cam optical z-band (0.9 µm) image of an
unobscured luminous AGN at z = 6.43, the most distant AGN at the time of this
observation. The observed emissions are a superposition of AGN (point source) and host
galaxy (spatially-extended) components. Middle: Derived AGN emission component. Right:
Host galaxy emission after the subtraction of AGN emissions component.
Figure 8: Left: An artistic image of AGN gas outflow. Middle: Schematic drawing of
gravitational lensing, showing an unobscured luminous AGN at z = 2.2 (at ~10 billion light
years), a cluster of galaxies (at ~5 billion light years), and Earth. Outflows with different
directions are observed at different positions on the sky plane. The paths, A, B, C, correspond
to the directions A, B, C in the left figure. Right: Comparison of the absorption features
f o r three elements, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen (from top to bottom), seen in spectra of
the lensed images A (red line) and B (blue line). T h e horizontal axis is the outflow
velocity from the light source, defined as negative if it heads towords Earth. The shaded
area shows a clear difference between the images A (red line) and B (blue line). (Credit:
Shinshu University and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan)
- 13 -
2.3.3 Contribution by NAOJ Researchers
Research about multiple buried AGNs in gas-rich, merging, infrared-luminous galaxies and
the detection of host galaxies emissions around a luminous unobscured AGN at z = 6.43
were conducted by NAOJ staff at the time of paper publication (Imanishi & Saito 2014; Goto
et al. 2009).
References
Goto, T., Utsumi, Y., Furusawa, H., et al., 2009, MNRAS, 400, 843; Ikeda, H., Nagao, T.,
Matsuoka, K., et al., 2011, ApJ, 728, L25; Ikeda, H., Nagao, T., Matsuoka, K., et al., 2012,
ApJ, 756, 160; Imanishi, M., & Saito, Y., 2014, ApJ, 780, 106; Matsuoka, K., Silverman, J.
D., Schramm, M., et al., 2013, ApJ, 771, 64; Matsuoka, Y., 2012, ApJ, 750, 54; Misawa, T.,
Inada, N., Ohsuga, K., et al., 2013, AJ, 145, 48; Nobuta, K., Akiyama, M., Ueda, Y., et al.,
2012, ApJ, 761, 143; Taniguchi, Y., Matsubayashi, K., Kajisawa, M., et al., 2012, ApJ, 753,
78
2.4 Nearby Galaxies, Milky Way, Stars, and Supernovae
2.4.1 Supernovae
The explosion mechanism of core-collapse supernovae at the end of massive stars’ evolution
is a long standing problem. Recent theoretical study indicates that explosion does not occur
under the assumption of spherical symmetry, enhancing the importance of observational
study to investigate the spatial structure of explosions. The origin of the variety of
supernovae found in their light curves and spectra is also an important issue. Observations
with Subaru have been contributing to this field.
Kawabata et al. (2010) obtained spectra of SN2005cz, a rare care-collapse supernova found
in an elliptical galaxy, using FOCAS. They revealed the nature of the object that the amount
of ejecta, including the heating source 56Ni, is remarkably small, concluding that the
progenitor is a star with about 10 solar masses. This is near the smallest mass of stars that
explode as core-collapse supernovae at the end their lives. The study provides a unique
example of such faint explosion, even though supernovae of less massive stars are expected
to be frequently occurring.
Previous spectroscopic observations of supernovae have suggested bipolar explosions (e.g.
Maeda et al. 2008). Tanaka et al. (2012) have extended the study on the shape of the
explosion by polarimetry for SN2009jf and SN2009mi, revealing a clumpy geometry of their
explosions. Although spatially resolved direct imaging of these distant supernovae is not
available, this polarimatric study provides a new constraint on the models of supernovae.
The products of supernovae are mixed in gas clouds from which next generations of stars are
formed. The ele- ments synthesized by the first generations of massive stars and supernovae
should have determined the composition of second generations of low-mass stars, which are
observed in the current Milky Way as metal-poor stars. They show low abundances of heavy
elements like Fe, but a significant fraction of most metal-poor stars show relative excess of
carbon. Ito et al. (2009, 2013) obtained a very high quality HDS spectrum for the optical and
near-UV ranges for the bright carbon-enhanced metal-poor star BD+44◦493 to determine its
accurate chemical composition. The studies conclude that the progenitor of this object is a socalled faint supernova, which yields only very small amount of Fe. This provides the
strongest support of the existence of faint-supernovae, whose progenitor would have several
tens solar masses, among first generations of stars.
- 14 -
Wide-field imaging with Suprime-Cam have been detecting number of distant supernovae.
Graur et al. (2011) have detected 10 type Ia supernovae with redshift of 2 or larger. Their
study indicates that the frequency of type Ia supernovae is about five times higher than in
the current universe. Comparisons with star formation history estimate the time-scale of
type Ia supernovae, suggesting that merger of white dwarfs in a binary is the most plausible
origin of this type of supernovae.
Figure 9: The calcium-rich late-time spectrum of type Ib SN 2005cz taken on 2006 December
27 (t = +179days) are compared with other supernovae (Kawabata et al. 2010).
[X/Fe]
1
C
S
0
-1
-2
B
N
5
F
P
10
Cl
15
20
25
30
Atomic Number
Figure 10: The chemical abundance ratios (with respect to iron) of SDSS J0018-0939 (red
circles) compared with model prediction for explosions of very-massive stars (Aoki et al. 2014).
The black line indicates the model of a pair- instability supernova by a star with 300 solar
masses, whereas the blue line shows the model of an explosion caused by a core-collapse of a
star with 1000 solar masses. This star was suggested to record the yields of first-generation
very massive stars.
2.4.2 Milky Way and dwarf galaxies
For the understanding of galaxy formation, studies of the formation processes of our Milky
Way Galaxy have been providing useful constraints. Studies of metal-poor stars in the halo
structure, which is the oldest component in the Galaxy, have particular importance. Aoki et
al. (2013) obtained HDS spectra for 137 very metal-poor stars found by SDSS/SEGUE
survey project to determine their chemical compositions. The study based on a homogeneous
data set for a relatively large sample revealed the properties of chemical compositions of
very metal-poor stars, and also resulted in the subsequent studies on binarity of early
- 15 -
generations of low-mass stars (Aoki et al. 2014, AJ, in press) and on the chemical yields of
very-massive objects among first stars (Aoki et al. 2014, Science 345, 912).
The formation of the halo structure should be tightly connected to dwarf galaxies around the
Milky Way. In particular, searches for very faint dwarf galaxies containing small amount of
stars, and follow-up detailed investigations for them, have key to understanding the earliest
phase of the Milky Way formation. Okamoto et al. (2012) conducted Suprime-Cam imaging
for the four faint dwarf galaxies discovered by SDSS, determining the metallicity and ages of
their stellar populations. The study revealed that stars in these galaxies are generally as old
as globular clusters. Relatively young stars exceptionally found in one of the galaxy show
distribution only at around the center of the galaxy. Such results provide strong constraints
on the formation and evolution of small galaxies in the early universe.
A clear image of the evolution of a dwarf galaxy in the current universe was captured by
Martinez-Delgado et al. (2012) using Suprime-Cam. They confirmed the faint structure near
the dwarf galaxy NGC4449, and revealed that the structure is a stream of stars connecting
to the galaxy. This is a unique picture showing the current merger event of dwarf galaxies,
contributing to understanding of halo structure formation around dwarf galaxies.
2.4.3 Stellar activity
An important goal of the current stellar physics is to understand the activities of stars. Solar
flares are important targets in solar physics related to the earth’s environment and civil
lives. Recent photometric studies with the Kepler mission revealed that super flare events
are detected even in solar-type stars (Maehara et al. 2012). Nogami et al. (2014) obtained
optical HDS spectra to investigate the detailed properties of these stars. They found that
at least two stars, KIC 9766237 and KIC 9944137 have the temperature and metallicity that
are very similar to the Sun, and their spin speeds are slow as the Sun. This study suggests
the possibility that super flares can occur even in the Sun. This results in a large social
impact.
2.4.4 Contribution by NAOJ Researchers
NAOJ staff contributed to a significant fraction of the above studies. The studies on the
shape of supernova explosions (Tanaka et al. 2012) and spectroscopy of metal-poor stars
(Aoki et al. 2013, Ito et al. 2009, 2013) were led by NAOJ staff and a student of the Graduate
University of Advanced Studies.
References
Aoki, W., et al. 2013, AJ, 145, 13; Aoki, W., et al., 2014, Science, 345, 912; Graur, O. et al.
2011, MNRAS, 417, 916 Ito, H. et al. 2009, ApJL, 698, L37; Ito, H. et al. 2013, ApJ, 773, 33;
Kawabata, K. 2010, Nature, 465, 326; Maehara, H., et al, 2012, Nature, 485, 478; Nogami,
D. et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 4; Okamoto, S. et al. 2012, ApJ, 744, 96; Tanaka, M. 2012, ApJ, 754,
63
2.5 Star Formation
2.5.1 Brown dwarfs
With the Subaru Telescope, studies of star formation have been also carried out, such as the
- 16 -
observations of optical jets launching from young stellar objects (e.g., Pyo et al. 2014).
Another important topic the Subaru Telescope has recently studied is formation of brown
dwarfs, in particular free-floating brown dwarfs. Sometimes described as failed stars, brown
dwarfs are unusual celestial objects that straddle the boundary between stars and planets.
When young, they glow brightly from the heat of formation, but they eventually cool down
and end up with atmospheres that exhibit planet-like characteristics. Scholz et al. (2012)
and Muzic et al. (2012) has discovered over two-dozen new free-floating brown dwarfs that
reside in two young star clusters, NGC 1333 (Fig. 1) and rho Ophiuchi. One brown dwarf is a
lightweight youngster only about six times heftier than Jupiter, and is one of the puniest
free-floating objects known. What’s more, one cluster contains a surprising surplus of brown
dwarfs; it harbors half as many of these astronomical oddballs as normal stars. These
findings come from deep surveys and extensive follow-up observations using the Subaru
Telescope in Hawaii and the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, two of the world’s largest
optical-infrared telescopes.
2.5.2Contribution by NAOJ researchers
Pyo et al. (2014) is led by a Subaru staff member based in Hilo.
Figure 11: Brown dwarfs in the young star cluster NGC 1333 (Scholz et al. 2012). This
photograph combines optical and infrared images taken with the Subaru Telescope.
Brown dwarfs newly identified by the SONYC Survey are circled in yellow, while
previously known brown dwarfs are circled in white. The arrow points to the least massive
brown dwarf known in NGC 1333; it is only about six times heftier than Jupiter. Credit:
SONYC Team/Subaru Telescope
References
Muzic, K., Scholz, A., Geers, V., Jayawardhana, R. Tamura, M., 2012, ApJ, 744, 134; Pyo, T.S., Hayashi, M., Beck, T. L. Davis, C. J., Takami, M. 2014, ApJ., 786, 63; Scholz, A., Muzic,
K., Geers, V., Bonavita, M., Jayawardhana, R., Tamura, M. 2012, ApJ, 756, 47
- 17 -
2.6 Exoplanets
2.6.1 Direct imaging of (proto-) planetary systems
The Subaru telescope has started the first strategic observation program, SEEDS
(Strategic Explorations of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru) project (Tamura 2009),
since 2009. The SEEDS project has employed a new high-contrast imaging instrument
HiCIAO (High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics) to
take pictures of giant exoplanets and proto-planetary disks directly. The SEEDS project is
a big international collaboration in which over 100 astronomers from over 20 world-wide
institutions have joined. The SEEDS has been allocated 120 nights of the Subaru
telescope over 5 years.
The SEEDS project discovered 3 substellar companions (GJ 758 b, Thalmann et al. 2009;
Kappa Andromedae b, Carson et al. 2013; GJ 504 b, Kuzuhara et al. 2013) during 20092013. Among directly-imaged exoplanets around Sun-like stars, GJ 504 b is known as one
of the lowest mass planets to date (see FIgure 1). In addition to the discoveries, the
SEEDS project reported statistical analyses on the frequency of giant planets and brown
dwarfs orbiting outer regions of planetary systems (e.g., Yamamoto et al. 2013). In
addition, the SEEDS project has succeeded in taking snapshots of over 10 proto-planetary
disks and debris disks where proto-planets seem to be forming, including press released
results for LkCa15 (Thalmann et al. 2010), AB Aur (Hashimoto et al. 2011), HR 4796 A
(Thalmann et al. 2011), SAO 206462 (Muto et al. 2012), PDS 70 (Hashimoto et al. 2012),
and Upper Scorpius J 1604 (Mayama et al. 2012). Those directly imaged pictures of protoplanetary disks have implied the diversity of structures of such disks (see Figure 2). The
SEEDS project published over 25 refereed papers during 2009-2013.
2.6.2 Measuring obliquities of exoplanetary orbits relative to spins of host stars
For transiting planetary systems where orbits of exoplanets pass in front of their host
stars, one can measure the obliquity of orbital axes of transiting exoplanets relative to
stellar spin axes via the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect. The RM effect is known as an
anomaly of apparent radial velocities of a host star during transits which is caused by the
fact that a transiting planet hides a part of a rotating (approaching or receding) stellar
disk. Thereby the anomaly changes with time during transits. The anomaly reflects the
trajectory of the transiting planets relative to the spin axis of the host star.
A Japanese team used the HDS (High Dispersion Spectrograph) of the Subaru telescope to
monitor the RM effect for over 10 transiting exoplanets and published 9 papers during
2009-2013 (Narita et al. 2009a, 2009b, 2010a, 2010b, 2011, Hirano et al. 2011a, 2011b,
2012b, Albrecht et al. 2011). The measurements achieved the first discovery of a
retrograde exoplanet HAT-P-7 b (Narita et al. 2009b, Winn et al. 2009), and the team
discovered 5 “misaligned” exoplanets among the 14 observed transiting expolanets. Such
misaligned orbits cannot be explained by classical planetary migration models that
consider planetary migration inside proto-planetary disks. The discoveries of misaligned
- 18 -
exoplanets imply that other planetary migration mechanisms such as gravitational
interactions between a planet and other giant planets (planet-planet scattering) or a
binary companion (Kozai migration) are occasionally going on. Those measurements of the
RM effect give us an important insight on planetary formation and migration mechanisms in the
Universe.
Figure 12: Directly imaged exoplanet GJ 504 b taken with the Subaru HiCIAO (Kuzuhara et
al. 2013).
Figure 13: Directly imaged proto-planetary disks and debris disks taken with the Subaru
HiCIAO (see text).
2.6.3 Measuring obliquities of spin axes of host stars relative to orbital axes of Kepler
transiting planets
A Japanese team developed a new methodology to measure obliquities of spin axes of host
stars relative to orbital axes of transiting planets, and applied it to the candidate of
transiting planets discovered by the Kepler mission. The team employed the HDS to take
- 19 -
high dispersion spectra of host stars to determine the stellar radius Rs and an apparent
rotational velocity V sin Is, where V is the true rotational velocity of a star and Is is the
inclination of the spin axis of the star relative to the line of sight. In combination with the
information of the stellar rotational period P determined by the Kepler photometry, one
can estimate is for the Kepler transiting planets. As orbital axes of transiting planets are
almost in parallel with the sky plane, a large excursion of is from 90◦ is a sign of a
misalignment between the stellar spin axis and the planetary orbital axis. The team
demonstrated this methodology for 15 Kepler candidates of transiting planets and
discovered at least 1 misaligned case (Hirano et al. 2012a, 2014). This methodology can be
applied to any transiting planetary systems and thus important for transiting systems
with smaller planets as well as multiple transiting planetary systems.
2.6.4 Revealing the architecture of a retrograde planetary system
Following the discovery of the first retrograde planet HAT-P-7 b, a Japanese team made a
survey of outer bodies in the HAT-P-7 planetary system to reveal the architecture of the
retrograde planetary system. The team used the HDS to monitor a long-term radial
velocity trend and found an outer giant planet/brown dwarf orbiting over 10 AU. The team
also employed the HiCIAO to search for far outer massive bodies and discovered a
previously unknown red dwarf (M5.5V star) companion to the planetary system.
Consequently the team uncovered the architecture of the HAT-P-7 system, which is a
binary system consists of F8V (HAT-P-7A) and M5.5V (HAT-P-7B) stars with at least 2
giant planets (HAT-P-7 b and HAT-P-7 c) orbiting the primary star. Following the
discoveries, the team reported that the Kozai migration is the most plausible mechanism
which can explain the formation of the retrograde orbit of HAT-P-7 b (Narita et al. 2012).
This study was the first case of its kind in revealing the whole picture of misaligned
exoplanetary systems.
2.6.5 Radial velocity follow-ups of the HATNet transiting exoplanet survey
An US and Japanese collaboration team used the HDS to confirm radial velocity
variations of candidates transiting exoplanets discovered by the HATNet survey. Such
radial velocity confirmations are critically important to validate the planetary nature of
candidates and to determine the mass of the transiting planets. Subaru HDS contributed
to discover 7 new transiting exoplanets; HAT-P-18 b and HAT-P-19 b (Hartmann et al.
2011), HAT-P-30 b (Johnson et al. 2011), HAT-P-31 b (Kipping et al. 2011), HAT-P-34 b
and HAT-P-37 b (Bakos et al. 2012), and HAT-P-38 b (Sato et al. 2012). Those results
demonstrate the capability of the HDS, which is useful for follow-up observations of
ongoing/future transiting exoplanet surveys, such as Transiting Exoplanet Survey
Satellite (TESS).
- 20 -
2.6.6 Looking into the sky of exoplanetary atmospheres
An US team and a Japanese team worked on characterizations of exoplanetary
atmospheres using the Subaru telescope. The US team used the MOIRCS (Multi-Object
Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) to observe an occultation (secondary eclipse) of the
transiting planet WASP-12 b and found that the planetary emission is well approximated
by a blackbody, indicating that the planet’s infrared photosphere is nearly isothermal
(Crossfield et al. 2012). The Japanese team used Suprime-Cam and FOCAS to monitor
transits of the transiting super-Earth GJ 1214 b in B band. The team achieved ~ 1mmag
photometric precision for B magnitude of 16.4, and it gives the highest precision in transit
depths of GJ 1214 b in B band. The transit depths in B band revealed a flat transmission
spectrum of GJ 1214 b in bluer wavelength, indicating no detectable Rayleigh scattering
feature in the sky of GJ 1214 b. This can be explained by the presence of high cloud decks
or high molecular weight of the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b (Narita et al. 2013).
2.6.7 Contribution by NAOJ Researchers
NAOJ researchers contributed in most of the above exoplanets studies, especially in direct
imaging of exoplanets and proto-planetary disks (all of the SEEDS papers), measurements
of obliquities between stellar spin axes and planetary orbital axes (Narita et al. 2009a,
2009b, 2010a, 2010c, 2011, Hirano et al. 2011a, 2011b, 2012a, 2012b, 2014, Albrecht et al.
2011), revealing the architecture of atheretrograde planetary system HAT-P-7 b (Narita et
al. 2010b, 2012), and showing no Rayleigh scattering feature in the atmosphere of GJ
1214b (Narita et al. 2013).
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2011, ApJ, 726, 52; Hashimoto, J. et al. 2011, ApJL, 729, L1; Hashimoto, J. et al. 2012,
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2.7 Solar System
2.7.1 TNOs (Trans-Neptunian Objects)
Recently a scenario was proposed based on the result of numerical simulations that many
planetesimals in the outer edge once fell inward in connection with the giant planets’
- 21 -
radial migration at the early stage of our solar system. Although many researchers overall
believe the migration, we still need to verify if this scenario is true or not by observational
studies. For that purpose, the investigation of SFD and color distribution that are
supposed to characterize SSSB (small solar system bodies) populations are quite
important. Since SFDs of MBAs (the main belt asteroids) and the large (D >1 km) NEAs
(near-Earth asteroids) were already revealed in the early 2000s, the center of this line of
study has shifted from asteroids to outer solar system objects, such as TNOs.
Using the Subaru telescope, we can name the following major achievement: Fraser &
Kavelaars (2009) stacked many images of one field of view of Suprime-Cam and found 36
new TNOs up to the detection limit of the 26.8 mag. Fuentes, Gerge, & Holman (2009)
used the Suprime-Cam images from the database of SMOKA (Subaru- Mitaka-OkayamaKiso data archival system) and found 20 new TNOs up to the detection limit of ~27 mag.
These are one of the deepest search of TNOs.
Fraser, Brown & Schwamb (2010) performed a survey observation of 8.92 degrees by
Suprime-Cam and found 88 TNOs up to rl ~24.7 mag. This is the largest TNO survey
done by Suprime-Cam so far. They classified the 88 TNOs into three dynamical groups
(“Cold” = orbital inclination i < 5◦, “Hot” = i > 5◦, and a group their perihelion distance q <
38au), and determined their SFDs. Then they compared the SFDs of each of the
dynamical groups with that of the Jupiter Trojans and of the Jupiter family comets in
order to search any evidence of the orbital distribution of TNOs caused by the radial
migration of giant planets.
Sheppard & Trujillo (2010a) found Neptune’s L5 Trojans by a survey observation with the
Suprime-Cam. They also examined their SFD of Neptune Trojan (Sheppard & Trujillo
(2010b). Their studies provide an important clue for giant planets migration at the early
solar system history, because the Neptune Trojans were probably influenced by planetary
migration to a great deal, and they are still likely to retain some of its features in their
orbits. Finding further Neptune Trojans with statistically sufficient number is needed for
further studies.
2.7.2 Active asteroids
Active asteroids are the object whose orbits are close to those of MBAs, but those who
show cometary activities. The first active asteroid was discovered in 1996, and a detail
research began around ~2005. Using the Subaru telescope, at least 4 papers related to
active asteroids have been published in 2009–2014.
As for the cause of the comet-like activity of the active asteroids have been proposed: e.g.
water sublimation from subsurface icy, temporal dust cloud that released by asteroid
impact, and so on. Ishiguro et al. (2011) observed an active asteroid (596) Sheila by the
Suprime-Cam, and revealed that the dust coma of asteroid Seila was caused by a recent
impact event. Discovery of active asteroids can be related to an estimate of impact
frequency in the main belt(Figure XX). Finding more active asteroids and obtaining
- 22 -
statistically sufficient number of samples are needed for further studies.
Figure 14: Top: Optical images of Scheila at three different epochs with different
telescopes. Images of the triple dust tails were taken on the 12th and 19th of December
2010 using the Murikabushi Telescope. Bottom: Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope
captured this image of the linear structure on the 2nd of March 2011.
2.7.3 Comets
The ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) of cometary molecules is considered to be one of
the most primordial characteristics of cometary ices. OPR contains information concerning
their formation. Hideo Kawakita’s group in Kyoto Sangyo University has long led the
study of OPR of cometary molecules by using HDS of the Subaru telescope, leading to
publication of many papers on major journals with frequent citations (e.g. Shinnaka 2011,
2012).
2.7.4 Summary
Observational study of TNOs, comets, asteroids, and other SSSBs through the use of
Suprime-Cam and other related instruments makes an important foundation of the
academic achievement that Subaru telescope has pro- duced. In the coming years, these
studies will have a much larger and faster progress since the introduction of HSC (Hyper
Suprime-Cam). Although we have not mentioned above, the Subaru telescope also played
an important role in determining SFDs of faint end-member of MBAs (e.g. Terai & Itoh,
2011, 2013). With regard to the asteroid observation, studies of MBAs that determine the
spectral types and physical properties such as spin period, SFD, or surface color of the
sub-km MBAs (Dermawan et al. 2011, Nakamura et al. 2011) will be more dominated
rather than survey observations.
2.7.5 Contribution by NAOJ researchers
NAOJ staff members have contributed to the researches of MBAs (Dermawan et al. 2011,
Nakamura et al. 2011, Terai & Itoh, 2011, 2013) and comets (Watanabe et al. 2009,
Ishiguro et al. 2009, 2010, 2010, 2012). They will use the Hyper Suprime-Cam to find
- 23 -
further TNOs, active comets, Jupiter Trojans and so on in order to examine the properties
of object group in more detail.
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- 24 -
3. Publications
Publications with Subaru data from 2009 April to 2014 March
Citation number as of 2014 November 17 is shown in [] at the end of each item
1
2009 April – 2010 March
Anguita, T., et al., COSMOS 5921+0638: characterization and analysis of a new strong
gravitationally lensed AGN, A&A, 507, 35 (11/2009) [11]
2
Aoki, K., et al., No Evidence for Variability of Intervening Absorption Lines toward GRB
060206: Implications for the MgII Incidence Problem , PASJ, 61, 387 (04/2009) [7]
3
Aoki, W., et al., Lithium Abundances of Extremely Metal-Poor Turnoff Stars , ApJ, 698, 1803
(06/2009) [79]
4
Aoki, W., et al., Chemical composition of extremely metal-poor stars in the Sextans dwarf
spheroidal galaxy , A&A, 502, 569 (08/2009) [61]
5
Barker, M., Ferguson, A., Irwin, M., &Arimoto, N., Resolving the Stellar Outskirts of M81:
Evidence for a Faint, Extended Structural Component , AJ, 138, 1469 (11/2009) [28]
6
Bouy, H., et al., A deep look into the core of young clusters. II. &lambda-Orionis , A&A, 504,
199 (09/2009) [8]
7
Bundy, K., et al., The Greater Impact of Mergers on the Growth of Massive Galaxies:
Implications for Mass Assembly and Evolution since z sime 1 , ApJ, 697, 1369 (06/2009) [130]
8
Castro-Rodriguéz, N., et al., Intracluster light in the Virgo cluster: large scale distribution ,
A&A, 507, 621 (11/2009) [18]
9
Collins, C., et al., Early assembly of the most massive galaxies , Nature, 458, 603 (04/2009)
[75]
10 Connelley, M., Reipurth, B., &Tokunaga, A., An Adaptive Optics Survey For Close
Protostellar Binaries , AJ, 138, 1193 (11/2009) [9]
11 Dawson, K., et al., An Intensive Hubble Space Telescope Survey for z>1 Type Ia Supernovae
by Targeting Galaxy Clusters , AJ, 138, 1271 (11/2009) [36]
12 Freyhammer, L., et al., A 3D study of the photosphere of HD99563 - I. Pulsation analysis ,
MNRAS, 396, 325 (06/2009) [20]
13 Fuentes, C., George, M., &Holman, M., A Subaru Pencil-Beam Search for mR ~ 27
Trans-Neptunian Bodies , ApJ, 696, 91 (05/2009) [43]
14 Fukagawa, M., et al., H-Band Image of a Planetary Companion Around HR 8799 in 2002 , ApJ,
696, L1 (05/2009) [20]
15 Garcia Pérez, A., et al., 6Li/7Li estimates for metal-poor stars , A&A, 504, 213 (09/2009) [22]
16 Giodini, S., et al., Stellar and Total Baryon Mass Fractions in Groups and Clusters Since
Redshift 1, ApJ, 703, 982 (09/2009) [160]
17 Goto, T., Utsumi, Y., Furusawa, H., Miyazaki, S., &Komiyama, Y., A QSO host galaxy and its
Lyα emission at z = 6.43 , MNRAS, 400, 843 (12/2009) [12]
18 Grady, C., et al., Revealing the Structure of a Pre-Transitional Disk: The Case of the Herbig F
Star SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) , ApJ, 699, 1822 (07/2009) [30]
19 Haines, C.P., et al., LoCuSS: luminous infrared galaxies in the merging cluster Abell1758 at z
= 0.28 , MNRAS, 396, 1297 (07/2009) [34]
20 Hamana, T., et al., Subaru Weak-Lensing Survey II: Multi-Object Spectroscopy and Cluster
Masses , PASJ, 61, 833 (08/2009) [24]
21 Hilton, M., et al., The XMM Cluster Survey: Galaxy Morphologies and the Color-Magnitude
Relation in XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z=1.46 , ApJ, 697, 436 (05/2009) [49]
- 25 -
22 Hioki, T., et al., High-Resolution Near-Infrared Images of the T Tauri Binary System XZ Tauri ,
PASJ, 61, 1271 (12/2009) [3]
23 Hsieh, H., The Hawaii trails project: comet-hunting in the main asteroid belt , A&A, 505,
1297 (10/2009) [24]
24 Huang, X., et al., Hubble Space Telescope Discovery of a z = 3.9 Multiply Imaged Galaxy
Behind the Complex Cluster Lens Warps J1415.1+36 at z = 1.026 , ApJ, 707, L12 (12/2009)
[15]
25 Ideue, Y., et al., Environmental Effects on the Star Formation Activity in Galaxies at z sime 1.2
in the COSMOS Field , ApJ, 700, 971 (08/2009) [23]
26 Ishiguro, M., Usui, F., Sarugaku, Y., &Ueno, M., 2006 Fragmentation of Comet
73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3B observed with Subaru/Suprime-Cam , Icarus, 203, 560
(10/2009) [7]
27 Ito, H., Aoki, W., Honda, S., &Beers, T., BD+44°493: A Ninth Magnitude Messenger from the
Early Universe; Carbon Enhanced and Beryllium Poor , ApJ, 698, L37 (06/2009) [49]
28 Ito, M., et al., High-Power Laser Beam Transfer through Optical Relay Fibers for a Laser
Guide Adaptive Optics System , PASJ, 61, 763 (08/2009) [2]
29 Jahnke, K., et al., Massive Galaxies in COSMOS: Evolution of Black Hole Versus Bulge Mass
but not Versus Total Stellar Mass Over the Last 9 Gyr? , ApJ, 706, L215 (12/2009) [72]
30 Jewitt, D., Yang, B., &Haghighipour, N., Main-Belt Comet P/2008 R1 (Garradd) , AJ, 137,
4313 (05/2009) [45]
31 Johnson, J., et al., A Third Exoplanetary System with Misaligned Orbital and Stellar Spin Axes ,
PASP, 121, 1104 (09/2009) [56]
32 Johnson, L., Mendez, R., &Teodorescu, A., Discovery, Photometry, and Kinematics of
Planetary Nebulae in M 82 , ApJ, 697, 1138 (06/2009) [4]
33 Kajino, H., et al., Lyman Break Galaxies at z ~ 5: Rest-Frame UV Spectra. III. , ApJ, 704, 117
(10/2009) [2]
34 Kajisawa, M., et al., MOIRCS Deep Survey. IV. Evolution of Galaxy Stellar Mass Function
Back to z~3 , ApJ, 702, 1393 (09/2009) [62]
35 Kawabata, K., et al., Extremely Luminous Supernova 2006gy at Late Phase: Detection of
Optical Emission from Supernova , ApJ, 697, 747 (05/2009) [23]
36 Kawanomoto, S., Aoki, W., Kajino, T., &Mathews, G., The Interstellar Rubidium Isotope
Ratio Toward HD169454 , ApJ, 698, 509 (06/2009) [1]
37 Kawanomoto, S., et al., The New Detections of 7Li/6Li Isotopic Ratio in the Interstellar Media ,
ApJ, 701, 1506 (08/2009) [6]
38 Kerzendorf, W., et al., Subaru High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Star G in the Tycho Supernova
Remnant , ApJ, 701, 1665 (08/2009) [65]
39 Kim, M., et al., Reddening and Distance of the Local Group Starburst Galaxy IC 10 , ApJ, 703,
816 (09/2009) [12]
40 Leggett, S., et al., The Physical Properties of Four ~600 K T Dwarfs , ApJ, 695, 1517
(04/2009) [54]
41 Lemaux, B., et al., Serendipitous Discovery of an Overdensity of Lyalpha Emitters at z ~ 4.8 in
the CL1604 Supercluster Field , ApJ, 700, 20 (07/2009) [19]
42 Lemez, D., Broadhurst, T., Rephaeli, Y., Barkana, R., &Umetsu, K., Dynamical Study of
A1689 from Wide-Field VLT/VIMOS Spectroscopy: Mass Profile, Concentration Parameter,
and Velocity Anisotropy , ApJ, 701, 1336 (08/2009) [55]
43 Lilly, S., et al., The zCOSMOS 10k-Bright Spectroscopic Sample , ApJS, 184, 218 (10/2009)
[203]
44 Lin, H., et al., Discovery of a Very Bright, Strongly Lensed z = 2 Galaxy in the SDSS DR5 ,
ApJ, 699, 1242 (07/2009) [38]
- 26 -
45 Linz, H., et al., Mid-infrared interferometry of massive young stellar objects. I. VLTI and
Subaru observations of the enigmatic object M8E-IR , A&A, 505, 655 (10/2009) [27]
46 Lozi, J., Martinache, F., &Guyon, O., Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization on Centrally
Obscured Pupils: Design and First Laboratory Demonstration for the Subaru Telescope Pupil ,
PASP, 121, 1232 (11/2009) [13]
47 Ly, Chun, et al., Lyman Break Galaxies at z~1.8-2.8: GALEX/NUV Imaging of the Subaru
Deep Field , ApJ, 697, 1410 (06/2006) [22]
48 Matsubayashi, K., et al., Galactic Wind in the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253 Observed
with the Kyoto3DII Fabry-Perot Mode , ApJ, 701, 1636 (08/2009) [8]
49 Matsuda, Y., et al., Lyα blobs like company: the discovery of a candidate 100kpc Lyα blob near
to a radio galaxy with a giant Lyα halo B3J2330+3927 at z = 3.1 , MNRAS, 400, L66
(11/2009) [23]
50 Matsuura, M., et al., A "Firework" of H2 Knots in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7293 (The Helix
Nebula) , ApJ, 700, 1067 (08/2009) [28]
51 Meneux, B., et al., The zCOSMOS survey. The dependence of clustering on luminosity and
stellar mass at z=0.2-1, A&A, 505, 463 (10/2009) [53]
52 Minezaki, T., Chiba, M., Kashikawa, N., Inoue, K., &Kataza, H., Subaru Mid-Infrared
Imaging of the Quadruple Lenses. II. Unveiling Lens Structure of MG0414+0534 and
Q2237+030 , ApJ, 697, 610 (05/2009) [26]
53 Misawa, T., Gandhi, P., Hida, A., Tamagawa, T., &Yamaguchi, T., Identification of New
Near-Infrared Diffuse Interstellar Bands in the Orion Nebula , ApJ, 700, 1988 (08/2009) [6]
54 Moon, D.-S., et al., Dense Iron Ejecta and Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion in the Young
Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3 , ApJ, 703, L81 (09/2009) [11]
55 Narita, N., Sato, B., Hirano, T., &Tamura, M., First Evidence of a Retrograde Orbit of a
Transiting Exoplanet HAT-P-7b , PASJ, 61, L35 (10/2009) [72]
56 Narita, N., et al., Improved Measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin Effect in the
Exoplanetary System HD 17156, PASJ, 61, 991 (10/2009) [31]
57 Newman, A., et al., The Distribution of Dark Matter Over Three Decades in Radius in the
Lensing Cluster Abell 611 , ApJ, 706, 1078 (12/2009) [76]
58 Nishiyama, S., et al., Near-Infrared Polarimetry of Flares from Sgr A* with Subaru/CIAO ,
ApJ, 702, L56 (09/2009) ]9]
59 Oguri, M., et al., Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are
Lensing Clusters Overconcentrated? , ApJ, 699, 1038 (07/2009) [86]
60 Okamoto, Y., et al., Direct Detection of a Flared Disk Around a Young Massive Star
HD200775 and its 10 to 1000 AU Scale Properties , ApJ, 706, 665 (11/2009) [16]
61 Okura, Y., &Futamase, T., A New Method for Measuring Weak Gravitational Lensing Shear
Using Higher Order Spin-2 HOLICs , ApJ, 699, 143 (07/2009) [8]
62 Otsuka, M., Hyung, S., Lee, S.-J., Izumiura, H., &Tajitsu, A., High-dispersion Spectrum of the
Halo Planetary Nebula DdDm 1 , ApJ, 705, 509 (11/2009) [7]
63 Ouchi, M., et al., Discovery of a Giant Lyα Emitter Near the Reionization Epoch , ApJ, 696,
1164 (05/2009) [71]
64 Ouchi, M., et al., Large Area Survey for z = 7 Galaxies in SDF and GOODS-N: Implications
for Galaxy Formation and Cosmic Reionization , ApJ, 706, 1136 (12/2009) [145]
65 Overzier, R., et al., λCDM predictions for galaxy protoclusters - I. The relation between
galaxies, protoclusters and quasars at z ~ 6 , MNRAS, 394, 577 (04/2009) [31]
66 Pannella, M., et al., Star Formation and Dust Obscuration at z~2: Galaxies at the Dawn of
Downsizing , ApJ, 698, L116 (06/2009) [170]
67 Romanowsky, A., et al., Mapping The Dark Side with DEIMOS: Globular Clusters, X-Ray Gas,
and Dark Matter in the NGC 1407 Group , AJ, 137, 4956 (06/2009) [72]
- 27 -
68 Sato, B., et al., A Substellar Companion in a 1.3 yr Nearly Circular Orbit of HD 16760 , ApJ,
703, 671 (09/2009) [8]
69 Scholz, A., et al., Substellar Objects in Nearby Young Clusters (SONYC): The Bottom of the
Initial Mass Function in NGC 1333 , ApJ, 702, 805 (09/2009) [33]
70 Shioya, Y., et al., Photometric Properties of Lyƒ¿ Emitters at z ~ 4.86 in the COSMOS 2
Square Degree Field , ApJ, 696, 546 (05/2009) [26]
71 Takami, H., et al., Direct Observation of the Extended Molecular Atmosphere of omicron Ceti
by Differntial Spectral Imaging with an Adaptive Optics System , PASJ, 61, 623 (08/2009) [2]
72 Takeda, Y., &Tajitsu, A., High-Dispersion Spectroscopic Study of Solar Twins: HIP 56948,
HIP 79672, and HIP 100963 , PASJ, 61, 471 (06/2009) [20]
73 Takeda, Y., et al., Potassium Abundances in Red Giants of Mildly to Very Metal-Poor
Globular Clusters , PASJ, 61, 563 (06/2009) [14]
74 Tanaka, Masaomi et al., Spectropolarimetry of the Unique Type Ib Supernova 2005bf: Larger
Asymmetry Revealed by Later-Phase Data , ApJ, 699, 1119 (07/2009) [17]
75 Tanaka, Masaomi et al., Nebular Phase Observations of the Type Ib Supernova 2008D/X-ray
Transient 080109: Side-viewed Bipolar Explosion , ApJ, 700, 1680 (08/2009) [38]
76 Tanaka, Masayuki, Finoguenov, A., Kodama, T., Koyama, Y., Maughan, B., &Nakata, F., The
spectroscopically confirmed huge cosmic structure at z = 0.55 , A&A, 505, L9 (10/2009) [10]
77 Tanaka, Masayuki, et al., Star formation activities of galaxies in the large-scale structures at z
= 1.2 , A&A, 507, 671 (11/2009) [18]
78 Taniguchi, Y., et al., Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys Morphology of
Lyα Emitters at Redshift 5.7 in the COSMOS Field , ApJ, 701, 915 (08/2009) [17]
79 Thalmann, C., et al., Discovery of the Coldest Imaged Companion of a Sun-like Star , ApJ, 707,
L123 (12/2009) [79]
80 Trump, J., et al., The Nature of Optically Dull Active Galactic Nuclei in COSMOS , ApJ, 706,
797 (11/2009) [30]
81 Ulmer, M., et al., Cluster and cluster galaxy evolution history from IR to X-ray observations of
the young cluster RX J1257.2+4738 at z = 0.866 , A&A, 503, 399 (08/2009) [6]
82 Umetsu, K., et al., Mass and Hot Baryons in Massive Galaxy Clusters from Subaru
Weak-Lensing and AMiBA Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effect Observations , ApJ, 694, 1643 (04/2009)
[74]
83 Vansevicius, V., et al., Compact Star Clusters in the M31 Disk , ApJ, 703, 1872 (10/2009) [16]
84 Wang, Y., Yamada, T., Tanaka, I., &Iye, M., A Massive Disk Galaxy at z > 3 along the Line of
Sight of QSO 1508+5714 , PASJ, 61, 1179 (10/2009) [0]
85 Watanabe, J., et al., Subaru/COMICS Mid-Infrared Observation of the Near-Nucleus Region of
Comet 17P/Holmes at the Early Phase of an Outburst , PASJ, 61, 679 (08/2009) [9]
86 Winn, J., et al., HAT-P-7: A Retrograde or Polar Orbit, and a Third Body , ApJ, 703, L99
(10/2009) [124]
87 Yamada, T., et al., Moircs Deep Survey. III. Active Galactic Nuclei in Massive Galaxies at z =
2-4 , ApJ, 699, 1354 (07/2009) [16]
88 Yamanaka, M., et al., Early Spectral Evolution of the Rapidly Expanding Type Ia Supernova
2006X , PASJ, 61, 713 (08/2009) [12]
89 Yamanaka, M., et al., Early Phase Observations of Extremely Luminous Type Ia Supernova
2009dc , ApJ, 707, L118 (12/2009) [70]
90 Yasui, C., Kobayashi, N., Tokunaga, A., Saito, M., &Tokoku, C., The Lifetime of
Protoplanetary Disks in a Low-metallicity Environment , ApJ, 705, 54 (11/2009) [27]
91 Yuan, T.-T., &Kewley, L., First Direct Metallicity Measurement Of a Lensed Star-Forming
Galaxy at z = 1.7 , ApJ, 699, L161 (07/2009) [28]
- 28 -
92 Zhang, L., Ishigaki, M., Aoki, W., Zhao, G., &Chiba, M., Chemical Compositions of
Kinematically Selected Outer Halo Stars , ApJ, 706, 1095 (12/2009) [21]
93 Zhao, Y.-H., Huang, J.-S., Ashby, M., Fazio, G., &Miyazaki, S., The deep optical imaging of
the Extended Groth Strip , RAA, 9, 1061 (10/2009) [6]
1
2010 April – 2011 March
Alves de Oliveira, C., et al., The low-mass population of the ρ Ophiuchi molecular cloud ,
A&A, 515, A75 (06/2010) [25]
2
Amunullah, R., et al., Spectra and Hubble Space Telescope Light Curves of Six Type Ia
Supernovae at 0.511 < z < 1.12 and the Union2 Compilation , ApJ, 716, 712 (06/2010) [738]
3
Aoki, Kentaro, Broad Balmer-Line Absorption in SDSS J172341.10+555340.5 , PASJ, 62,
1333 (10/2010) [5]
4
Aoki, W., Beers, T., Honda, S., &Carollo, D., Extreme Enhancement of r-procss Elements in
the Cool Metal-poor Main-sequence Star SDSS J2357-0052 , ApJ, 723, L201 (11/2010) [16]
5
Aravena, M., et al., Environment of MAMBO Galaxies in the COSMOS Field , ApJ, 708, L36
(01/2010) [15]
6
Aravena, M., et al., Identification of Two Bright z > 3 Submillimeter Galaxy Candidates in the
COSMOS Field , ApJ, 719, L15 (08/2010) [12]
7
Bresolin, F., Stasinska, G., Vilchez, J., Simon, D., &Rosolowsky, E., Planetary nebulae in
M33: probes of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis and interstellar medium abundances ,
MNRAS, 404, 1679 (06/2010) [26]
8
Brusa, M., et al., The XMM-Newton Wide-field Survey in the Cosmos Field (XMM-COSMOS):
Demography and Multiwavelength Properties of Obscured and Unobscured Luminous Active
Galactic Nuclei , ApJ, 716, 348 (06/2010) [129]
9
Burningham, B., et al., The discovery of a very cool binary system , MNRAS, 404, 1952
(06/2010) [50]
10 Burningham, B., et al., 47 new T dwarfs from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey , MNRAS, 406,
1885 (08/2010) [83]
11 Cardamone, C., et al., The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Deep
Medium-band Optical Imaging and High-quality 32-band Photometric Redshifts in the
ECDF-S , ApJS, 189, 270 (08/2010) [131]
12 Coccato, L., et al., Kinematics and line strength indices in the halos of the Coma brightest
cluster galaxies NGC 4874 and NGC 4889 , A&A, 519, A95 (09/2010) [14]
13 Coccato, L., Gerhard, O., Arnaboldi, M., Distinct core and halo stellar populations and the
formation history of the bright Coma cluster early-type galaxy NGC 4889 , MNRAS, 407, L26
(09/2010) [33]
14 Collins, M., et al., A Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of the faint M31 satellites AndIX,
AndXI, AndXII and AndXIII , MNRAS, 407, 2411 (10/2010) [36]
15 D'Andrea, C., et al., Type II-P Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey and the
Standardized Candle Method , ApJ, 708, 661 (01/2010) [36]
16 Doherty, M., et al., Optical and near-IR spectroscopy of candidate red galaxies in two z~2.5
proto-clusters, A&A, 509, 83 (01/2010) [32]
17 Fletcher, L., et al., Thermal structure and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot from
high-resolution thermal imaging , Icarus, 208, 306 (07/2010) [9]
18 Foster, C., et al, Deriving Metallicities from the Integrated Spectra of Extragalactic Globular
Clusters Using the Near-infrared Calcium Triplet , AJ, 139, 1566 (04/2010) [23]
19 Fraser, W., Brown, M., &Schwamb, M., The luminosity function of the hot and cold Kuiper
belt populations , Icarus, 210, 944 (12/2010) [37]
- 29 -
20 Fujiwara, H., et al., Enstatite-rich Warm Debris Dust Around HD165014 , ApJ, 714, L152
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21 Fukagawa, M., et al., Subaru Near-Infrared Imaging of Herbig Ae Stars , PASJ, 62, 347
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Statistics
Fig. 1: Annual variation of the total number of papers published based on results obtained with the
Subaru Telescope since the beginning of science observations. For a comparison, the same plots
are also shown for other major OIR telescopes. Note that the number of papers is normalized by
the number of telescopes at each observatory.
- 55 -
900
Total Papers per Telescope: 2008-2012
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
SALT
LBT
SOAR
HET
WIYN
AAT
Magellan
GBT
MMT
ESO3p6
Blanco
Gemini
JCMT
Mayall
NTT
Subaru
CFHT
UKIRT
VLT
Keck
0
Fig. 2: Total numbers of papers published between 2008 and 2012 for each observatory. Note that
the number of papers is normalized by the number of telescopes at each observatory.
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
SALT
LBT
SOAR
AAT
WIYN
HET
GBT
MMT
JCMT
ESO3p6
Magellan
Blanco
Gemini
NTT
Mayall
Subaru
VLT
CFHT
UKIRT
Keck
0
Fig. 3: Total impact factors between 2008 and 2012 for each observatory. Total impact factors are
calculated from (averaged impact factor) x (total impact foctor).
- 56 -
4. Scientific Operations
4.1 Status of Telescope
4.1.1 Introduction
In the fiscal years from 2009 through 2013, the telescope continued to produce scientific
results, although with higher rates of failures mainly from wear and tear than previous
years. This section describes upgrades for the telescope including accommodation of Hyper
Suprime-Cam (HSC), preventive upgrades and periodic maintenances to keep the telescope
operational as well as spontaneous failures. Coolant leak from the prime focus in 2011 is
described in appendix.
4.1.2 Upgrades of Telescope
HSC-related telescope modifications
HSC is the new wide field prime focus camera that saw the first light on August 2012. In
2010 during recoating of the primary mirror, major modifications to the telescope and its
secondary mirrors were done. The automated connectors inside the inner hub of the top end
of the telescope have been relocated onto the secondary mirror spider to accommodate the
field correction lens for the field of view of 1.5 degrees diameter. Signal and power
connections of the secondary mirrors were modified to accommodate the relocation of
automatic connectors. Relocation of the automatic connectors led to addition of an infrared
suppression mirror to hide the additional wires from infrared instruments. Weights were
added onto the secondary mirrors as well as to the bottom of the telescope to balance with
the heavier top unit for HSC. In the following years, choreographies for the top unit
exchanger (TUE) as well as position sensors inside the inner hub are added to install and
remove the top unit and Filter Exchange Units (FEU) safely. To keep the CCDs cooled down
even when being transported onto the telescope, a water chiller was installed onto TUE.
With the preparations by the HSC team and the telescope engineering division followed by
improvements of the procedure by the day crews, installation and removal of the top unit
and FEUs are becoming more safe and stable.
Preventive upgrades
The telescope makes use of many advanced electrical devices including computers. They
are essential for continuing operations of the telescope and require enough number of
backup parts to be replaced when they fail. All the upgrades have been done basically
keeping the logical, electrical, and mechanical interfaces for continued operations.
- 57 -
Computers
The telescope control system consists of three layers of computers that are, from top to
bottom, one Telescope Supervise Computer (TSC), three Mid-Level Processors (MLPs), and
a number of Local Control Units (LCUs).
The three MLPs were upgraded from Alpha computers on VME bus running VxWorks to
Intel computers on Compact PCI running VxWorks. Namely, MLP1, MLP2, and MLP3 are
upgraded in the year 2009, 2010, and 2011 respectively. MLP2 was upgraded during
recoating of the primary mirror to test control of the primary mirror actuators when the
primary mirror is removed from the mirror cell to avoid possible damages to the mirror.
From 2012, LCUs have been upgraded from PowerPC computers on VME running iTron to
Intel computers on Compact PCI running VxWorks. Increased computing powers enabled
us to use the same architecture for MLPs and LCUs and generalize backup parts. In 2012,
the Field Rotation Control Unit (FRCU) that controls the Cassegrain instrument rotator
and the Nasmyth image rotators was upgraded. In 2013, Auto-guider and Shack-Hartmann
Control Unit (ASCU) that controls positions of the acquisition unit probes at Cassegrain
and Nasmyth foci, Cable Twister Control Unit (CTCU) that controls the cable wrappers at
the azimuth and the elevation axes, FRCU (PF) that controls the instrument rotator in the
prime focus top units, Mount Control Unit (MCU) that controls the azimuth and the
elevation axes, Secondary Mirror Control Unit (SMCU) that controls the secondary mirrors,
and Tip-Tilt Control Unit (TTCU) that controls the tip-tilt mirror on the infrared secondary
mirror were upgraded. Upgrade continues for all of the LCUs.
Cassegrain Instrument Automatic Exchanger
Cassegrain Instrument Automatic Exchanger is a robotic cart that exchanges the
Cassegrain instruments by transporting the instruments as well as attaching and
removing the instruments at the Cassegrain focus. We have been maintaining the carts as
well as upgrading the sensors and the control devices.
Windscreen
To reduce gusts in the dome, the windscreen is deployed in front of the telescope. The
screen consists of eight panels. Originally, the panels were connected with pins and holes
only when the screen is extended. In 2013, chains were added to improve reliability.
4.1.3 Scheduled maintenance
Some of the devices in the telescope require periodic maintenances. The primary mirror
was recoated in 2010 and 2013. There are a number of tasks that can only been done during
the recoating work to allow for extended work that makes it impossible to observe for
nights or to access areas which are hidden when the telescope is assembled Oil pumps for
hydrostatic bearings as well as automatic connectors at the Cassegrain focus are replaced
- 58 -
in 2013 during the recoating period. Driving mechanisms in the primary mirror actuators
have always been adjusting forces applied to the primary mirror since the first light. From
2009 through 2012, drive screws and motors have been replaced with backups and sent
back to Japan for overhaul. Adjustment of lateral guide rollers continues to maintain
rotation center of the dome. Leap seconds were inserted when needed.
4.1.4 Troubles
After the first light on 1999, the telescope has been served for observations. During the
period, parts of the telescope experience inevitable wear and tear. Shutters in auto-guider
and Shack-Hartmann (AG and SH) cameras became unstable. Their CCDs are no longer
produced.
In 2009, a leak of coolant in the azimuth cable wrap was found and fixed with replacing the
hoses. Cracks on rubber springs for dome boggies were found. New rubber springs have
been produced and we are in a process of replacing the rubber springs.
In 2012, the rotation axis of TUE became loose and was serviced. The drive mechanism in
the image rotator for optical Nasmyth focus became loose resulting in offset of the rotation
angle of the image rotator. The coupling was serviced and the rotation was adjusted. Signal
and power connections on the secondary mirror spider for controlling top units became
loose. Pins in the connectors are adjusted and tip of optical fibers are cleaned as needed.
There have been problems in chiller and pump systems for cooling the electronics and the
instruments. Pumps, ball bearings, and other parts are replaced when needed. Helium
hoses around the instrument rotator at the Cassegrain focus were pulled and tore off.
Affected hoses and connectors were replaced.
In 2013, a failure in a digital signal processor (DSP) led the elevation axis run away to very
low elevation. The faulty DPS was replaced. A failure in the slip rings supplying electricity
to the dome failed. Damaged parts were replaced. Voltage and current into the slip rings
are being monitored. Cracks were found on the dome rail. Drive wires and sliding rollers on
the primary mirror covers started to show problems. They are being adjusted and replaced.
4.1.5 Operational problems
During removal of the Laser Launch Telescope for the laser guide star, power to the laser
was left on and a worker was slightly injured in 2011.
Careless operations of TUE led to mechanical damages in 2012 and 2013.
4.2 Status of Instruments
In Subaru, 9 facility (AO188, COMICS, FMOS, FOCAS, HDS, HSC, IRCS, MOIRCS, and
Suprime-Cam) and 3 visiting (HiCIAO, Kyoto3DII, and SCExAO) instruments are
- 59 -
currently in operation. In this section, the status of these instruments except for HSC (see
Sec. 4.8) and SCExAO (Sec. 6.2) is presented.
Figure 1 shows the focus position of each instrument while figure 2 shows the wavelength
coverage, spectral resolution, spatial resolution, and size of field-of-view for the facility
instruments.
Figure 1 Facility and visiting instruments for Subaru Telescope at each focus position.
Figure 2 Wavelength coverage vs. spectral-resolution (left) and spatial-resolution /
field-coverage (right) of facility instruments.
AO188 started its operation with NGS-mode in October 2008. Although it had a failure
with the deformable mirror and was closed for ten months in 2010, it was successfully
recovered and implemented LGS-mode in 2011 (figure 3). It has been actively used with
IRCS as well as with the visiting instruments such as HiCIAO and Kyoto3DII.
- 60 -
Figure 3 (left) Laser beam launched from the Subaru Telescope. (right) An example of the
performance of AO188 LGS-mode obtained under a good seeing condition.
FMOS is a near-IR multi-object fiber spectrograph which has a unique capability of
observing 400 objects simultaneously within 30 arcminutes FoV. It was opened in 2010
starting from the low-resolution mode of one of spectrograph, IRS1. The other spectrograph,
IRS2, and the high-resolution mode were opened in order, and it was fully opened in 2012.
Figure 4 shows a picture of FMOS top-unit and spectra of a calibration source taken with
IRS1. Its wide-field and high-multiplex coverage have been providing a unique opportunity
to the community such as the FastSound project conducted as a Subaru Strategic Program
(SSP) for FMOS.
Figure 4 (left) A picture and sketch of FMOS top-unit. (right) Spectra of a calibration
source taken with the 200 fibers of IRS1.
- 61 -
For the other instruments, they have been operated stably with minor upgrades since the
last review in 2008. For, example, Suprime-Cam and FOCAS have installed fully-depleted
type CCDs developed by the collaboration of NAOJ and Hamamatsu Photonics which
greatly increased the sensitivity in red-side of the two instruments. Another example is the
image slicers developed for HDS which greatly improved the efficiency of the instrument
when the highest spectral resolution is required. In 2011, we had a major trouble with the
telescope coolant system which severely damaged Suprime-Cam and FOCAS (figure 5) as
well as the telescope subsystems such as the Cassegrain Auto Guider (AG) system and
Atmospheric Dispersion Corrector (ADC). Suprime-Cam, FOCAS, and the AG system were
recovered in 2012 while it took another year to fully recover the ADC.
Figure 5 Pictures of Suprime-Cam (left) and FOCAS (right) taken just after the coolant
leak (top) and after the repair works (bottom).
4.3 Status of Facility
The Subaru Telescope facility at Mauna Kea summit and the base facility in Hilo are the
basis of our operations. As seen in the detailed budget report over the years 2010 through
2014, the facility maintenance cost is gradually increasing due to necessary upgrade and
replacement costs of older equipment. Although day-crew 1 has been trying to keep up
with necessary maintenance, the lack of adequate staffing and constant OSHA required
upgrade work needs, keep many of the projects behind schedule. As the years progress,
we will see further cost rises due to greater system overhauls and necessary facility
- 62 -
upgrades. We have included many of the projected upgrades that will be necessary to keep
the facility in good working order. We also will need to address the manpower shortage to
keep up with the future upgrade work. The extreme conditions at the summit, as well as
the high precipitation/high temp conditions at the base have contributed to roof and
exterior damage, and we’ve seen an uptick in water leak damage due to it.
Roof
replacement work has begun and will continue in the coming years. The dome exterior
has especially suffered over the last couple of years due to the inability to perform any
corrective maintenance because of the roof anchors needing to be replaced to comply with
OSHA regulations. We hope to address this situation as soon as the new anchors will be
installed early 2015, and day-crews will be able to access the exterior using the two-man
basket.
Table 1: Hilo facilities Major Maintenance 2010 - 2014
2010
Vertical blind repair for main hallway windows
Portable air conditioning unit (PACU) #6B replacement
A/C heat pans (40) replacements
Machine shop canopy repairs due to water leaks
Optical lab condenser replacement
Uninterruptable power supply batteries exchange
Exterior painting and materials
2011
Exterior wall painting, patching and facia repairs
Machine shop flooring upgrade
Electrical switchgear cleaning
2012
Security camera upgrade
Chaulking roof gable openings and cracks
Main switchgear circuit breaker replacement
A/C pumps and motors replacment
Air compressor pumps and motor replacement
2013
Roof mildew cleaning - equipment rental
New air compressor hoses
- 63 -
New 40' shipping container for storage use
New canopies over main entrances
A/C control boards, grill, and parts
Interior upgrade for lounge and office #1
2014
A/C cooling tower fan wheel and bearing replacement
Laser lab PACU replacement
Hilo office light fixture conversion to LED type
Computer room PACU replacement
Men's restroom upgrades
New roof for machine shop with safety anchors
Interior upgrade for lobby and replacement of office doors
Building roof for shipping container
Office #1 roof recoating materials
Table 2: Summit Facilities Major Maintenance 2010 - 2014
2010
Mirror wash station waste water pit liner repairs
CUDA hot water parts washer for cleaning drive chains
Dome IR-side compressor replacement
New summit telephone handsets (60)
HSC hoist design fee and implementation
Telescope chillers shafts and seals replacement
2011
HSC hoist platform, electrical upgrade and inspection
Mitsubishi 5 ton hoist cable replacement
Water system pumpmotor and valve replacement
UPS-3 and UPS-4 battery replacement
Dome IR compressor #2 replacement
Eyewash station upgrades
Dome optical A/C spare compressor purchase
Electric drill system (EDS) for dome wall screw replacement work
- 64 -
Chiller leak repairs
Underground storage tank upgrade
2012
Chiller A compressor replacement
Fire alarm system upgrade
PFS floor and dome structure analysis
A/C pumps and motors replacement
Dome IR-sdie compressor installation
Driveway crack tar repairs and materials
Computer room PACU 4 compressor replacement
Spare electrical circuit breakers
Eyewash station electrical work
2013
OSHA required arc flash study and labeling by electrical contractor
High roof safety life line upgrade to OSHA standard
Spare electrical circuit breakers
Dome power slip-ring repair / bypass system implementation study
Ultrasonic humidifier system upgrade for computer rooms
Computer room PACU 1, 2, 5 and 6 replacement
Dome UPS and UPS-3 replacement units
TUE optical-side crane upgrade
Power engineer's electrical diagram redraft for summit facility
Driveway crack tar repairs and materials
Dome electrical outlet replacement
Main switch gear MDB-1 & MDB-2 inspection
Sky climber manbasket replacement
Control building air supply fan replacement
Chiller A new motor and leak repair
2014
MDB-1 & MDB-2 cleaning and maintenance
Computer room PACU 1, 2, 5 and 6 installation work
New dome power slip-ring bypass system installation
- 65 -
Dome UPS and UPS-3 units installation
Dome A/C optical-side compressor installation
Spare electrical circuit breakers
OSHA required roof man-basket anchor point upgrade
Catwalk repainting
Underground fuel storage tank containment liner repair
Storm louvers for intake ducts
Coude room LED light upgrade
Chiller B compressor replacement
UPS-3 transformer modification
Table: Summit facilities major maintenance 2009 – 2013
4.4 Status of Computing system
4.4.1 Overview
Subaru Telescope designs, operates and maintains servers and network, and provides cloud
services that we subscribe to as an infrastructure of Subaru Telescope. We operate and
maintain network to Internet and network to interconnect Subaru Telescope's four
locations. We not only install and manage the computer system located on premises, but
also subscribe and manage services located in the "Cloud." This report outlines the
computer and network system that we design, operate and maintain.
4.4.2 Components
Subaru Telescope designs, operates and maintains servers and network at four locations
the Hilo Base Facility, the Hale Pohaku Midlevel Facility, the Summit Facility and the
Headquarters of NAOJ in Mitaka, Japan. We manage computer network that interconnects
these facilities. The followings are the components of servers and network that are
categorized by hardware and by functions.
Core network management
- Network servers such as DNS, DHCP, user account (LDAP)
- Monitoring tools (network connectivity, computer up/down status, password check,
network traffic)
- Network switches and cables
- 66 -
- Firewalls
- WiFi in the Hilo Base Facility
Services for the core observatory operations
- Email powered by Google Apps for Work
- File server for Windows, MacOS and Linux
- Internal web servers for static contents using Apache httpd
- Wiki and CMS for internal communications and documentations
- PURSE (Purchase Request System)
- Car and summit work schedules
- VPN (Virtual Private Network) servers
- Subaru Telescope document database
- Video conference equipments, Web-base meeting powered by Zoom
- Windows/Linux workstations
- Load balancers
- Storage and printers
Services that support resident scientists
- Data analysis servers for staff members
- Data analysis server for ALMA data
Services that support observation and visiting astronomers
- Telescope control system
- Gen2 (Generation-2 observation control system)
- Instrument control system
- Issue tracker
- ProMS (Proposal Management System)
- Online visitor form powered by Salesforce.com
- Data analysis servers for visiting astronomers
- Open-use observer reports
- STARS (Subaru Telescope Archive System)
- HSC (Hyper Supreme-Cam) data analysis cluster
- Hilo remote observation system
- Mitaka remote observation system
- 67 -
Services that support summit crew (day crew and operators)
- Night operator/day crew logs
- STS (Subaru Telemetry System)
- FATS (Fault-tracking system)
Public services
- External web server
- Live camera picture feed from the Summit Facility
- Public tour reservation
4.4.3 Gen2 (Generation-2 Observation Control System)
Subaru's Observation Control System sits at the center of the observing computing
environment and interfaces with the Telescope Control System, various Instrument Control
Systems, the STARS archive system, the STS telemetry system and the operators and
users. The OCS system, called "Gen2" was developed and is managed in house by the
Software Division. Hardware-wise, it consists of two racks of servers and storage, one set at
the summit and one set at the base, plus a bank of graphical Linux terminals at each
operation location (summit, Hilo, Mitaka). Using a distributed processing system, these
units communicate data files, status and commands between all the relevant systems,
while providing a graphical operating interface to the operators. Data files, logs and all
software is stored in redundant RAID-6 systems at the summit and base, with a tape
backup of the base RAID.
Although the current system is geared towards classical
observation, extensions to the system are being developed for a queue system with
extensive input from the Science Operations division. The queue team carefully studied
the queue systems at CFHT, JAC and Gemini observatories to inform the ongoing design.
General analysis environments for observers are provided at the summit and base. The
analysis environment at the summit consists of a powerful Linux server with several
terabytes of storage and a common collection of astronomical analysis packages and
viewers. Data is streamed to the server during the night and separated by proposal with
standard Unix security mechanisms.
Two workstations with multi-head setups are
provided as terminals to access the data. A similar configuration exists at the Hilo remote
and Mitaka remote locations. Typical software packages available include IRAF, IDL,
python + misc astronomy packages, DS9, skycat and others.
- 68 -
4.4.4 STARS (Subaru Telescope Archive System)
STARS is a large data archive system which stores raw observation data taken from the
telescope and provides observers as well as staff members with the data. For better data
security, observation data is stored in the hard drive storage and in the tape storage in the
Hilo base facility, and in the hard drive storage in the headquarters of NAOJ in Mitaka,
Japan. STARS users can search for data taken with their proposal IDs and data that is
opened to public after a proprietary period. Downloading data is available from servers
both in Hilo and in Mitaka which is called as "MASTARS (Mitaka Advanced Subaru
Telescope Archive System). STARS system comprises two servers and 500TB storage in
Hilo and one server and 300TB storage in Mitaka. A major system replacement of STARS
has been completed by 2013. The new system improved the user interface and reduced the
operation cost. Subaru's raw data after a proprietary period is made public by SMOKA
(Subaru Mitaka Okayama Kiso Archive) and by JVO (Japanese Virtual Observatory) which
have been developed and operated by Astronomical Data Center of NAOJ.
4.4.5 HSC (Hyper Supreme-Cam) data analysis cluster
To process large-format data (about 300MB per exposure) that HSC creates and to provide
observers the quality of data taken on the fly, HSC on-site data analysis cluster was
designed and runs during HSC observing runs. Pipeline data reduction process runs on
each core of CPU that reduces a file, created by a single CCD. The current cluster
comprises 12 servers, 9TB of storage, one Infiniband switch and one Gigabit switch.
Current cluster and software running on the cluster is designed only for SSP (Subaru
Strategic Program) and we plan to develop on-site data analysis system from Open-use
programs. For more precise data analysis, HSC off-site data analysis cluster was designed
and is located in Mitaka. Off-site cluster has the similar hardware configuration but is
designed to provide reduced data to observers of which function does not exist in the on-site
cluster in Hilo.
4.4.6 Procurement
We rent some computers and equipment and buy the other. Our rental contract covers
detailed design of computer software/hardware and network configurations based on the
specification document which was made by Subaru Telescope, leasing hardware,
installation, configuration, daily operation and maintenance of computers and equipment,
migration of data from the old system and removal of hardware at the end of the contract.
This ensures the deployment of the best quality computer and network system in a very
short period, and minimum operation manpower requirement to the observatory. Two
- 69 -
system engineers and one custom engineer from the vender station at the Hilo base facility
to operate and manage rental computer/network system. Since it is very difficult to add
major hardware system during the rental contract which spans five years, some hardware
and software were purchased by the observatory and managed by ourselves. Although HSC
data analysis cluster is the largest computer unit for Subaru Telescope, the hardware was
purchased because of uncertainty for system expansion at the time of the design for the
rental system. Gen2 also runs on an own hardware and STARS/MASTARS runs on the
rental hardware.
The current rental system started in March 2013 and will end in February 2018.
4.5 Daytime Operations
In 2013 a new division ‘Site Operations’ division has been formed. Before that all day crews
have belonged to Technical Support Division. Now the day crew 2 members, who primarily
carry out instrument and top-unit exchanges and provide support for instrument-related
activities, belong to the Site Operations division, and the division is responsible for all
day-time activities at the summit facility. In order to improve the stability and safety of
summit work activities, the division members are trying to improve the regular procedures
by training, documentations, and renewing equipments to follow safety regulations. The
team also has worked on the clean-up of many storage areas which have become short after
long years of operations.
Highlights of site operation activities for this year;
1) Employee hiring and training
a) Hiring and training of 2 new day-crew 2 staff.
b) Retraining of an existing day-crew member, returning from a prolonged leave of
absence.
c) Created manuals for critical work relating to Top Unit Exchanges (TUE),
Cassegrain Unit Exchanges (CUE), and upgraded local control unit use.
2) Safety upgrades
a) Improved on various fall protection systems around 80t crane and TU floors,
including new lifeline anchors, railings, and toe-kicks.
b) Created checklists for new staff safety briefs and facility safety checks.
c) Arranged for additional safety training for day-crew 2 staff.
d) Started summit portable radio system and NsIR crane upgrade processes.
3) Facility repairs/upgrades
a) Coordinated spider fiber optics connector redesign.
- 70 -
b) Cooperating with Instrument Division to remodel Cassegrain instrument
automated exchanger (CIAX) operating system.
c) Implementing routine inspection and clean-up duties for DC2.
d) ESB mezzanine and vent room modification for instrument storage upgrade work in
progress.
4) Storage management
a) Started reorganization of ESB storage areas.
b) Set up new storage areas at CB2F and coude rooms.
c) Set up new storage inventory database.
d) Ongoing efforts to remove all decommissioned and unnecessary items from the
summit, including CIAO and the dummy lens barrel for Hyper Suprime Camera
(HSC).
4.6 Night-time Operations and Open-use Observations
For Subaru telescope open-use science observations, one support astronomer and one
telescope operator are usually at the summit to support visiting observers and/or conduct
service observations. Support astronomers operate instruments and assist visiting
observers, by giving advice to achieve the best observing strategy. Telescope operators take
care of startup and completion of observations each night, operate the Subaru telescope
during night, and assist instrument operations, whenever necessary.
Subaru open-use observations consist of two semesters. Semester A is from February to
July (six months), and semester B is from August to January of next year (six months).
Here we report the open-use statistics from S09A to S13B (2009 February to 2014 January).
Table 1 summarizes the statistics of accepted and submitted proposals in each semester. On
night basis, the oversubscription rate has been consistently over three times,
demonstrating that Subaru has continued to be a highly demanding observing facility for
astronomers. After S10A, the number of available nights for open-use normal programs is
smaller than S09A and S09B, because (1) a large number of nights has been allocated to
Subaru Strategic Programs (SSP), which can request several 10 to more than 100 nights to
conduct legacy surveys using Subaru, and (2) telescope modification was made to install the
Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC), which will be the most important instrument of the Subaru
telescope at least for several years after 2013.
- 71 -
Table 1 : Open-use statistics from S09A to S13B. The number of submitted and accepted
proposals, and that of requested and allocated nights are summarized in each semester.
Number of
Number of
Allocated nights
submitted
accepted
Requested nights
for accepted
proposals
proposals
proposals
S09A
151
53
429.5
113
S09B
140
45
379.5
110
S10A
141
43
412.1
83
S10B
137
30
380.5
51
S11A
150
50
441
90
S11B
119
39
291
58.5
S12A
114
48
312
77.5
S12B
132
39
350
63
S13A
143
52
368
85.5
S13B
146
41
362.6
62.5
In 2012, since scheduled HSC engineering observations were cancelled, we made an
additional call for proposals on 2012 April 17, to determine observing programs using IRCS
or FMOS. We received 93 proposals, and 9 proposals were accepted. The requested and
accepted nights were 192.3 and 11.5, respectively.
As was mention above, SSP has started since S09B semester to allocate a large number of
nights to a survey type of programs. Two SSPs, i.e., SEEDS using HiCIAO, FASTSOUND
using FMOS, have been carried out between S09B and S13B. The total nights for SSP in
each semester should not exceed 30, which is about 25% of the total number of observation
nights.
Table 2: SSP statistics
SEEDS
FASTSOUND
S09B
10
S10A
0
S10B
12.5
S11A
10
S11B
21
5
S12A
20
13
S12B
14
4
S13A
7
7
S13B
11
9
- 72 -
Since the primary observing mode of the Subaru telescope is a classical mode, many
astronomers visit Subaru to conduct their observations either at the summit or at the
Subaru base facility in Hilo. Table 3 shows the number of visitors. A significant fraction of
them are foreign astronomers, demonstrating the international nature of the Subaru
Telescope.
Table 3 : Number of visitors to the Subaru telescope.
Visitors
Non-Japanese visitors
S09A-S09B
357
49
S10A-S10B
272
107
S11A-S11B
277
88
S12A-S12B
373
38
S13A-S13B
342
40
Night operations were stable. In S09A-S12B, more than 90% of available time was used for
astronomical observations (Table 3). In S13A-S13B, a number of troubles occurred, partly
due to the aging of the Subaru telescope. The fraction of observation time was only 88.6%.
We have continued a large effort to increase this fraction, by maintaining the Subaru
telescope more carefully and doing necessary upgrade of many parts.
Table 4: Fraction of astronomical observation time and telescope downtime due to troubles
of instrument, observation control system, and telescope.
Observation
Telescope
Science
Instrument
control system
trouble (%)
operation (%)
trouble (%)
trouble (%)
S09A-S09B
97.0
2.0
0.3
0.7
S10A-S10B
97.4
0.6
0.1
1.9
S11A-S11B
91.3
1.1
0.2
7.4
S12A-S12B
95.1
0.8
0.4
3.7
S13A-S13B
88.6
3.9
0.8
6.7
For stable instruments, remote observations from the Subaru base facility in Hilo were
conducted, because observing from Hilo at a sea level is physically much easier than the
summit with 4200m in elevation, and so observing efficiency may increase. The number of
remote observation nights from Hilo is summarized in Table 5. The used instrument was
mostly Suprime-Cam, because of its stability and high demand. However, troubles
happened for Suprime-Cam in 2011. Consequently, the number of remote observation
nights became small after 2011, since we have suspended the remote observing mode for
Suprime-Cam until its stability is confirmed again.
- 73 -
Table 5 : Number of nights for remote observations from Hilo.
Remote observation nights
S09A-S09B
70.5
S10A-S10B
71
S11A-S11B
25
S12A-S12B
1
S13A-S13B
0
For open-use normal programs, at least one observer from each accepted program need to
come to Hawaii to conduct observations from the summit or Hilo. In addition to these
normal programs, we provided a service observation mode. In this mode, maximum 4 hours
can be requested in each program and observation is conducted by Subaru staff. The total
number of nights used for service observations is summarized in Table 6.
Table 6 : Number of nights used for service observations.
Service observation nights
S09A-S09B
12
S10A-S10B
10.5
S11A-S11B
12.75
S12A-S12B
19.85
S13A-S13B
13
4.7 Time Exchange
Time exchange between the Mauna Kea Observatories points to closer collaboration among
large telescopes. To give Japanese astronomers access to astrophysical objects in the
southern skies above Chile, as well as the use of state-of-art instruments, Subaru agreed to
swap telescope time with Gemini in 2006 and with Keck in 2007. In return, Gemini
communities from the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Australia and Chile and
Keck users of universities in California got to use Subaru’s instruments including wide field
cameras such as Suprime-Cam and Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). There has been a strong
demand for time exchange from both sides, and on 19 October 2012, the directors of Subaru
and Gemini signed an agreement that increases the available time for sharing
#1
. With an
initiative of Keck, a study of expanding the swap time from current number of nights has
just started. Responding to the Subaru’s users’ requests, the director talked to the director
general of ESO on the possibility of time exchange with VLT. The time exchange with VLT
- 74 -
needs a full agreement of all member countries of ESO, and it may take a bit of time to
reach a final conclusion.
The history of time exchange between Subaru and Gemini, Subaru and Keck are given in
Table 7. Most popular instruments of Gemini are GMOS-N, GMOS-S, and NIFS, while
those of Keck are DEIMOS, OSIRIS, LRIS and MOSFIRE. Suprime-Cam and HDS are
most frequently used for time swap and a demand for HSC is strong from the very
beginning of its open-use.
Previously, large observatories on Mauna Kea had developed an every sort of basic
instruments by themselves. Now, as instruments becomes more expensive, and the TMT
era will soon be realized, Subaru is starting to specialize for wide-field survey astronomy
and will fully developed potential possibility of time exchange to ensure Japanese
community an access to wide variety of instruments and telescopes in the world.
#1: Eric Hand, “Astronomers set up telescope timeshare”, Nature News & Comments, 02
November 2012
Table 7: Number of Swapped Nights
S->G
G->S
S->K
K->S
P
A
P
A
P
A
A
S07B
16.9
5
18
5.3
21.5
4
4
S08A
7
5
18
5
17
4
4
S08B
13
5
17
5
27
4
4
S09A
14
5
11
5
19
4
3
S09B
31.5
6
13
6
11.5
2
3
S10A
12
5
38
5
3
3
3
S10B
30.5
5
28
5
14
4
4
S11A
12
3
32
3
7
4
4
S11B
24
6
37.5
6
12
6
6
S12A
25.5
8
33.5
8
12
2
2
S12B
22.8
3
24
3
22
4
4
S13A
10.5
2
26
3
34
4
7
S13B
27.9
2.5
28.5
4.5
23
6
3
S14A
35
5
31
5
19.5
6
6
S14B
12
3
48.6
3
19
5
5
Note: S->G (Subaru to Gemini), S->K (Subaru to Keck), G->S (Gemini to Subaru), K->S (Keck to Subaru).
P:Proposed, A:Accepted. Proposed number from Keck to Subaru is not available.
- 75 -
4.8 Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC)
4.8.1 Summary
Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is an 870 Mega pixel prime focus camera for the 8.2 m Subaru
telescope. The wide field corrector delivers sharp image of 0.2 arcsec FWHM in i-band over
the entire 1.5 degree (in diameter) field of view. The collimation of the camera with respect
to the optical axis of the primary mirror is realized by hexapod actuators whose mechanical
accuracy is few microns. As a result, we expect to have seeing limited image most of the
time. Expected median seeing is 0.67 arcsec FWHM in i-band. The sensor is a p-ch fully
depleted CCD of 200 μm thickness (2048 x 4096 15μm square pixel) and we employ 116 of
them to pave the 50 cm diameter focal plane. Minimum interval between exposures is
roughly 30 seconds including reading out arrays, transferring data to the control computer
and saving them to the hard drive. HSC uniquely features the combination of large primary
mirror, wide field of view, sharp image and high sensitivity especially in red. This enables
accurate shape measurement of faint galaxies which is critical for planned weak lensing
survey to probe the nature of dark energy. The camera saw the engineering first light in
August 2012, and started the scientific operation from January 2014.
4.8.2 The Camera
Fig. 1 Cross sectional view of Hyper Suprime-Cam. The configuration of the system units
are schematically shown on the right except the filter exchangers.
Fig. 2 Hyper Suprime-Cam installed on the telescope.
- 76 -
As is shown in Figure 1, there are three major system units, Camera (CAM), Wide Field
Corrector (WFC) and the Prime Focus Unit (PFU). The PFU, designed and built by
Mitsubishi Electric., provides the telescope mechanical interface for CAM and WFC. It also
has hexapod actuators (designated SP in the figure) for the optics collimation and the
instrument rotator (InR). The optics configuration of WFC, built by Canon, is the same as
the Suprime-Cam WFC. It is composed of the basic Wynne triplet, the lateral shift ADC
followed by the pair of lenses that compensates chromatic aberration introduced by the
ADC. The diameter of the largest element (the first lens) is 82 cm.
The CAM consists of focal plane arrays, vacuum cryostats, shutter, Shack-Hartmann (SH)
sensor and filter exchanger unit (FEU). FEU loads six filters and is built by our Taiwanese
collaborator (Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics). CCD is a product
of long term (since 1994) joint collaboration between NAOJ and Hamamatsu Photonics. It
features high QE in red band (40% at λ = 1μm, -100℃) thanks to the thickness of the
depletion layer (200μm). Array readout electronics and most of the mechanical components
of CAM were developed in house heavily relying on the engineering resources (both staffs
and facilities) at Advanced Technology Center of NAOJ. The entire system was shipped to
Hawaii and mounted on the telescope in 2012 (Figure 2).
4.8.3 The Performance
Optics collimation of the de-center component
with respect to the primary mirror is realized
through the telescope mirror analysis using the
on-board
SH sensor. The
generates
the
tilt component
astigmatism
which
was
estimated from the stellar ellipticity map over
the entire field of view. After the adjustment,
we routinely obtain the image size smaller than
0.5 arcsec (FWHM) when the natural seeing is
superb.
In
order
to
verify
the
optics
performance we compared in Figure 3(a) the
observed stellar size (cyan) with the optical
calculations (blue) as a function of the field
position. Both matches nicely which suggests
that
the
expected
image
performance
is
Fig. 3: Image size (FWHM in
arcsec) of stellar objects (a) and
the ellipticities (b) as a function of
the field angle. Cyan points are
taken from an actual HSC-i band
200 sec exposure data. Blue
points are the size and the
ellipticities of the calculated PSF
as 0''.375 Gaussian input..
realized. Note that the distortion enlarges the
apparent image size by 7% at the field edge. This is not corrected in the figure and therefore
the image degradation toward the edge is not entirely due to the optics aberration. Figure
- 77 -
3(b) shows the comparison of ellipticities which agrees as well.
The throughput of the camera was measured in HSC-g,r,i,z,y band using spectophotometric
stars. The observed values are consistent with what were expected within 5% in all bands.
The minimum interval between the exposures is 40 (need to double-check) sec that include
setting up/read out CCDs, transferring/saving the data to the hard drives and the guide
star acquisition. Filter exchange takes 30 min currently where nearly half of the time is
spent to close/open the primary mirror cover during the exchange for safety reasons.
4.8.4 The Data Reduction Pipeline
Basic image analysis pipeline is developed through a collaboration of multiple institutes
including Princeton University, Kavli IPMU and NAOJ. This is based on a customized
version of “LSST-stack”, a software suite originally developed for LSST project. Object
detection is made on each CCD image. PSF on a CCD is modeled as a function of the CCD
pixel coordinate. This is used in the following flux measurements and
morphological
classification process which tags the star/galaxy flags as well as cosmic rays flag. The star
catalog on each CCD is correlated with an external photometric and astrometric reference
catalog (currently, SDSS-DR8 is employed) to determine magnitude zeropoint and
astrometric solution with the aid of astrometry.net. When we combine the multiple
exposures each CCD image is warped on to a fiducial coordinate (that has a simple relation
with the sky coordinate). This was not so simple because we have significant
non-axisymmetric distortion pattern caused by the larger index mismatch of the glass used
for the atmospheric dispersion corrector. The warp mapping is therefore modeled as a
general 2D polynomials. We use moderately bright control stars on the images and
minimize the displacement of the stars on each image to obtain the solution of the
coefficients which is then encoded as the SIP convention (TAN-SIP) of World Coordinate
System. The measured internal astrometric error is usually a level of 6 to 8 milli-arcsec
which is sufficiently small for the mosaic-stacking process.
4.8.5 Science Operation
We started the scientific observing
in January 2014 and keep the
steady
operation
both
for
the
general observers and the Subaru
Strategic Program (SSP). The image
data are transferred to the base
facility right after the exposure and
a cluster of computers examine the
Fig. 4: Real Time Data Quality Monitor
- 78 -
data to verify the stellar size/shape, transmission of the sky and so on.
The results and the trends are summarized on a web page that helps the support staffs and
observers to keep track of the observation progress (Figure 4). It also allows observers to
write comments along the data and can be used as a on-line logbook. Under the current
computer and network configuration, we have five minutes delay to have the latest
information. This is marginally acceptable and we would like to minimize the delay by
putting more computer resources in the future.
4.8.6 General Observer Support
The number of general observers are growing. Considering the limited man-power, we
decided to start from the minimum commitment to the general observers. Following the
standard Subaru conventions, we ask observers to carry out the data analysis by
themselves. However, we make a binary distribution of the HSC pipeline package for easy
installation. Although the package has been developed for the SSP data analysis we expect
that it works fine in most cases but it will not in some special cases (e.g. extremely large
objects are visible in the image). We will soon establish a help-desk at Mitaka to support
users and to collect the user's demands, and we will learn more about the instrument
characteristic and the spectrum of the user's demands. The Subaru telescope is responsible
for the data reduction and provides the final product (images and catalog) to the general
observers.
4.8.7 Comparison with Other Projects
The table below shows the summary of parameters of wide field observing facilities and the
survey plan. We believe that HSC has a strong competitiveness in the current time frame.
D
[m]
FoV
[deg]
AΩ
[m2deg2]
Seeing
[arcsec]
Survey Width
[deg2]
First Light
SDSS
2.5
6.0
23
~1.2
10,000
In operation
Suprime-Cam
8.2
0.5
13
~0.7
0.25~1.25
In operation
MegaCam
3.6
1.0
9.6
~0.7
4~170
In operation
DES
4.0
2
32
~0.9
5,000
HSC
8.2
1.5
92
~0.7
3.5~1,500
In operation
since 2012/09
In operation
since 2012/08
LSST
6.5
(equiv)
3.5
340
30,000
- 79 -
2021/12
5. Manpower
NAOJ staff; comparison with previous staffing
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
59
58
57
58
57
56
57
RCUH staff; including Subaru fellow, site manager
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
74
68
72
70
68
72
79
Status of the number of staff
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Director
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Director’s Office (Directorate)
5
5
4
5
5
5
5
18
18
19
16
16
18
12
12
12
11
11
Science Operation Div.
Instrument Div.
22
New Development
14
11
12
11
10
8※
8 ※
2
2
3
3
3
3
Computer & Data Management Div.
5
4
4
4
3
4
4
Telescope Engineering Div.
6
7
7
8
7
8
10
12
12
11
13
7
7
Site Operation Div.
11
5
6
Science & Education
10
7
11
8
8
11
Public Information and Outreach
6
5
5
6
6
6
Administration
11
10
10
9
9
8
9
Hyper Suprime-Cam Subproject
9
10
10
11
14
14
13
Mitaka Office
25
22
21
20
19
21
19
133
126
129
128
125
128
136
Software Div.
Technical Support Division
TOTAL
※ Some of Software Div. Members went to Instrument Div. in 2009.
※ New development Group went into Instrument Division in 2014.
- 80 -
21
20
6. Development Highlights
For the coming 10 years, Subaru Telescope plans to equip three large facility instruments:
Hyper Sprime Camera (HSC), Prime-Focus Spectrograph (PFS), and adaptive optics
system with deformable secondary mirror in conjunction with upgraded and/or a new
wide-field instruments (ULTIMATE-Subaru). HSC and PFS will lead the wide-field
astronomy for the coming 10 years and also will provide effective combination with TMT.
ULTIMATE-Subaru is the upgrade of the telescope which enables us to produce unique
sciences in the TMT era.
In addition to developing the large facility instruments, Subaru accepts rather small
instruments designed for a specific science or prototype instruments for larger telescopes as
PI-type or visiting instrument such as SCExAO and RAVEN. This way, Subaru will keep
diversity of astronomical field and opportunity for the continuous development activities
while conducting large astronomical surveys.
Here we report the current status of PFS development and some results of high contrast
instruments (SCExAO, CHARIS) and a prototype instrument for TMT (RAVEN). HSC has
already in use and it is described in Sec. 4. ULTIMATE-Subaru is described in Sec. 8.
6.1 PFS
6.1.1 Overview
The Prime-Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is an optical/near-infrared multi-object spectrograph
at the prime focus of the Subaru telescope, which will be the next facility instrument
following the successful implementation of Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). The PFS has 2394
optical fibers mounted on piezo actuator positioners distributed over the 1.3 degree field of
view of the prime focus that feed the light of the astronomical objects to four identical
spectrographs which will be placed in the dome where FMOS spectrographs are currently
housed in (FMOS will be decommissioned before PFS commissioning) (Fig. 1). Each of the
four spectrograph module consists of three cameras covering the wavelength ranging from
0.38 μm to 1.26 μm simultaneously with spectral resolution of R~1900 in blue to R~3500
in NIR. The spectrograph also equips medium resolution mode (R~5000) for 0.71 μm to 0.89
μm wavelength range.
Although there is still a budgetary issue, the project has passed preliminary design review
and is in the subsystem critical design review phase and some part of the system are being
constructed. The engineering first light is expected to be early 2018 and full survey starts
in 2019~2020.
- 81 -
Fig. 1 A conceptual overview of the Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS).
6.1.2 Expected science
The PFS will be a major step beyond the SDSS survey. It enables that optical to near-IR
spectra of up to 100,000 stars and galaxies can be obtained during a single night of
observing time. For the Sbaru strategic program (SSP) which is expected to be allocated
more than 300 nights, surveys for three scientific field are being planned, Cosmology,
Galactic archaeology, and Galaxy Evolution.
Cosmology
The goals of the PFS cosmology survey are to: (1) measure the Hubble expansion rate and
the angular diameter distance to 3 % fractional accuracies in each of six redshift bins over
0.8 < z < 2.4 via the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) method, (2) use the distance
measurements for determining the dark energy density parameter to about 7 % accuracy in
each redshift bin, when combined with lower redshift BAO measurements, (3) use the
geometrical constraints to determine the curvature parameter to 0.3 % accuracy, and (4)
measure the redshift space distortion (RSD) in order to reconstruct the growth rate of
large-scale structure to 6 % accuracy since a redshift of z = 2.4. These measurements of
the large-scale galaxy distribution can be combined with complentary weak lensing
information from the HSC survey in order to significantly improve the cosmological and
- 82 -
structure growth constraints and reduce uncertainties arising from galaxy bias and
nonlinear effects that are otherwise major sources of systematic error in spectroscopic
surveys.
Fig. 2 Expected accuracy of reconstructing the dark energy density parameter at each
redshift.
Galactic archaeology
Radial velocities and chemical abundances of stars in the Milky Way and M31 will be used
to infer the past assembly histories of spiral galaxies and the structure of their dark matter
halos. Data will be secured for 106 stars in the Galactic thick-disk, halo, and tidal stream as
faint as V~22 mag, including stars with V < 20 mag to complement the goals of the Gaia
mission. A medium-resolution mode (R~5000) of the red arm will allow the measurement of
multiple α-element abundances and more precise velocities for Galactic stars.
Fig. 3 Evidence that the Milky Way assembled gradually by accreting other small galaxies is
provided by stellar streams (identified here by the colors of their constituent stars). These
streams represent debris removed from infalling satellite galaxies during past merger events.
PFS will systematically chart the motions and chemical composition of millions of stars in the
Milky Way and its neighbors to determine the assembly history and the powerful role that dark
matter played.
- 83 -
Galaxy evolution
The goal of the PFS galaxy evolution survey is to follow the growth of the full panoply of
modern-day galaxies from cosmic dawn to the present. While we know some of the basic
physical processes that drive galaxy evolution (dark matter halo merging, gas accretion,
star formation and associated energy release, galaxy merging, black hole accretion and
associated energy release), how and when they operate, and their relative importance,
remain unknown. The survey utilize the unprecedented wavelength coverage of PFS, in
particular from 1 to 1.26 μm, to explore the redshift desert between 1.4 < z < 2.2 when the
star formation rate density and black hole growth were at their peak. Using Lyα emission,
the growth of galaxies and black holes will be traced all the way to the epoch of
re-ionization (2 < z < 7).
Thanks to the deep broad- and narrow-band imaging enabled by the HSC survey, we will be
able to study these young galaxies with unprecedented statistics using PFS.
A
color-selected survey 1 < z < 2 galaxies and AGNs is planned which covers 16 deg2 and up to
J~23.4 mag, yielding a fair sample of galaxies with stellar masses above ~1010 Msolar. A
two-tiered survey of higher redshift Lyman break galaxies and Ly emitters will quantify
the properties of early systems close to the re-ionization epoch.
Fig. 4 (left) Depth versus redshift for existing and planned large redshift surveys with z <
2.5. The symbol size represents survey area. (right) The number of spectroscopic pairs
separated by less than one arcminute. It highlights the power of PFS to (i) study
small-scale clustering of the group scale and (ii) probe the gas distribution in galaxy halos
using absorption line probes.
6.1.3 International Collaboration and the Role of NAOJ
The PFS is being developed under international collaboration of 6 countries, 11 institutions.
The Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) in Tokyo
- 84 -
has provided crucial seed funding and led the project collaborating with California Institute
of Technology and its associated Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Princeton University,
Johns Hopkins University (JHU), Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Laboratorio Nacional
de Astrofisica (LNA), Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Academia Sinica
Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Taiwan (ASIAA), Max-Planck Institute für
Astrophysik (MPA) (joined in 2014), and NAOJ.
The project has endorsed (with some conditions) by Subaru community in January 2011.
The project office was organized in the same year and full-scale development started. The
project passed its Preliminary Design Review in February 2013 and is now in subsystem
critical design review and construction phase.
NAOJ is responsible for preparing observatory facilities including flooring for the
spectrograph, modifying the telescope control system, and electricity/coolant/network
infrastructure to accept the PFS and providing telescope time that will be awarded as
Subaru Strategic Program (SSP), whereas IPMU is responsible for completing the PFS
instrument with international collaborators. IPMU and other collaborators agreed on a
MOU for the construction of PFS in July 2012, in which the role of each partner is defined
(Table 7.1.1). However, NAOJ has been a core member of the project office since the
beginning and contributed its management as well as technical studies to support the
project to ensure the successful completion of the project. In January 2014, NAOJ also
decided to provide funds for PFS instrument up to a few million US dollars in addition to
the cost of facility preparations to help PFS funding which is still short in several million
US dollars. NAOJ won’t start facility modification, which will affect scientific operations,
until the PFS project raise sufficient fund to fulfil minimum specification of the instrument.
The project is seriously seeking additional funds including inviting new partners as well as
reducing production cost further down.
Table 1 Role of the each institution of PFS collaboration
Identified Role
Institution or Consortium
ASIAA
Metrogy camera and Prime Focus Instrument
Brazil consortium
Fiber system
Caltech/ JPL
Fiber positioner and Prime Focus Instrument
IPMU
Project management and cash
JHU
Detectors and dewars of the Spectrographs
LAM
Optics and Integration of the Spectrographs, software
Princeton
Detectors and dewars of the Spectrograph, software
- 85 -
6.1.4 Current development status
Fiber Positioner (COBRA) and Prime Focus Instrument (PFI)
Fiber positioner (COBRA) has been developed by JPL and Caltech. They finished final
evaluation of the engineering models in 2014 and start mass production with a
subcontractor. It was proven that the 95 % of the positioners can be pointed within 5 μm
error circle (which is the error budget for the positioner) in 5 iterations and almost 100 %
positioners will converge in 10 iterations.
Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) is the mechanical structure to interface the COBRA system
to the telescope’s prime focus unit (POpt2). Detailed design and part of production is
ongoing at ASIAA (Taiwan).
Fig. 4 Fiber positioner (COBRA) (left top and bottom) and the schematics of the Prime
Focus Instrument (PFI) which will be installed in the telescope top unit (POpt2).
Fiber system
The optical fibers transmit light of astronomical object from the prime focus to the
spectrograph. For the operational and construction purpose, the optical fiber is divided in
three sections with optical connectors. We use two different manufacturer’s fibers,
Polymicro and Fujikura. Polymicro fiber has good focal ratio degradation (FRD) property
whereas Fujikura’s has good throughput at blue wavelength region. Thus we selected
Fujikura’s fiber for the longest part of the fiber system (Cable B) and Polymicro’s are used
for the Cable A (spectrograph part) and Cable C (COBRA part) both of which may be
applied large stress which induce FRD. The Fujikura fiber is specially made for PFS project
to achieve high throughput at blue wavelength region.
- 86 -
The fibers are already purchased and currently conducting final test for Cable A (with fiber
slit) at LNA(Brazil).
At the tip of the fiber of Cable C, a small lens will be attached in order to convert the F-ratio
of the Subaru prime focus to be slower for reducing the coupling loss to the fiber. The design
of the microlens was done by NAOJ.
Spectrograph and Camera system
The PFS spectrograph system consist of four identical spectrograph unit, each module
accept 600 optical fibers and has three camera arms covering blue, red, and near-infrared
wavelength. Johns Hopkins University is in charge for the Camera system including
detector readout. LAM (France) is in charge for the rest of the spectrograph including optics,
mechanical structure and final optical alignment.
The spectrograph system as passed the critical design review and the construction started.
The spectrograph optics need to be cooled down to +3~5℃ in order to reduce thermal
background noise of the near-infrared camera. The whole spectrograph modules are
enclosed in a large, temperature controlled room for maintaining good temperature
stability. NAOJ is joining the design of the room.
Fig. 5 PFS spectrograph module
Reference
Sugai et al., “Progress with the Prime Focus Spectrograph for the Subaru Telescope: a
massively multiplexed optical and near-infrared fiber spectrograph,” Proc. SPIE 9147
(2014)
Takada et al., “Extragalactic science, cosmology, and Galactic archaeology with the
Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 66, 1-51 (2014)
- 87 -
6.2 High-contrast instruments (SCExAO and CHARIS)
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) instrument has undergone
a significant development since 2009. This document serves as a brief overview of the
status of the instrument.
Overview
The Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system being built for the
Subaru Telescope, is a state-of-the-art instrument being developed specifically for high
contrast imaging of faint companions, such as exoplanets, and disks which are close to their
host star. Thus far over 1000 exoplanets have been discovered by indirect means, such as
the Doppler technique where the presence of a planet is betrayed by a small wobble in the
host star or by the transit technique where the host star temporarily dims as the planet
passes in front of it. However, to investigate the composition of the discovered planets
direct imaging and spectroscopy of the planetary light is key. The SCExAO instrument
plans to do this by providing unsurpassed wavefront correction to the stellar signal, which
is distorted by the turbulent atmosphere, restoring the image to a diffraction-limited state.
This allows for the sophisticated coronagraphs on-board, which include the phase-induced
amplitude apodization (PIAA) and vector vortex versions to efficiently null out the star
revealing the presence of a faint nearby companion. This combined with the CHARIS
spectrograph will allow the detailed study of compositions of exoplanets over the coming
years.
Strategic importance
SCExAO is a uniquely flexible instrument, designed to rapidly deploy new technologies
(wavefront sensing and control, starlight suppression) on sky and therefore reduce the time
delay between concept development and science results. This strategy is both scientifically
valuable (high contrast imaging technologies are rapidly improving) and well-suited to
Subaru Telescope: (1) Subaru's Nasmyth platform can accommodate a large optical bench
in a gravity invariant lab-like environment and (2) Subaru telescope's academic culture
allows the SCExAO team to engage in innovative research aspects of the instrument
development, in collaboration with outside groups. SCExAO also fills a much needed gap
between large extreme-AO instrument projects (SPHERE and GPI) which perform a large
multi-year homogeneous survey but lack the flexibility to rapidly integrate emerging
technologies and small innovative efforts that lack the resources or telescope access to
produce observational results.
- 88 -
Scientifically, SCExAO is uniquely optimized to deliver high contrast capabilities very close
(<0.2”) to stars, thanks to the use of recently developed coronagraphs offering low inner
working angle, and thanks to high speed high accuracy wavefront sensing and calibration
approaches. While SCExAO will excel at capturing the near-IR thermal emission of giant
planets, its most unique scientific strength will be to detect reflected light from large
planets, thus allowing observation of the most nearby planets (which are not particularly
young) for which the combination of direct imaging and RV data will allow unprecedented
characterization.
Imaging habitable planets with SCExAO on TMT
SCExAO's long term (~10yr) goal is to directly image habitable planets around nearby
M-type stars and measure their reflected light spectra with the Thirty Meter Telescope.
While Earth-like planets in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars are likely out of reach due
to contrast (~1e10), such planets are observable around M-type stars thanks to a much
more favorable contrast (~1e7 in reflected light). This however requires using a small inner
working coronagraph, as the habitable zone is ~20mas from the star, or ~2 l/D in the
near-IR on TMT. SCExAO's push for contrast in the 1-2 l/D speparation range is
well-aligned with this ambitious scientific goal. SCExAO's long-term instrument
development plan is geared toward achieving this goal. We expect to achieve the required
contrast/separation performance on-sky on Subaru at the end of this decade, and then
deploy SCExAO as a visitor instrument on TMT for a focused science experiment targeting
the ~50 most favorable targets. Recent planet frequency estimate from Kepler indicate that
M-type stars are excellent targets, with ~10% to ~40% of them hosting Earth-sized planets
in habitable zones. Deploying SCExAO on TMT will likely provide the first opportunity to
characterize habitable planets and will pave the way, both scientifically and technically, for
further characterization with more capable instruments on ELTs.
SCExAO on Subaru: balancing technology development and scientific
operation
A significant challenge for SCExAO is to balance technology development with the
requirements imposed by continuous science operation (which SCExAO is now entering).
This challenge is met with a modular approach, where the core instrument design is fixed
while additional modules continuously improve the instrument's performance. SCExAO's
evolution is defined in phases: each phase consists of a given instrument capability and
commissioning is therefore broken in well-defined units. Phase 1 (AO188 correction +
coronagraphs + LOWFS + HiCIAO) has completed engineering, and is now offered for
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science use. Engineering for phase 2 (extreme-AO layer + VAMPIRES) is ongoing and
expected to be completed in April 2015.
Fig 6: SCExAO's overall architecture and science modules. Dashed boxes indicate future
science modules while full boxes show currently existing modules.
Figure 6 shows SCExAO's overall architecture. The AO188 system first corrects
atmospheric wavefront errors prior to SCExAO. SCExAO's core system (described in
Section 6.2.1) performs further wavefront correction and near-IR starlight suppression.
Light is then fed to science modules (described in Section 6.2.2) operating in near-IR and
visible light. Science modules can be operated simultaneously.
6.2.1. SCExAO core system
Pyramid wavefront sensor:
The pyramid wavefront sensor (PyWFS) is a high order wavefront sensor that is designed
to correct for more modes (up to 1600) than a standard adaptive optics system (~200). This
coupled with a higher loop speed (3.7 kHz) makes it possible to achieve extremely high
Strehl ratios. Indeed SCExAO aims to improve on the 40% Strehl (H-band) provided by
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AO188 in good seeing and push that up to >90% when it is fully operational.
The wavefront sensor has undergone considerable development over the past 4 years. On
the most recent November 2014 run, the loop was closed on-sky with a limited number of
modes (up to 14) using the recently completed pyramid WFS architecture (Figure 7). The
loop was also closed on 1030 modes in the laboratory with simulated turbulence producing
seeing-like conditions while foggy skies prevented on-sky demonstration. The figure shows
the dramatic improvement in the Strehl between the closed and open loop regimes. The
Strehl ratio goes up from 23% average when the loop is open to 95% when the loop is closed
(Figure 8). Similar performance is expected on-sky.
Figure 7: New pyramid wavefront sensor layout
Figure 8: Strehl ratio determined from internal near-IR science camera images while the
PyWFS loop was open and closed. The Open loop and Closed loop regime are clearly highlighted.
For comparison the typical Strehl ratio achieved by AO188 is also displayed.
Low order wavefront sensor:
The low order wavefront sensor (LOWFS) is designed to correct for a small set of modes
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(like, tip/tilt, focus, etc) in the near-infrared where the coronagraph operates. The LOWFS
is essential to small inner working coronagraph opertation. This was developed prior to the
PyWFS and has been tested successfully on-sky numerous times. The LOWFS has
produced tip/tilt and focus residuals as low as 0.01 λ/D with a vector vortex coronagraph
on-sky on Vega.
Speckle nulling:
Speckle nulling adds to the wavefront control suite available to SCExAO. The aim of
speckle nulling is to systematically remove planet-like speckles in the focal plane
surrounding the PSF in order to carve a dark hole and make it easier to detect a companion.
Speckle nulling has been tested in the laboratory with great success as well as on-sky for
the first time in November 2012. Figure 9 shows an example of a successful implementation
of speckle nulling on-sky in June 2014 on the star RX Boo. It is clear from the image that
the speckles in around the left side of the PSF have been significantly reduced which
increases the contrast for detecting faint companions.
Coronagraphs:
The SCExAO instrument has a selection of stat-of-the-art coronagraphs. These include the
phase induced amplitude apodisation (PIAA), vector vortex, four quadrant, eight octant,
and shaped pupil versions.
Figure 9: RX Boo imaged without (left) and with (right) speckle nulling on the left hand side of
the PSF.
The PIAA and vector vortex versions allow for imaging down to 1 λ/D from the stellar host
and have been tested in the laboratory and on-sky.
They are now regularly used on
scientific observing runs and will greatly improve in performance once the PyWFS is
operational on-sky.
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6.2.2. SCExAO Science modules
Near-IR modules
SCExAO currently uses HiCIAO as its main science camera. HiCIAO provides filtered
imaging capability with a science-grade near-IR detector, and will continue doing so until
CHARIS and MEC (described below) replace it.
CHARIS (Near-IR IFS optimized for high contrast imaging)
Figure 10: CHARIS' TMA relay optics provides the low wavefront error required for high
contrast spectro-imaging.
The Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), is a
lenslet-based, cryogenic integral field spectrograph (IFS) for imaging exoplanets on the
Subaru telescope. CHARIS will replace HiCIAO as the main science camera for SCExAO in
2016, and will provide spectral information from 1.15 to 2.5 μm for 138 x 138 spatial
elements over a 2.07 arcsec x 2.07 arcsec field of view (FOV), in two spectral resolution
modes (R ≈ 18 (low-res mode) and R ≈ 73 (high-res mode)). CHARIS has been optimized for
high contrast imaging, with low cross-talk between spectra thanks to (1) high wavefront
quality optics (Figure 10) and (2) use of a pinhole mask at the lenslet's focus. CHARIS's fast
readout modes provide the signal for wavefront control feedback to SCExAO's deformable
mirror.
SCExAO’s wavefront control and coronagraphic rejection, combined with CHARIS’s
spectro-imaging, will provide the post-processed contrast required to obtain spectra of
numerous young self-luminous Jupiter-mass exoplanets. While funded by Japan, CHARIS
is designed and built by the high contrast imaging group at Princeton University, and is
projected to have first light in early 2016. The SCExAO/Princeton collaboration on high
contrast imaging research extends beyond the CHARIS module: SCExAO includes a
shaped pupil mask delived by the Princeton group, and both groups are collaborating on
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focal plane wavefront control algorithms.
MEC (Fast near-IR wavelength-resolving photon counting)
The Microwave kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) Exoplanet Camera (MEC) is being
developed in collaboration with UC Santa Barbara. MEC is a photon counting energy
discriminating IR detector that will be used for very precise focal plane wavefront control
when complete in early 2016. This is now fully funded and construction began in late 2014.
The camera will greatly enhance the ability of both SCExAO and CHARIS and allow for
reflected light planets to imaged directly for the first time. MEC will provide the high speed
speckle sensing signal necessary to achieve and maintain high contrast at small angular
separations, and will also acquire the near-IR (0.8 to ~1.2 um) spectra shortward of
CHARIS' coverage.
Visible light modules
VAMPIRES (Differential polarimatric interferometric imaging in visible light)
The visible aperture masking polarimetric interferometer for resolving exoplanetary
signatures (VAMPIRES) is one of two visible light interferometers that makes use of the
left over light from the PyWFS. VAMPIRES is based on aperture masking interferometry
which allows for sub-diffraction limited imaging which combined with an 8 m class
telescope such as Subaru and the shorter wavelength of light used allows for
unprecedented spatial resolution (~17 mas). VAMPIRES is different from most aperture
masking experiments because it combines high resolution imaging with advanced
polarimetry. With its 4 levels of polarization calibration VAMPIRES can achieve exquisite
polarization calibration. Such an instrument is ideal for studying the dusty structure of
disks and shells where the polarized signal is non-zero.
VAMPIRES has now completed commissioning and is ready for scientific use. Figure 11
shows the differential visibilities measured with VAMPIRES on Vega, a point source with
no polarized structure and W Hydrae a star expected to have a dust shell. It is clear that on
a point source like Vega the differential visibilities normalize to 1 while for W Hydrae, there
is strong modulation which is a function of baseline azimuth (angle on-sky). By studying
the shape of the modulation in the normalized visibility plots, the morphology of the
scattering structure is determined. VAMPIRES will be used to study the structure of disks
around YSO’s on unprecedented spatial scales from 2015 onwards.
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Figure 11: Differential visibilities for Vega (top) and W Hydrae (bottom).
Lucky Fourier Imaging:
Lucky Fourier imaging refers to selecting the strongest Fourier components from each
frame in a cube of images and reconstructing a single composite image from the
information. This technique was pioneered at Subaru Telescope 3-5 years ago and was very
successful in its initial implementation. Figure 12 shows a raw frame taken on Vega and
the final synthesized image from a data cube collected in early 2012. The technique of
Lucky Fourier imaging is capable of diffraction limited imaging even in the visible with no
AO-correction. Combining this with a well corrected wavefront once the PyWFS is in
operation will enable very precise imaging and astrometry in the visible to complement the
coronagraphic work in the infrared.
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Figure 12: (Left) Raw image of Vega in 2” seeing. (Right) Synthesized image of Vega. Note that
the platescale is different in both images: the right image is diffraction-limited.
6.3 RAVEN
6.3.1 Overview
RAVEN is a path finder of Multi-Object Adaptive Optics toward 30m class telescope,
developed by University of Victoria and Herzberg-Astronomy, NRC in Canada by
collaboration with Subaru Telescope, NAOJ and Tohoku University in Japan. We have
succeeded in the engineering first-light in May 2014, as the first demonstrator on 8m-class
telescope. The RAVEN activity will be extended to S15A to perform more scientific
observations. The extension will be precious opportunity for both Canadian and Japanese
community to show the achievement of MOAO development as a testbed for 30m telescopes
that cannot be realized by 4m class telescope.
6.3.2. Multi-Object Adaptive Optics
RAVEN is a testbed of a new adaptive optics (AO) system, Multi-Object AO (MOAO). AO is
designed to correct the optical wavefront distortion cause by atmospheric turbulence.
However, for a conventional AO system using a single guide star (GS; reference light source
of the wavefront), the correction is effective only within a few tens of arcseconds around the
guide star. This is because the optical path in the atmosphere for an object at off angle
from the guide star is different from that of the guide star itself, especially in the upper free
atmosphere.
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Figure 13: A schematic diagram of MOAO.
Figure 14: The Hubble UDF field (2.4' square) is shown in the panel as an example of future
application of MOAO observations. Green squares are Lyman break galaxy candidates and
orange lines are pick-off arms of MOAO. A simulated image (1.1" x 2.2") on a pick-off arm is
shown in the pop-up panel on the right (the original: the feasibility study report for
TMT-IRMOS by UF/HIA).
MOAO is designed to correct the atmospheric distortion toward an arbitrary direction in
the wide field-of-regard (FoR) of several arcminutes, by estimating the atmospheric
distortion toward the direction of object based on the wavefront coming from multiple guide
stars in the FoR (Figure.13). The technique to estimate the volume distribution of
atmospheric turbulence is called 'tomography'. A dedicated deformable mirror (DM)
correcting the wavefront distortion is prepared one for each object. For conventional AO, a
wavefront sensor is located behind DM in the optical path so that the AO correction is
operated in closed-loop. On the other hand in an MOAO system, the operation is 'open-loop'
because the optical path is separated for DMs on objects and WFSs on multiple GSs. Each
DM has to be controlled precisely even in the open-loop operation. The 'tomography' and
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'open-loop control' is the two key techniques to realize MOAO. Interestingly, FoR increases
with the diameter of the telescope because the size of optical beam to scan the atmospheric
volume increases with the diameter. Hence, MOAO is a suitable AO system for 30m-class
telescope like Thirty-Meter-Telescope (TMT). The MOAO system on TMT will have FoR
more than four times of Hubble Ultra Deep Field (Figure 14) area.
6.3.3. Project
The project has been officially started form July, 2010 after preceding discussions on
feasibility between Canadian and Japanese teams. The total budget is 6 million dollars
supported by Canada Foundation for Innovation and British Columbia Knowledge
Development Fund, with 20% in-kind contribution including from Subaru. The
development team consists of 3 principal investigators, 14 co-investigators and 11
contributors, backed up by a science team of 18 members. The goal is to demonstrate not
only the on-sky engineering feasibility of MOAO, but also science performance by MOAO
which is difficult by 4m-class telescope. For steady progress of the project, members have
communicated via e-mail to share information and held meetings at milestones to exchange
opinions and summarize the status (Table 2). The discussed items have been compiled in
documents.
Table 2: Meetings on RAVEN project
2009/9/24,25
Face-to-face Meeting
Victoria
2010/3/16,17
Kick-off Meeting
Victoria
2010/5/1-3
1st Interface Meeting
Hilo
2010/12/13
2nd Interface Meeting
TV conf.
2011/3/7,8
Conceptual Design Review
Victoria
2011/12/15
Subaru Internal Review
Hilo
2012/11/20,21
1st Science Meeting
Sendai
2013/07/25
2nd Science Meeting
Kona
2013/08/28
3rd Interface Meeting
Hilo
6.3.4. System Design
The specification of RAVEN is summarized in Table 3 and the optical block diagram and 3D
design model are shown in Fig.2
Table 3: Meetings on RAVEN project
Number of Science channels
2
(= number of DM)
Wavefront sensor
3 NGSs +1 LGS / 10x10 SH (R<14)
Deformable mirror
11x11 (ALPAO 97)
Field size
FoR: 3.5’
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for NGS (2’ Φ full for Sci)
FoV: 4” each channel
Wavelength range
Sci: 0.9-4um ; WFS: 0.6-0.9um
Science instrument
IRCS (Imaging, Grism, Echelle)
System Throughput
> 80%
Ensqured Energy
> 30% in 140mas slit (0.75”
of AO188
seeing)
RAVEN has two science channels. Each channel has a DM with 11x11 micro voice-coil
actuators. For open-loop operation, three natural guide-star (NGS) and one laser guide-star
(LGS) WFSs in the system are used. A star brighter than the 14th magnitude in R-band can
be used as an NGS. At least three out of the four WFSs are necessary for tomographic
measurement. Additionally, two closed-loop WFSs are installed and used for the system
calibration. The FoR is 3.5' for NGS and 2' science objects in diameter. LGS is used at the
center of the FoR. The field-of-view (FoV) is 4" for each channel. The output of the RAVEN
optics is designed to use an open-use instrument, InfraRed Camera & Spectrograph (IRCS),
as the science camera. The beams of the two channels are combined and fed to IRCS. The
goal of system throughput is 80% of the open-use AO system (AO188), so that the
multiplicity of the two science channels is more efficient than the combination of AO188
and IRCS. The target performance is set as the ensquared energy of 30% on the 0.14" slit
under moderate seeing condition base on a performance simulation.
Figure 15: The left panel is the optical block diagram the right panel is the 3D CAD model of
RAVEN (the original: Lardiere et al. 2014, SPIE, 9148,1G).
6.3.5. Observations
Preparation
After completion of the development at the adaptive optics laboratory of the University of
Victoria, RAVEN has been shipped to Subaru for preparation of engineering observation
following the schedule listed in Table 4.
Table 4: The schedule of RAVEN after delivery to Subaru
2014/1/6
Delivered to the simulator laboratory of the Hilo base facility
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for re-build of the RAVEN system
2014/4/11
Readiness review to going to summit
2014/4/22
Transported to the summit Cassegrain (Cs) floor
2014/5/1
Moved on the Nasmyth infrared side (NsIR) platform
for alignment to the telescope & IRCS
2014/5/6
Final status report and approval for observations
2014/5/13,14
1st engineering observations
2014/5/15
Brought down to Cs floor for standby
2014/7/21
Intermediate report
2014/7/28
Brought up to NsIR platform for setup
2014/8/6-10
2nd engineering observation,
followed by tests w/ IRCS on NsIR platform
2014/8/20
Brought down to Cs floor for standby
First, RAVEN was stored in the hard clean booth of the simulator laboratory of Subaru.
All optics were re-installed on the RAVEN optical bench and the alignment of optical
components was re-established (Fig.16). The functionality required for observation was
reviewed before transportation to the summit and final approval for observation. Then,
RAVEN was transported to the summit and stored at the Cassegrain floor three weeks
before the observation. Again, functionality had been checked under the temperature and
the air pressure condition at the summit. The deviation of alignment caused by the
transportation and the temperature difference had been also corrected. The one week
before the observation was spent on the Nasmyth platform for the alignment of RAVEN to
the telescope and IRCS (Fig.17).
Figure 16: The left panel shows re-setup of RAVEN in the clean booth in the simulator
laboratory at Hilo base.
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Figure 17: The right panel shows the alignment work on the Nasmyth platform of Subaru
Telescope.
1st Engineering Observation
The first engineering observation was done on May 13 and 14, 2014. The goal was to
acquire the light from stars correctly on the all of WFSs and the science camera, and apply
MOAO correction on the science objects. In addition to MOAO mode, other possible AO
correction modes by RAVEN were tested. The ground-layer AO (GLAO) mode corrected the
common wavefront distortion for each object caused by the turbulence at lowest altitude
only. The conventional AO (single-conjugation AO; SCAO) mode was also possible on objects
using closed-loop WFSs for calibration. Data were saved for post off-line data processing.
Especially, the data obtained by open-loop WFSs are interesting and useful for detailed post
analysis because they recoded atmospheric turbulence directly at the Nasmyth focus
unaffected by RAVEN optics behind regardless of operation modes. A quick results of
performance are displayed in Figure 18 and demonstration in Figure 19, proofing the goal
achievement of the run.
Figure 18: The image correction by various operation modes of RAVEN obtained during the 1st
engineering run. The mode is indicated at the lower-left corner of each panel and the ensquared
energy at the lower-right (the original: Lardiere et al. 2014,SPIE,9148,1G).
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Figure 19: Demonstration of observation by RAVEN. The left panel is the observation of Saturn
by using its satellites as NGSs. The right panel shows an example of echelle spectroscopy of the
two distant objects at the same time (the original: Lardiere et al. 2014,SPIE,9148,1G).
2nd Engineering Observation
The second engineering observation was scheduled between August 6 and 10 (later half
nights on August 7 and 8). The main goal was to try science verification, followed by testing
MOAO performance under various conditions. Unfortunately, due to the hurricane Julio,
only the last two days were observable. Even with the sever condition and the limited time
of the observation, the science verification was successfully tried (observation scene is
shown in Figure 20).
Figure 20: A RAVEN observation scene in the control room of the Subaru telescope (right panel).
The left panel is the graphical user interface for the control of RAVEN.
A quick result of a science observation is shown in Figure.21 as an example. Simultaneous
spectroscopic observation of a metal-poor and a metal-rich star in the Galactic bulge was
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performed by MOAO mode of RAVEN. The two targets are shown in red in the left panel
with the asterism of the three NGSs (green). MA-8 was a candidate of very metal-poor star
requiring confirmation by high resolution spectroscopy. Metal-poor stars in the Galactic
bulge are very rare, falling on the tail end of the bulge metallicity distribution function which peaks at relatively high metallicities. Finding these very metal-poor stars in this
region is of interest because they may be related to the First stars, as this is where they are
theoretically thought reside. Bulge observations are also contaminated by dust, thus
observing with an infrared instrument is ideal. MA-8.1 was chosen to demonstrate
RAVEN's multiplexing capabilities, and is expected to be relatively metal-rich given the
metallicity distribution function of the Galactic bulge. Shown below is a sample region of
the reduced spectra from our targets. Also shown are the absorption lines of several
elements along with the spectrum of Arcturus for reference. The target M15K341 is a
known metal-poor RGB star that we observed as a standard; it has a metallicity of [Fe/H] ~
-2.4 dex. It can be seen that our metal-poor target MA8 is also metal-poor, showing similar
spectral qualities to M15K341. It can also be seen that our other target, MA8-1, is indeed
relatively metal-rich compared to our metal-poor spectra, and shares qualities similar to
Arcturus.
Figure 21: An example of science verification observations using RAVEN. The left panel show
the field of the two distant objects (red) observed simultaneously with GS configuration
indicated by green. The right panel displays the obtained echelle spectrum of the two objects
(MA-8 and MA-8.1), in addition to reference spectra (the original: Lamb et al. in preparation).
6.3.6. Future Work
The activity of RAVEN has been extended to the year of 2015 by budgetary support from
Subaru. The goal of the extension is to challenge operating RAVEN as a science instrument.
Because MOAO has never been operated as an open-use scientific instrument yet, it is
important to identify problems to be solved for efficient acquisition of scientific quality data,
through the science observations.
A point to keep efficiency high is the transmission of the system. The optical system of
RAVEN is designed to have better transmission than 80% of AO188, while the results of
engineering observation shows the system transmission below 63% and the channel 1 is
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lower than channel 2 by a few percent or more. Another point is the overhead to setup
MOAO for science field. In actual science observations, not only the AO performance, but
also the adjustment of the object position on the science camera and tracking of the object is
important. The appropriate control of the pickoff arms in various complex operation mode
with and without AO correction is the key for smooth setup of the field. The RAVEN team
has started to challenge these tasks to prepare the next observation in the extension term.
A new control algorithm introduced by Tohoku University to widen the FoR of MOAO for
TMT will be also tested on-sky in the next engineering run of RAVEN. Because the number
density of extremely high-redshift galaxies expected as the targets of TMT is limited,
extension of the FoR is essential to make full use of the multiplicity of MOAO. The
algorithm tracks the drift of the turbulence layer along the wind by utilizing the wind
profiles and the WFS measurements at previous time steps, to estimate the turbulence in
the unsensed atmospheric volume outside the WFS viewing angle. The test of the algorithm
is underway on the RAVEN bench using the internal calibration light source.
6.4 Upgrade of facility instruments
nuMOIRCS project
The detectors of MOIRCS will be upgraded from Hawaii-2 to Hawaii-2RG arrays in 2015. It
will reduce the readout noise and readout speed which will improve the performance and
efficiency of the instrument. We are also planning to implement the Integral Field Units
(IFUs) for MOIRCS in 2015-2016. The IFUs do not conflict with the existing observing
mode, imaging and long-slit/multi-object spectroscopy, and will increase the capability of
MOIRCS.
Polarimetric capability in COMICS and IRCS
Optical components for polarimetry were installed to IRCS in 2013. They provide imagingand spectro-polarimetry modes at diffraction limited resolution with AO188. The test
observations and evaluations are on-going and we expect to open the modes in 2015.
Polarimetry function is also planned for COMICS. It will enable imaging- and
spectro-polarimetric observation in the N-band (7.5-13.5the N-band (7.5-13.5 test
observationspolarimetric capabilities in NIR (with AO) and MIR are very unique among the
8-10m telescopes and will provide rare opportunity to the community.
Multi-object mode for HDS
HDS is going to implement a multi-object fiber unit in 2015. It will be placed in front of the
original slit of HDS and enable simultaneous observation of up to 4 objects within the field
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diameter of 4 arcmin.
IFU for FOCAS
An image-slicer type IFU for FOCAS is under development. It has 23 slices of 13”.5x0”.4
field with the resulting field of view of 13”.5x9”.2. It will be tested in 2015 and opened to the
community in 2015-2016.
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7. Future plan
7.1 Telescope
As described in the Status of Telescope section, there are a number of sub systems of the
telescope that require attention. We are continuing to address these issues for continued
observations.
There are a number of repairs and upgrades being scheduled. Replacement of dome boggie
rubber springs continues. Following the overhaul on mechanisms of the primary mirror
actuators, upgrade of CPU cards that control the actuator is being prepared. Upgrade of the
control systems for the dome is under discussion.
There are a number of repairs and upgrades to be scheduled. Such items include shutters
and CCDs for the AG & SH cameras, cooling systems, and computers.
7.2 Facilities
Here we list some major repair / replacement works to be executed in the coming years. As
we described in Section 4, the againg of the facility is one of major challenges for stable
operations of Subaru Telescope.
2015
Hilo
Office #1 exterior repainting
Summit Restroom upgrade
Sumit
Slip-ring refurbish (possible after bypass system upgrade in 2014)
2016
Hilo
Data archive room PACU replacement
Hilo
South wing roof replacement
Hilo
Rest room wax ring replacement
Hilo
Hilo office telephone system replacement
Summit Freight elevator upgrade
Summit Mitsubishi UPS replacement
Summit Telephone system replacement
2017
Hilo
North wing (accounting office) roof replacement
Hilo
Simulation lab PACU replacement
Summit Dome optical-side A/C replacement
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Summit Aerial man-lift replacement
2018
Hilo
West wing (library) roof replacement
Summit Underground fuel storage tank conversion to above ground tank
Summit Dome IR-side A/C replacement
7.3 New Operation Modes: HSC queue-mode operations
7.3.1 Objectives and current status
We are currently studying the implementation of queue-mode operations for HSC
observations. In 2012 Subaru Advisory Committee report suggested that queue observation
and quality assurance is crucial to achieve homogeneous data quality of surveys to be
conducted with HSC and PFS. Queue mode observation will enable us to use telescope time
more efficiently, flexible operation to take advantage of the conditions, and provide higher
probability of adequate observing condition to achieve scientific goals of the highly rated
observing programs.
We formed the working group to study the feasibility of the queue-mode operations of HSC
observations. The members consists of staff from Science Operations division, Support
Astronomers, Post-doc fellows, and Software division members. The working group have
studies queue operations of Joint Astronomy Centre (UKIRT/JCMT), CFHT, and Gemini
Observatory, and also made extensive simulations to investigate the feasibility. The team
developed basic queue scheduling program, and the simulation used the observation
records and proposals information of Suprime-Cam and HSC in previous semesters to
examine how the different parameters (such as filter, weather, referee scores) affect the
queue scheduling and completion rate of the proposals. Through these simulations we
found that in general HSC open-use observations will have benefits of queue-mode
operations with more effective use of observing time.
7.3.2 Outline of queue-mode operations
a. The observation plan of accepted proposal should be prepared in OB
(observation block) unit with phase II tool by the users.
b. (Sr.)SA should check the feasibility of the observation plan made by users and
give feedback to complete it.
c.
The observation plan in OBs should be converted operation execution (OPE) file
in observation by Queue observers.
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d. The completion status of each OB should be recorded.
e.
Initial quality assessment should be done during observation with HSC
software (Furusawa & Koike systems) by queue observers.
f.
Final quality assessment should be performed by QA scientists.
g. Queue list and schedule should be updated the completed OB lists after final
quality assessment.
We need to establish some policies. We plan to utilize dead-time of classical observations
(i.e., time when the proposed targets are not observable) for queue-mode operations. We
will firstly start implementation of queue-mode operations with normal open-use programs,
but we will expand it to other programs such as time exchange programs, UH time, and
Subaru Strategic Program. A policy to determine the procedure to balance between these
different observations will be required.
Software Division is now working on the development of software required for queue-mode
operations, such as queue planning tool, Phase-II preparation tool, queue execution and
logging tool, and quality assessment tool.
7.3.3 Implementation plan
We plan to start HSC queue-mode operations from S16A. A gradual implementation will be
adopted, starting from a small (but sufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of queue-mode)
fraction of observing time of normal open-use programs. By later 2018 the queue-mode will
be a primary mode for execution of HSC observations, while some sort of programs (e.g.,
those require strict time constraints) will be remained to be executed in classical mode.
7.4 New Instruments
The Subaru Telescope has operated many facility instruments, which covers optical to
mid-infrared wavelength, to satisfy a wide variety of astronomical interests. However, some
of the instruments are getting old and losing their uniqueness. Recently, the Subaru
Telescope has started the science operation of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) and officially
approved to host the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS), which are very wide-field
(1.5-degree diameter) imager and multi-object spectrograph. With these two new
instruments, the Subaru Telescope has been successfully developed the future strategy of
wide field surveys, which is a unique capability of the Subaru telescope, toward the era of
TMT. However, both of HSC and PFS are optical instruments and mainly use dark nights,
and there was no future plan of near-infrared (NIR) instrument that will be mainly used in
bright nights. A combination of the optical and NIR wide-field survey should be very
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important to further strengthen the uniqueness and advantage of the Subaru telescope and
provide Subaru’s unique targets to be followed up by TMT for detailed characterizations.
ULTIMATE-SUBARU
To expand the wide-field capability to NIR, Subaru has formed the working group in 2011
and come up with an idea of the “ULTIMATE-SUBARU” project, which stands for
Ultra-wide Laser Tomographic Imager and Multi-object spectrograph with AO for
Transcendent Exploration by SUBARU telescope.
This project will develop wide-field
near-infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph assisted by ground-layer adaptive
optics (GLAO) system as a Subaru’s next facility instrument. The GLAO is an adaptive
optics system that uniformly improves image quality over a wide field of view by correcting
only for the turbulence at the ground layer of the Earth’s atmosphere (See Figure 1).
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the GLAO system
Based on our simulation, we found that the GLAO at Subaru will be able to provide
FWHM~0”.2 in K-band under a typical seeing condition of FWHM~0”.4 in K-band over ~15’
diameter field-of-view (FOV), although the actual FOV of the instruments should be limited
up to ~13’.5 in diameter by the interface of the telescope. This will provides 1.5-2 times
higher sensitivity in K-band compared to the observations under natural seeing condition
as well as the widest FOV in NIR ever achieved with 8m-class telescope, which is more
than 5 times wider than existing Subaru’s NIR instrument (See Figure 2).
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Figure 2: Expected performance and FOV of the ULTIMATE-SUBARU.
To minimize the technical risk of the development, we are planning to purchase the key
components of the GLAO system, high-power laser guide star system to generate 4
artificial stars on sky to measure distorted wavefront and a deformable secondary mirror to
compensate the distorted wavefront over the wide FOV, from the companies (TOPTICA and
MICROGATE, respectively) whose technology have already been extensively tested by the
other telescopes (e.g., LBT, VLT) and well developed to be able to use for science operation.
These components are not only required by the GLAO system, but also beneficial for
upgrading the telescope ability by feeding AO corrected image quality to all foci (except for
the prime focus).
Although the GLAO system have already been developed at VLT and will be operated with
HAWK-I, which is a NIR imager with 7’. 5 x 7’.5 FOV, the ULTIMATE-SUBARU would be
competitive by providing unique suite of the NIR instruments with the widest FOV in the
world, which is 2.5 times wider than HAWK-I.
To develop unique science cases and
determine the specifications of the NIR instruments, we have held several community
meetings with a couple of international collaboration institutes since 2011. Based on the
discussion in the meetings, we published the first version of the study report in 2012 (*1).
The main science cases of the ULTIMATE-SUBARU are (1) to dissect the galaxy evolution
of the Golden Age (z~2) and (2) to discover the most distant galaxies at the edge of the
Universe (z>7).
To fulfill the requirements from these science cases, we have been
considering specifications of NIR wide-field imager and multi-object fiber bundle IFU
spectrograph and preparing proposals for grant-in-aid by collaborating with Canadian and
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Australian institutes. We are aiming at the science operation of the ULTIMATE-SUBARU
around early 2020s.
*1: http://www.naoj.org/Projects/newdev/ngao/20130401/20130328subaru_ngao_es.pdf
New PI-type Instruments
Other than the facility instrument, the Subaru telescope encourages to carry in visitor
instruments (so called PI-type instruments) to satisfy the science case that is not covered
by the suite of the facility instrument and to provide the opportunities for testing new
technology for future instrument development.
Since the development time for the
PI-type instruments is normally shorter than huge facility instruments, such as PFS, it
also provides a good training ground especially for graduate students to have knowledge
about the instrument development.
The Subaru telescope is currently accepting K3DII, HiCIAO, SCExAO, CHARIS, and
RAVEN as PI-type instruments. K3DII provides very unique science capabilities of AO
assisted optical IFU spectrograph and fabry-perot imager, which are not fully covered by
any other 8m-class telescope. HiCIAO and CHARIS are imagers and IFU spectrograph,
respectively, both dedicated for studying extrasolar planets and protoplanetary disks with
the aid of unprecedented extreme AO correction from SCExAO. Since the technology for
studying extrasolar planets is rapidly evolving, the framework of the PI-type instruments
is best suited to catch up the most advanced technology. RAVEN is developed as a science
demonstrator of a new adaptive optics technology called multi-object AO (MOAO) for future
development at TMT. There are 4 new PI-type instruments (IRD, GIGMICS, SWIMS, and
MIMIZUKU) that are currently on the way of the accepting process. Figure 3 shows a
timeline of the existing and upcoming PI-type instruments.
Figure 3: Current schedule of existing and upcoming PI-type instruments.
IRD is a near infrared high dispersion (R~70,000) spectrograph equipped with the
advanced laser comb system as a wavelength calibrator to achieve ~1m/s radial velocity
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(RV) precision for discovering the habitable Earth like planets around M-dwarfs with a
Doppler technique. The instrument is being developed by extrasolar planet detection
project office at NAOJ. The spectrograph of IRD will be installed at the Coude room of the
telescope, which is located at the ground level of the telescope enclosure (so called ESB
floor). The light from stars is acquired by a fiber injection module attached inside of AO188
at the Nasmyth IR floor and transferred to the spectrograph at the Coude room using fibers
together with the calibration light from the laser comb system. IRD is planning to be
transported to the Subaru in 2015 and start science operation in 2016. Through the
intensive observations for the first several years, IRD is expected to detect more than 10
Earth-mass planets in the habitable zone and it will enable us to perform statistical study
of the formation and habitability of the Earth-mass planets for the first time in the world.
The sample from the IRD survey will also provide good targets to detect biomarker on the
extrasolar planets by direct imaging and spectroscopy in the future era of TMT.
GIGMICS is a mid-infrared high-dispersion spectrograph equipped with a newly developed
Germanium immersion grating for realizing high spectral resolution of R~40,000 at N-band
(8-13 micron).
The instrument is being developed by Nagoya University for studying
physical and chemical conditions of molecules in the intersteller medium. GIGMICS is
currently planning to be transported to the Subaru in late 2015 and perform observations
at the Nasmyth IR focus of the telescope in early 2016.
SWIMS and MIMIZUKU are both being developed by the University of Tokyo for their 6.5
m telescope (Tokyo Atacama Observatory, TAO) in Chile. Since the construction of the TAO
telescope is expected to be later than the fabrication of the instruments, the Univ. of Tokyo
is proposing to attach the instruments to the Cassegrain focus of the Subaru telescope and
carry out the performance evaluation and early science observations while constructing the
TAO telescope. SWIMS is a NIR imager and multi-object spectrograph, which has almost
similar specifications to the existing facility instrument MOIRCS except for the unique
capability of simultaneous observations of two passbands at the NIR (zJ and HK). The
main science case of SWIMS is to study formation and evolution of galaxies by observing
star-forming activities in 0.1<z<5 galaxies using many varieties of narrow-band and
medium-band filters.
MIMIZUKU is a mid-infrared imager and spectrograph, which
covers from 2 to 26 micron. The unique advantage of MIMIZUKU over the existing facility
instrument COMICS is a field stacker which enables the precise photometry in
mid-infrared by simultaneously observing science and reference objects in the discrete two
different fields. MIMIZUKU has advantages over COMICS in most of the cases, except for
the high-resolution spectroscopy. The main science case of the MIMIZUKU is to probe the
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origin of terrestrial material by observing dust in various environments such as solar
system, protoplanetary disk, and dying stars. SWIMS and MIMIZUKU are both planning
to be transported to the Subaru at around the end of 2015, carry out the first light
observations at around the end of 2016 after several tests at Hilo laboratory and summit
facility, and continue science observations until the TAO telescope is ready, which is
expected to be around the middle or end of 2018.
The future instrument plan at the Subaru telescope is to enhance the Subaru’s wide-field
survey capability by promoting the ULTIMATE-SUBARU project as a next facility
instrument, which should be a key step to guarantee a scientific importance of the Subaru
telescope in the future era of 30m class telescopes, as well as to promote unique and
ambitious science cases, such as the study of extrasolar planets, by utilizing the framework
of the PI-type instrument.
7.5 Decommission
In order to keep producing excellent scientific results with the Subaru telescope, not only
the plans of the new instruments described above, but also the entire line-up of facility
instruments should be reviewed and we need to establish a future plan. That is because:
-
As the resources (such as man power, infrastructure, budget) are limited, we should
have optimum set of instruments which can be maintained stably and also can produce
unique, excellent, and diverse scientific results, even in 2020s when extremely large
telescopes such as TMT start operations.
-
We have to carry out commissioning of new large instruments such as PFS as well as
PI-type instruments along with the open-use observations and regular maintenance of
telescope, enclosure and instruments.
-
For some instruments there are instruments for Gemini and Keck which have similar
capabilities. It has been discussed sharing various instrument capabilities through time
exchange programs among these Mauna Kea telescopes could be a good solution to
mitigate the risk of increasing cost of development and operation of newer, large
instruments.
We have made discussions on the future instrument plan both within Subaru Telescope and
with our community since 2013. There are two prime focus instruments for which we have
agreement for decommission:
-
Suprime-Cam: it has been stated that the operation of Suprime-Cam will be terminated
once the operation of HSC becomes stable. We expect the decommission of
Suprime-Cam will be made at the end of S15B or later, depending on the judgment of
the stability of HSC operations.
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-
FMOS: in FY2013 Subaru users meeting (Jan. 2014) early decommission of FMOS has
been proposed. That was required for accepting the spectrographs with smaller amount
of cost and with smaller risk of damaging Subaru’s operations. Based on the discussions
in the users meeting and Subaru advisory committee, it was decided that the operation
of FMOS will be terminated once the specifications and feasibility of PFS become clear
and the TUE-IR floor (the location of FMOS spectrographs) needs to be cleared and be
modified for putting four PFS spectrographs. The termination of FMOS will be at the
end of S15B or later.
For other facility instruments, we will continue discussion with our community and
establish the instrument plan in 2015. We also decided that the normal period of PI-type
instrument operations as three years from the beginning of science observations. There will
be a review if PI of an instrument wants to extend the period.
7.6 International collaboration
The Subaru Telescope has been made international collaboration with various
observatories and institutions over the world, such as; (1) time exchange program with
Keck Observatory and Gemini Observatory; (2) sharing human resource with Gemini
Observatory; (3) joint development of HSC with Princeton University and Academia Sinica
of
Taiwan;
(4)
joint
development
of
Raven
with
university
of
Victoria
and
Herzberg-Astronomy, NRC in Canada. Such international collaborations will be very
important for the Subaru Telescope, and should be continued in the future as well.
In addition to such international collaborations, it will be also very important for the
Subaru Telescope to made international collaborations to jointly operate the telescope. This
is partly because that NAOJ will have a limited budget to operate Subaru telescope to
support the construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). It is crucial for the Subaru
Telescope not to “sell” observation time, but to jointly operate the telescope with
international partners. With such a policy, the Subaru Telescope will ensure that the best
observation proposals will be awarded observations times.
For such an international joint operation of Subaru telescope, strong candidates for the
partners are regions in East Asia. Astronomy in East Asia has been dramatically developed
in the last decade, and it is getting more important for regions in East Asia to tightly
collaborate with each other for them to further develop astronomy in their regions. In fact,
East Asia Core Association (EACOA) has been formed by each of core observatories in
Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and recently East Asia Observatory (EAO) aiming at the
East Asian version of ESO has been cooperated by EACOA. The Subaru Telescope has been
closely working with China, Korea, and Taiwan to explore future collaborations.
Other important partners for the future international collaboration are OIR observatories
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at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. As mentioned above, the Subaru Telescope has already been
working with Keck Observatory and Gemini Observatory for the time exchanging program.
Because the Subaru Telescope plans to reduce the number of the facility instruments to
more focus on instruments at the prime focus with a wide field, it is getting more important
for the Subaru community to access other OIR telescopes to use a variety of instruments. It
may be even better if OIR observatories including CFHT can more systematically share
instruments to be complementary to each other. By sharing instruments, it will make more
sense for these observatories to jointly develop new instruments. To share instruments
among OIR observatories at Mauna Kea may result in sharing other resources, such as
manpower and facilities, among them.
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8. Public Information and Outreach
8.1 Mission statement
Public Information and Outreach Office at Subaru Telescope continues to create
awareness in the world-wide community through programs that share the information and
the inspiration, while being sensitive to the issues in the diverse community, and having
in mind that the long standing support of the public is an essential key for the stable
operation of our organization. (Established prior to 2006)
Director Arimoto emphasizes the importance of “Communication, Cooperation &
Collaboration” for the staff of Subaru Telescope.
Motto of the PIO Office: "Your vision is not limited by what your eyes can see but by what
your mind can imagine." (Ellison Shoji Onizuka, born and raised in the Island of Hawaii,
became first Asian-American astronaut and perished in the Space Shuttle Challenger’s
accident)
(Permission of this quote is granted by Mr. Claude Onizuka, brother of Ellison, on July
2006)
8.2 Major function of the PIO office
- a model that was inherited from the Director’s Office in 2006
Three major components of our work: create and share materials accessible for lay readers,
conduct informative tours of the facility, and talk to the local and Japanese communities to
share the information.
8.2.1 Hilo in Japanese and English Information
Create and share information from Subaru Telescope in
a manner accessible for general public. Three major content categories are the scientific
discoveries (often they go for press release, involving making contact multiple media
sources), the topics about what’s happening (telescope and instrument upgrades and
conditions, outreach programs, staff recognitions, etc.), and the announcements
(recruitment, conference/meeting, call for proposals). For major articles (mostly the science
results), we contact mass media. The Japanese newspapers do carry most of the articles.
In that way we are able to reach majority of the current taxpayers. Local newspapers
hardly post our articles, and this is one of the important venues we are not successful yet.
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In addition to the conventional tools, we are trying to utilize the most popular social media
- twitter, facebook, YouTube, RSS - to lure the readers to check out the primary source of
the posting (website). Use of social media is an attempt to reach out to wider
demographics, and countries other than Japan and the USA. We also use mail exploder
service such as the one with American Astronomical Society. In that way, the science
release is picked up by many international media, primarily in the form of websites.
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Level of the target audience of Japanese articles is for Japanese-speaking citizens who
read regular newspapers (not the tabloids). For English readers, we target interested
people who have a little more background and who cares to read about Japan based
research facility. When contacting local newspapers, we completely rewrite the articles for
easier access.
We strive to create and provide informative and attractive visuals within our capability.
Especially Hideaki Fujiwara has been making tremendous efforts in taking photos and
videos showing the impressive environment of the telescope. Those materials literally help
increase the visibility of our website or make the handouts more attractive.
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Facility tours: signature outreach program at Subaru Telescope
For the optimum experience of the guests, and the safety of not only the guests but also of
the telescope and equipment, we offer guided tours upon request. Groups interested in
visiting either the base facility or the summit facility will contact our office, and we
arrange the schedule that matches their interest and the operational restrictions of the
telescope or the facility.
In addition to these special tours, the Subaru
Telescope offers general public tours of the
summit facility. This is very unique amongst
the telescopes on Mauna Kea. Interested
group (mostly small number, or individuals)
can sign-up the scheduled tours via our
website. The tours are offered during the
daytime of Tuesdays/Wednesdays/Thursdays
except for when a sensitive work is going on
at the facility or the holidays. The guests
drive themselves up with 4WD cars (owned or
rented) or come up with one of the 8 licensed
tour operators that can enter the Mauna
Kea’s restricted areas. 2/3 tours are for
Japanese speaking guests, and the remainder
is for English speaking guests. We see guests
from the state of Hawaii, but mostly from Japan or the mainland USA or even from
Europe.
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Outreach: deliver the message created above
We focus our outreach effort on two different audiences – Japanese and local communities.
For Japanese, our primary method is the use of video conference system. Sometimes we
offer special lectures for groups visiting our base facility. For local community, it is mostly
classroom visits of the schools. Hands-on activities will help younger students become
familiar with objects in the sky or the big equipment that study things in the sky, while
the reference to the skill set our staff have or the internship opportunities are important
component for older students.
Lectures on site (Hilo Base Facility or in the vicinity, mostly the schools)
Remote lecture to Japan (schools, museums, astronomy events, etc.)
Classroom visit of local schools (in particular, during the Journey through the
Universe [JTTU]program)
Special astronomy events in the local community: Onizuka Science Day (OSD),
JTTU, AstroDay
Contribution to career path education (lecture, mentorship for high school
students)
Coordinate internship programs for college students (Akamai Internship)
Networking with local astronomy organizations for effective outreach programs
[MKAOC]
New initiative from 2013, outreach events as opportunities for faculty development
(effective communication of astronomy to the general public)
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8.3 Statistics
8.3.1 Information
Quick look at the number of articles in different categories
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
(as of 10/31)
Press release J
19
16
19
17
10
8
Press release E
19
17
17
19
11
8
Topics J
19
17
15
9
15
11
Topics E
26
14
16
22
17
10
Announce J
20
28
26
31
28
7
Announce E
11
11
16
24
24
7
Media J
9
4
10
2
7
9
Media E
2
5
3
3
3
1
Media number = number of media groups actually came to visit the site (base and/or
summit). Does not include phone/email only inquiries/postings.
[Appendix: list of the web articles]
[PIO printed publications]
Brochures (16 page booklet): Japanese (updated in October 2014), English (updated
in November 2014)
English interim brochure (Press Kit)
Flyer (6-fold leaflet): Japanese and English (being updated in November 2014, in
line with the brochure design)
Rack card (1 card, 2 sided): bilingual, standard size in the tourist information
corners in the local establishment; distributed not only at Subaru Telescope but also at 2
other locations - Maunakea Visitor Information Station and ‘Imiloa Astronomy Center
Postcards 12 patterns
Photo book commemorating 10-th anniversary, Japanese (Sep. 2009), English
(2011)
Help create season’s greeting cards
At Mitaka, calendar (long, 1 sheet style; deluxe 14-page calendar), occasionally
work with HQ for NAOJ calendar
8.3.2 Facility Tours
Number of visitors and the groups. General public tours of the summit facility show only
the visitor numbers, not the groups.
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# of participants
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
(as of 10/31)
Summit total
1424
1532
1372
1638
1269
824
Summit general
934
824
768
1134
521
325
Summit special
573
805
744
678
776
499
Summit special,
group
136
155
150
122
138
66
Base special
446
579
536
542
526
265
Base special
group
61
71
66
38
50
25
There are some duplicates between “general” and “special” tours of the summit facility.
Some special tours are scheduled during the regular tour programs. General tours are
handled by the bilingual tour guide. Special tours are mostly handled by other PIO staff or
other staff of the Subaru Telescope.
Prolonged closure of the summit tour
FY2010, 3 months in summer, for telescope work.
FY2011, 1 month in summer.
FY2013, 2 months in summer, for telescope work.
FY2014, about 1 month in winter, for telescope work; additional closures for HSC/FEU
exchange work.
Spike at FY2012 is partly due to the June 5, Venus transit visible from Hawaii.
8.3.3 Outreach
Number of outreach events (classroom visit, special event, remote presentation, etc.)
Location
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
(as of 10/31)
Hilo Base Facility
16
17
16
22
17
14
Remote
22
16
14
17
16
13
Vicinity
82
95
55
70
87
4 (before
JTTU)
Out of the island
72
6
7
4
8
6
Other
19
31
24
2
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3
(2010, 95 in vicinity = 15 in May + JTTU [Journey through the Universe] + other)
Oct. 24, 2009 Galileo Block Party
Hosted workshops for teachers, students, science communicators
Lecture at ‘Imiloa Astronomy Center - Koichi Wakata
Work with Hiromitsu Kohsaka
Number of people we were able to reach at a time: 20 (classroom size in Hilo) to 500 or so
for public event
Goods production: sticker, poster, mini LED light, USB memory, grocery bag etc.
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8.4 Web Articles in English
------------ 2014-------------------Oct. 28 : Confirming a 3-D Structural View of a Quasar Outflow ~ Conclusions drawn from additional
observations ~
Sep. 11 : Three eyes on the sky track laws of Nature 10 billion years ago
Aug. 21 : A Chemical Signature of First-Generation Very-Massive Stars
Jul. 1 : Umbrella Galaxy's Merger Models the Cosmic Food Chain
Jun. 18 : Jupiter's Moons Remain Slightly Illuminated, Even in Eclipse
May. 20 : Revealing the Complex Outflow Structure of Binary UY Aurigae
Apr. 29 : Spectrum of Gamma-Ray Burst's Afterglow Indicates the Beginning of the Re-ionization Process
Feb. 19 : Subaru Telescope Detects Rare Form of Nitrogen in Comet ISON
Jan. 27 : Active Supermassive Black Holes Revealed in Merging Galaxies
------------ 2013-------------------Dec. 10 : Discovery of Hot Oxygen Gas Streaming Away from Distant Galaxies: Witnessing the Final
Stage of Galaxy Buildup
Dec. 5 : Marching to the Beat: Subaru's FMOS Reveals the Well-Orchestrated Growth of Massive
Galaxies in the Early Universe
Nov. 4 : Astronomers Establish the Strength of High-Inclination Asteroids
Sep. 3 : Blue Light Observations Indicate Water-Rich Atmosphere of a Super-Earth
Aug. 22 : A Fluffy Disk Around a Baby Star
Aug. 4 : Subaru Telescope's Imaging Discovery of a Second Jupiter Shows the Power and Significance of
the SEEDS Project
Jun. 12 : Cosmic Giants Shed New Light on Dark Matter
May. 17 : Subaru Telescope Observations and the CoRoT Mission Unveil the Future of the Sun
Apr. 10 : Discovery of a Blue Supergiant Star Born in the Wild
Mar. 31 : Gravitational Lensing in the Peculiar "Magatama" Galaxy
Mar. 5 : Soccer Balls in Interstellar Space
Feb. 18 : 3-D Observations of the Outflow from an Active Galactic Nucleus
Feb. 7 : Direct Infrared Image of an Arm in Disk Demonstrates Transition to Planet Formation
Jan. 24 : The Origin and Maintenance of a Retrograde Exoplanet
Jan. 18 : Shedding Light on the Power of M82's Superwinds
------------ 2012-------------------Dec. 19 : Spiral Structure of Disk May Reveal Planets
Nov. 27 : Dust Grains Highlight the Path to Planet Formation
Nov. 19 : Direct Imaging of a Super-Jupiter Around a Massive Star
Nov. 8 : Discovery of a Giant Gap in the Disk of a Sun-like Star May Indicate Multiple Planets
Nov. 5 : Time-Traveling with One Method Illuminates the Evolution of Star Formation in the Universe
Oct. 24 : Astronomers Study Dark Matter Filament in 3D
Oct. 17 : Multiple Observations Reveal Unprecedented Changes on Jupiter
Sep. 21 : Discovery of an Ancient Celestial City Undergoing Rapid Growth: A Young Protocluster of
Active Star-Forming Galaxies
Aug. 2 : Subaru Telescope Reveals 3D Structure of Supernovae
Jun. 21 : Multiple Mergers Generate Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy
Jun. 12 : How the Universe Escaped its "Dark Ages"
Jun. 3 : Discovery of the Most Distant Galaxy in the Cosmic Dawn
May 4 : Subaru Telescope Discovers the Most Distant Protocluster of Galaxies
Mar. 27 : Mapping Galaxy Formation in Dual Mode
Mar. 19 : Surprising Discovery of a Rare "Emerald-Cut" Galaxy
Feb. 8 : Subaru Telescope Captures Images of the "Stealth Merger" of Dwarf Galaxies
Jan. 19 : Precise Measurement of Dark Matter Distribution with Strong and Weak Gravitational Lensing
------------ 2011——————————
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Dec. 29 : Subaru's Sharp Eye Confirms Signs of Unseen Planets in the Dust Ring of HR 4796 A
Dec. 21 : Discovery of a Vigorous Star-Forming Galaxy at the Cosmic Dawn
Oct. 26 : Subaru's 3-D View of Stephan's Quintet
Oct. 19 : Researchers Explain the Formation of Scheila's Unusual Triple Dust Tails
Oct. 19 : Spiral Arms Point to Possible Planets
Oct. 11 : "Failed Stars" Galore with One Youngster Only Six Times Heftier than Jupiter
Oct. 5 : The First Detection of Abundant Carbon in the Early Universe
Oct. 3 : The Most Distant and Ancient Supernovae in the Young Universe
Aug. 5 : Red-Burning Galaxies Hold the Key to Galaxy Evolution
Jul. 6 : Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics Sharpens Subaru Telescope's Eyesight and Opens a New
Vision of the Distant Universe
Jun. 20 : Duo of Big Telescopes Probes the Depths of Binary Star Formation
Apr. 29 : Special Issue of Publication of the Astronomical Society of Japan (PASJ) Highlights Recent
Results from the Subaru Telescope
Apr. 25 : Giant Black Holes Revealed in the Nuclei of Merging Galaxies
Mar. 9 : A Mature Cluster of Galaxies at Young Universe
Mar. 7 : New Images of Starburst Galaxy M82 Reveal Multiple Sources of Its Superwind
Feb. 25 : Subaru Telescope Discovers A Rosetta Stone Cluster of Galaxies
Feb. 17 : Direct Images of Disks Unravel Mystery of Planet Formation
Jan. 12 : Inclined Orbits Prevail in Exoplanetary Systems
------------ 2010-------------------Nov. 19 : Why Do the Ionized Gas Clouds Stream Out from Galaxies?
Oct. 21 : Subaru Telescope photographed 103P/Hartley
Aug. 19 : New Herbig-Haro Jets in Orion
Aug. 12 : Discovery of First Trojan Asteroid in a Stable Zone near Neptune
Jul. 20 : Subaru Telescope Detects Clues for Understanding the Origin of Mysterious Dark Gamma-Ray
Bursts
Jul. 20 : Subaru Telescope Detects Clues for Understanding the Origin of Mysterious Dark Gamma-Ray
Bursts
Jun. 13 : Subaru Telescope photographed Hayabusa spacecraft
May 21 : An Unusual Supernova May Be a Missing Link in Stellar Evolution Research
May 20 : A Completely Grown-Up Galaxy in the Young Universe
May 9 : Invisible light discovers the most distant cluster of galaxies
Apr. 26 : Research Illuminates the Shape of Dark Matter's Distribution
Apr. 22 : M81's "Halo" Sheds Light on Galaxy Formation
Apr. 1 : A Fresh Look at Jupiter's Great Red Spot
Jan. 29 : Astronomers discover cool stars in nearby space
Jan. 22 : Discovery of new stellar streams in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy - Remnants of galaxy
formation processes through mergers ------------ 2009-------------------Dec. 11 : First Direct Imaging of a Young Binary System
Dec. 3 : Discovery of an Exoplanet Candidate Orbiting a Sun-Like Star: Inaugural Observations with
Subaru's New Instrument HiCIAO
Nov. 20 : Infrared Image of Circumstellar Disk Illuminates Massive Star Formation Process
Nov. 17 : Maps Unveil the Source of Starburst Galaxy's Winds
Nov. 12 : Discovery of a Retrograde or Highly Tilted Extrasolar Planet
Nov. 6 : “Dropouts” pinpoint earliest galaxies
Nov. 3 : Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton
Oct. 9 : Subaru Participates in Observations of Momentous Lunar Impacts
Sep. 21 : Star Formation Activities at the Outskirts of Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946 - Young College Students
Celebrate the 10th Birthday of Subaru Telescope Sep. 2 : UH Astronomer Finds Giant Galaxy Hosting the Most Distant Supermassive Black Hole
Aug. 20 : A Ninth-Magnitude Messenger from the Early Universe
- 126 -
Jul. 2 : A Fireworks Display in the Helix Nebula
Jun. 9 : Discovery of New Tidal Debris of Colliding Galaxies
May 21 : Astronomers successfully obtained images of an extra-solar planet
Apr. 22 : Mysterious Space Blob Discovered at Cosmic Dawn
Apr. 14 : Creating Diamonds in Space
Apr. 3 : Massive Galaxies Born Earlier than Expected
Topics
------------ 2014-------------------Oct. 2 : Tribute to our beloved colleague, Cana
Sep. 23 : Astrophotographer Hiromitsu Kohsaka tackles Andromeda Galaxy image
Aug. 26 : Raven Soars Through First Light and Second Run
Jul. 28 : Announcement of the Construction Phase of the Thirty Meter Telescope, a New Neighbor on
Mauna Kea
Jul. 17 : Organizations Collaborate for a Tanabata Star Festival at Subaru Telescope
Jul. 10 : How to Clean a Huge 8.3 m Mirror Surface
May. 12 : A Vivid Reminder of Astronaut Wakata's Visit to Hilo
May. 8 : A Potpourri of Subaru Telescope Activities at AstroDay
Apr. 17 : Professor Motohide Tamura Awarded 2014 Toray Science and Technology Prize
Mar. 11 : Installation of a Plaque Acknowledging Donors to the TMT-Japan Office
Feb. 20 : Subaru Telescope Staff Contribute to a Community-Wide Celebration of Onizuka Science Day
------------ 2013-------------------Dec. 30 : Volunteering at the Visitor Information Station: The Human Face of Astronomy
Dec. 30 : Discovery of a "Relic" Galaxy, Frozen in Time
Dec. 26 : Bringing Astronomy Home
Dec. 5 : Subaru Telescope's Image Captures the Intricacy of Comet Lovejoy's Tail
Dec. 2 : Spectrum of Outburst from Comet ISON Obtained by Subaru Telescope's High-Dispersion
Spectrograph
Nov. 25 : Hyper Suprime-Cam Captures a Clear Image of Comet ISON's Long Tails
Nov. 14 : Fortunate Astronomers View a Moonbow on Mauna Kea
Nov. 14 : Subaru Telescope Captures Visible-Light Images of the Comets ISON and Lovejoy
Oct. 28 : Subaru Telescope Captures Clear Image of Comet ISON in the Mid-Infrared Range
Aug. 7 : Constructing a 3D Map of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe
Jul. 30 : Image of M31 Heralds the Dawn of HSC's Productivity
May 15 : Subaru Telescope's Bright and Shiny AstroDay
May 9 : Subaru Staff -Part 22Apr. 23 : A Brilliant Merrie Monarch Parade
Apr. 18 : At the Right Place at the Right Time to See a Rare Green Flash
Mar. 16 : Professor Masanori Iye is awarded 2013 Japan Academy Prize
Mar. 1 : Seeking New Planets, New Life, and New Ways to Search for Them
Feb. 5 : Keeping Astronaut Onizuka's Legacy Alive
------------ 2012-------------------Dec. 27 : Support from JFPA Makes Camp ‘Imi-Possible a Reality
Dec. 27 : The Beauty of Subaru's Data
Dec. 13 : Director Arimoto Gives a Tour of the Universe at the Lyman Museum
Oct. 29 : Jets, Star Formation, and a Glimpse of Past Korean Observations
Oct. 11 : Tsukimi Event Enlightens the Community about the Moon
Oct. 3 : Subaru Telescope Astronomer Olivier Guyon Receives Prestigious MacArthur Fellowship
Sep. 12 : Hyper Suprime-Cam Ushers in a New Era of Observational Astronomy
Sep. 7 : Subaru Telescope and `Imiloa Astronomy Center Collaborate to Present a Traditional Japanese
Moon-Viewing Event
Aug. 23 : A New Home for Subaru Telescope's Banner from Outer Space
- 127 -
Aug. 21 : Subaru Telescope Director Nobuo Arimoto Receives IAP Medal at Stellar Conference in Paris
Jun. 15 : Focus on a Silhouette on the Sun: The Transit of Venus
May 25 : Magical Moments of Lahaina Noon in Hilo
May 24 : AstroDay: A Tradition of Mahalo
May 23 : Subaru Telescope Pioneers the Use of Adaptive Optics for Optical Observations
May 2 : Subaru-Led Team Discovers a Rare Stellar Disk of Quartz Dust
May 2 : Astrophotographer Gendler Highlights Images from Subaru Telescope
May 1 : Dr. Nobuo Arimoto Becomes Director of the Subaru Telescope
Apr. 18 : Seeing Is Believing -- Smooth Airflow around Subaru Telescope's Cylindrical Enclosure
Apr. 10 : Close Planetary Encounter Seen above Mauna Kea
Mar. 27 : Start of New Series: Subaru Kids Island
Feb. 24 : Subaru Telescope: The Next Generation
Feb. 24 : Yes, It Snows on Mauna Kea
Feb. 16 : Subaru News Expands into Social Media
Jan. 26 : The Role of Subaru Telescope in Supernova Research: A Q and A Interview with Nobel
Laureate Saul Perlmutter
------------ 2011-------------------Nov. 23 : Dr. Iye Honored with the Medal with Purple Ribbon
Nov. 15 : A Celebration of VIS Volunteers
Oct. 25 : Increasing the Power of Subaru's Adaptive Optics System
Oct. 11 : It Takes a Community to Support a Telescope
Sep. 6 : HSC Wide-Field Corrector Arrives at Subaru Telescope
Aug. 23 : Astronomy Picture of the Day Features Subaru Image
Jul. 28 : A Message from JAXA's Astronaut Wakata
Jul. 18 : Subaru Staff -Part 21Jun. 13 : JAXA's Astronaut Wakata Returns Momento of Subaru Telescope from Space Flight
Jun. 6 : Professor Iye Receives 2010 Toray Science and Technology Prize
Apr. 20 : What's Next after "Subaru Kids"?
Apr. 19 : Arabic Version Added to Worldwide Distribution of Telescope Poster
Feb. 11 : Subaru Telescope Introduces Braille Version of Handout
Feb. 4 : Subaru Users' Meeting Highlights Prime Focus Spectrograph Project
Feb. 4 : Vice-Minister Sasaki Visits Subaru Telescope
Jan. 31 : Subaru Telescope's Logo Adorns New Items at the MKVIS
Jan. 28 : New Series of Photographs Joins the Subaru Gallery
Jan. 24 : Subaru's Improved AO System Resumes Operation
------------ 2010-------------------Dec. 10 : Subaru's Donations to the University of Hawaii at Hilo Boost the Future of Astronomy in Hawaii
Oct. 11 : Tweet Buttons Installed on Subaru's Website
Jul. 29 : Images of the Orion Nebula Give Clues about the Origin of Life on Earth
May 19 : A Glimpse into the World of Subaru's Outreach Scientist During the 2009 International Year of
Astronomy
May 17 : Subaru Joins an All-Star Cast to Support AstroDay 2010
May 4 : Observatories Support Local Culture and Community
Apr. 13 : Hawaii News Now Features Subaru Telescope
Apr. 9 : Subaru Helps Young People Reach for the Stars
Mar. 9 : Chords of International Harmony: The Tokyo String Quartet Resonates with Subaru Telescope
Mar. 8 : SUBARU INVESTS IN THE NEXT GENERATION OF SCIENTISTS
Jan. 14 : "400 Years of the Astronomical Telescope" Poster
------------ 2009-------------------Dec. 22 : Japanese Museum and `Imiloa Astronomy Center Collaborate to Create a Special Astronomical
Event
Dec. 4 : Subaru's Appreciation for Astronomy and the Local Community Shines Through the Galileo Block
Party
- 128 -
Dec. 4 : Mayor Captures the Interest of Students in a Lively Talk Story Exchange
Nov. 13 : Collaboration Sharpens Planet-Finding Technology
Oct. 16 : An Abundance of Astronomical Treats at the Galileo Block Party
Sep. 30 : Director's Dialogue Informs and Delights Audiences
Sep. 23 : The Thrill of Observing the Skies with a Personal Telescope
Sep. 21 : A Stellar Goji-Kara Gathering at Subaru
Sep. 3 : A Dialogue about Astronomy and Subaru's Discoveries With Dr. Masahiko Hayashi
Aug. 28 : Galileo Block Party Will Open Windows to the World of Astronomy
Aug. 3 : Stunning Images of Dark Cloud L1551 Bring Star Formation Activity to Light
Jul. 22 : Partial Solar Eclipse Observed on Big Island
Jul. 21 : TMT board selects Mauna Kea as preferred site for advanced, giant telescope
Jun. 26 : Three Shining Laser Lines through the Night Sky of Mauna Kea
May 14 : Cosmic Poster Contest Stars Big Island Talent
May 12 : Children Can See the Skies as Galileo Did
Apr. 20 : Subaru Shares the Wonder of the Sky with Schoolchildren
Apr. 15 : Subaru PIO Staff Member Receives Award from Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science
and Technology of Japan
Apr. 8 : Next-Generation Instrument FMOS Joins Subaru
Apr. 3 : Around the World in 80 Telescopes
Announcement
------------ 2014-------------------Oct. 9 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - NAOJ Project Research Fellow (specially appointed by
external grant)
Aug. 5 : S15A Call for Proposals
Jul. 30 : ANNOUNCEMENT OF SUBARU HSC/HIROSHIMA CORE-U JOINT WORKSHOP
Jul. 1 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Assistant Professor, the Subaru Telescope, National
Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)
Jun. 18 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - TELESCOPE STRUCTURE MECHANICAL ENGINEER
Jun. 3 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SUPPORT ASTRONOMER
Feb. 19 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - HYPER SUPRIME-CAM RESEARCH FELLOW
Feb. 12 : S14B Call for Proposals
------------ 2013-------------------Dec. 27 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SENIOR INSTRUMENTATION/RESEARCH
SPECIALIST
Dec. 19 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SCEXAO POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW
Dec. 8 : Link Banner: Exoplanets and Disks: Their Formation and Diversity II
Dec. 5 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Assistant Professor, Subaru Telescope, National
Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)
Dec. 4 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SENIOR SCEXAO SCIENTIST
Nov. 14 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SENIOR INSTRUMENTATION/RESEARCH
SPECIALIST
Nov. 14 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SENIOR INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEER
Nov. 12 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 19
Oct. 25 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Oct. 21 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 18
Oct. 16 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SUPPORT ASTRONOMER
Oct. 7 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Subaru Telescope Project Research Fellow 2014
Sep. 10 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 17
Aug. 9 : S14A Call for Proposals
Aug. 7 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 16
Aug. 1 : Scientific Authorities Sign the TMT Master Agreement
Jul. 2 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 15
Jun. 24 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Adaptive optics system Engineer
- 129 -
Jun. 12 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 14
May 2 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 13
Apr. 3 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 12
Apr. 2 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU BILINGUAL SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR
Mar. 22 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SUPPORT ASTRONOMER
Mar. 1 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 11
Feb. 25 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU TELESCOPE PUBLIC OUTREACH
SPECIALIST
Feb. 13 : S13B Call for Proposals
Feb. 1 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 10
Jan. 22 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 9
Jan. 16 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ASSISTANT PROFESSOR FOR SUBARU TELESCOPE,
NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY OF JAPAN
------------ 2012-------------------Dec. 21 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 8
Nov. 5 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU TELESCOPE PROJECT RESEARCH FELLOW
2013
Nov. 2 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATE
Nov. 2 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU INSTRUMENTATION ASSOCIATE
Oct. 24 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Aug. 15 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 7
Aug. 7 : S13A Call for Proposals
Jul. 19 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 6
Jul. 16 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Jun. 12 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ASSISTANT PROFESSOR FOR SUBARU TELESCOPE,
NATIONAL ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY OF JAPAN
Jun. 6 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 5
May 15 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 4
May 15 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU BILINGUAL SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR
Apr. 30 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 3
Apr. 18 : Special Call for Proposals
Apr. 13 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUMMIT TELESCOPE TECHNICIAN I
Apr. 13 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 2
Mar. 27 : Subaru Kids Island: Quiz 1
Mar. 13 : IAP-Subaru Joint International Conference
Feb. 24 : S12B Call for Proposals
Feb. 14 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATE
Feb. 14 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU INSTRUMENTATION ASSOCIATE
Jan. 18 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUMMIT TELESCOPE TECHNICIAN I
------------ 2011-------------------Nov. 16 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SCExAO POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW
Oct. 21 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Sep. 13 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Sep. 6 : Hyper Suprime-Cam Project Page Open
Aug. 15 : S12A Call for Proposals
Jul. 27 : Resumption of Open Use Observations
Jul. 14 : Update on the Status of the Subaru Telescope
Jul. 5 : Serious Hardware Incident Interrupts Operation of Subaru Telescope
May 6 : Mission Report by Astronaut Koichi Wakata at `Imiloa
May 5 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - PUBLIC OUTREACH ASSOCIATE
May 3 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU NIGHT OPERATION ASSISTANT
Mar. 31 : Subaru Kids: Story 36 (The last story)
Mar. 29 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - INSTRUMENTATION TECHNICIAN I
Feb. 28 : Subaru Kids: Story 35
- 130 -
Feb. 9 : S11B Call for Proposals
Jan. 4 : Subaru Kids: Story 34
------------ 2010-------------------Oct. 6 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SOFTWARE ENGINEER
Aug. 31 : Subaru Kids: Story 33
Jul. 26 : Subaru Kids: Story 32
Jun. 10 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCIENTIST
Jun. 9 : Subaru Kids: Fun and Games "Word Search"
Jun. 9 : Subaru Kids: Fun and Games "Crossword Puzzle"
Mar. 9 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICER/SCIENTIST
Feb. 26 : S10B Call for Proposals
Jan. 25 : Virtual Walkthrough Becoming an Astronomer
------------ 2009-------------------Nov. 12 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ADAPTIVE OPTICS SCIENTIST
Sep. 29 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU INSTRUMENT ASTRONOMER
Sep. 2 : RSS feed is available
Aug. 13 : Call for Proposals: Semester S10A
Jul. 2 : Subaru Kids: People at Subaru "Astronomer"
Jun. 26 : Subaru Kids: Story 31
May 7 : Subaru Kids: People at Subaru "Graduate Student"
May 1 : Subaru Kids: Story 30
- 131 -
8.5 Japanese Articles
日本語記事
2009 年度(2009 年4月)ー2014 年度(ただし10月分まで)
観測成果
------------ 2014-------------------11 月 18 日: すばる望遠鏡の限界に挑んだ最遠方銀河探査 ~ 宇宙初期に突然現れた銀河を発見 ~
10 月 21 日: 100 億光年かなたの天体の立体視を確認 ~ 追観測で下された最終的な結論 ~
9 月 11 日: 3大望遠鏡で挑む 100 億年前の宇宙の自然法則
8 月 21 日: 天の川銀河の星の元素組成で探る宇宙初代の巨大質量星の痕跡
6 月 18 日: ガリレオ衛星が「月食」中に謎の発光? すばる望遠鏡とハッブル宇宙望遠鏡で観測
5 月 20 日: 2種類のガス流が織り成す連星系周辺の複雑な構造
4 月 22 日: 原始宇宙の中性水素ガスの兆候を発見 ~ 宇宙誕生後 10 億年頃のガンマ線バーストから
4 月 3 日: すばる望遠鏡、太陽とそっくりな星がスーパーフレアを起こすことを発見
2 月 19 日: すばる望遠鏡、アイソン彗星のアンモニアから太陽系誕生の「記憶」をたどる
1 月 27 日: すばる望遠鏡、合体銀河中の超巨大ブラックホールの活動性に迫る
------------ 2013-------------------12 月 9 日:
12 月 5 日:
11 月 4 日:
9 月 3 日:
8 月 22 日:
8 月 4 日:
6 月 12 日:
4 月 11 日:
3 月 31 日:
~
3 月 5 日:
2 月 18 日:
2 月 7 日:
1 月 24 日:
熱い酸素ガスを広範囲に放出する遠方銀河を発見:銀河進化の最終段階を目撃
銀河が奏でる行進曲 ~ すばる望遠鏡 FMOS が明らかにする宇宙初期の大質量銀河の成長 ~
軌道面が傾いた小惑星の人口調査
青い光で見るスーパーアースの空
塵粒にふわりと包まれた惑星誕生の現場
すばる望遠鏡 SEEDS プロジェクト、「第二の木星」の直接撮影に成功
銀河団の観測からつかんだ「冷たい暗黒物質」の証拠
はぎ取られた銀河ガスの中で誕生・進化した青色超巨星
100 億光年彼方の宇宙にある「勾玉 (まがたま)」銀河の正体は? ~距離の離れた二つの銀河が共演
宇宙空間に漂うサッカーボール
すばる望遠鏡、遠方銀河核からのアウトフローの立体視に挑戦
太陽系外惑星が作る「腕」の検出に成功
すばる望遠鏡が解き明かす逆行惑星の成り立ち
------------ 2012-------------------12 月 26 日: 銀河の「帽子」に吹き付ける強力な風 ~ M82 の銀河風、4万光年先のガス雲と衝突中 ~
11 月 27 日: 偏光観測で見えた惑星材料物質の成長
11 月 19 日: 重い恒星の巨大な惑星、すばる望遠鏡が直接観測で発見
11 月 12 日: 太陽系外の複数惑星系における惑星同士の食を初めて発見 (外部サイト)
11 月 8 日: 若い太陽のまわりの惑星誕生現場に見つかった巨大なすきま ~複数の惑星が誕生している現場か?~
8 月 30 日: 銀河古代都市の建設ラッシュ - 現在の楕円銀河が爆発的に生まれ急成長する大集団を発見 -
8 月 2 日: 超新星爆発の形、実はでこぼこ? -すばる望遠鏡で迫る超新星爆発のメカニズム-
6 月 3 日: 最遠方銀河で見る夜明け前の宇宙の姿
5 月 24 日: すばる望遠鏡、ウルトラ赤外線銀河の謎を解明 - かすかな星の分布の様子が多重合体の証拠となった
4 月 23 日: すばる望遠鏡が見つけた宇宙最遠方の銀河団
4 月 11 日: 原始惑星系円盤に小さな渦巻き構造を発見 ― 密度波理論で探る惑星形成の現場
4 月 3 日: すばるが写した「長方形銀河」の秘密
3 月 29 日: 2つの輝線で探る銀河の過去、宇宙の過去
3 月 19 日: 形成しつつある惑星の兆候を捉えた - すばる望遠鏡による新たな発見 2 月 13 日: 銀河に流れ込む「星の小川」 ~ すばる望遠鏡が写した銀河合体の現場
2 月 6 日: すばる望遠鏡が明らかにした、もっとも暗い矮小銀河の生い立ち
1 月 19 日: 強弱重力レンズを組み合わせたダークマター分布の精密測定
1 月 11 日: すばるがとらえた塵のリングと見えない惑星のきざし:HR 4796 A の残骸円盤の超高コントラスト画
像
------------ 2011--------------------
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12 月 15 日:
12 月 6 日:
10 月 26 日:
10 月 19 日:
成因 ~
10 月 11 日:
10 月 5 日:
10 月 3 日:
8 月 18 日:
8 月 5 日:
7 月 6 日:
ズ銀河 ~
6 月 3 日:
4 月 25 日:
4 月 7 日:
3 月 9 日:
3 月 7 日:
2 月 17 日:
2 月 1 日:
129.1 億光年の彼方、宇宙の「夜明け」にきらめく銀河を発見
すばる望遠鏡、オリオン座 KL 星雲を照らすエネルギー源を突き止める
若い星のまわりの小さなうずまき腕 (NASA による紹介記事、画像などの素材 (英語))
小惑星同士の衝突で生じた奇妙なチリ雲 ~ 観測・実験・理論の強力タッグで解き明かしたチリ雲の
すばる望遠鏡、惑星と恒星のはざまを繋ぐ:木星のわずか6倍の浮遊惑星も直接観測
すばる望遠鏡、125 億光年彼方の銀河に炭素を発見 ~ 宇宙における炭素誕生の謎に迫る ~
すばる望遠鏡、最遠方の超新星を続々発見
すばる望遠鏡が写し出した宇宙の遠近感
すばるパノラマ画像がうつしだす、「赤く燃ゆる銀河」の棲みか
レーザーガイド星補償光学での遠宇宙観測が本格始動 ~ 10 倍になった視力で初めてみえた重力レン
色の対照鮮やか、おうし座の連星系円盤
合体銀河の奥深くに潜んだ活動的な超巨大ブラックホール
すばる望遠鏡の最新成果が勢ぞろい ~ 日本天文学会欧文研究報告「すばる望遠鏡特集号」が刊行
宇宙幼年期の壮年銀河団 (宇宙初期に既に大人の銀河団が出現)
すばる望遠鏡、爆発的星生成銀河 M82 の銀河風の起源を解明
世界で最も鮮明な惑星誕生現場の画像 ~巨大惑星が描く円盤の模様を写す~
すばる望遠鏡、爆発的な星形成をする「ロゼッタストーン銀河団」を発見
------------ 2010-------------------12 月 20 日: すばる望遠鏡、大きく傾いた軌道を持つ惑星系を次々に発見
11 月 19 日: すばるの新しい眼、ファイバー多天体分光器 FMOS
11 月 9 日: すばる望遠鏡、かみのけ座銀河団に広がった電離水素ガス雲を多数発見
10 月 21 日: すばる望遠鏡が捉えたハートレイ彗星
9 月 22 日: オリオン座の暗黒星雲に、多数の新たなハービッグ・ハロー放出現象を発見
7 月 20 日: すばる望遠鏡 謎のダークガンマ線バーストの正体に迫る
6 月 17 日: あかり+すばる+スピッツァー、連係プレーで惑星誕生の謎に迫る
6 月 13 日: すばる望遠鏡で「はやぶさ」の撮影成功!
5 月 21 日: 百億光年の彼方に成長しきった銀河
5 月 19 日: ついに発見、「軽い」超新星 -星の標準理論の検証5 月 9 日: 見えない光で発見!96 億年前の巨大銀河の集団
4 月 26 日: すばる望遠鏡が捉えた暗黒物質分布の「ゆがみ」
3 月 18 日: 渦巻銀河 M81 の淡い外部構造に記された銀河形成史
1 月 15 日: アンドロメダ銀河ハローに新しい恒星ストリームを発見 ~矮小銀河合体による銀河形成の痕跡~
------------ 2009-------------------12 月 3 日: すばる望遠鏡、太陽型星をめぐる惑星候補を直接撮像で発見 ~新装置 HiCIAO で第二の太陽系探しを
開始~
11 月 19 日: すばる望遠鏡、双子の若い星の星周円盤を直接観測 --- 星周円盤に外部からの物質流入を初めて検
出 --11 月 18 日: すばる望遠鏡、 重い星に伴う星周円盤の赤外線直接撮像に成功
11 月 6 日: すばる望遠鏡、多数の超遠方銀河を発見
11 月 4 日: すばる望遠鏡、主星の自転に逆行する太陽系外惑星を発見
11 月 3 日: 姿を現した宇宙の骨格
10 月 26 日: 星形成銀河 NGC253 の輝線比マップ画像 ~銀河風の正体を探る~
10 月 9 日: すばる望遠鏡、探査機の月面衝突の観測に参加
9 月 8 日: 渦巻銀河 NGC6946 外縁部の活発な星形成活動 ~「すばる望遠鏡観測研究体験企画」参加者による研
究成果~
9 月 2 日: すばる望遠鏡 128 億光年彼方に宇宙最遠方の超巨大ブラックホールホスト銀河を発見
8 月 20 日: 9 等星に残されていた初期宇宙の超新星の記録
7 月 2 日: らせん状星雲に見られる、水素分子の塊の詳細構造をとらえる
6 月 9 日: すばる望遠鏡、銀河合体の謎を解く
5 月 21 日: すばる、系外惑星の撮影に成功
4 月 22 日: 古代宇宙で巨大天体を発見ー謎のガス雲ヒミコー
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―赤外線の眼で楽しむ、宇宙の花火―
4 月 14 日: すばる望遠鏡、結晶質の炭素分布箇所の観測に成功 ― 宇宙でのダイヤモンドの作り方 ―
4 月 3 日: 天文学者を悩ます重量級銀河たち
トピックス
------------ 2014-------------------9 月 25 日 : すばる望遠鏡 HSC の映像作品が映文連アワード 2014 グランプリを受賞
9 月 8 日 : 天体写真家・上坂さん、HSC によるアンドロメダ銀河画像の美を追求
8 月 5 日 : 月夜のすばる望遠鏡と昇る夏の天の川
7 月 29 日 : すばる望遠鏡主鏡のほこり落としにはドライアイスのはたき掛け
7 月 28 日 : 次世代超大型望遠鏡 TMT の現地建設開始が決定
7 月 3 日 : すばる望遠鏡観測室からの「実況」ツイートまとめ
5 月 11 日 : すばる望遠鏡の上空を通過する国際宇宙ステーションの撮影に成功
5 月 6 日 : 今年も大盛況、13 回目を迎えた「アストロ・デー」
4 月 15 日 : すばる望遠鏡、観測までの道 (後編)
4 月 7 日 : すばる望遠鏡、観測までの道 (前編)
3 月 24 日 : 田村元秀教授が第 54 回東レ科学技術賞を受賞
3 月 11 日 : ハワイ観測所に設置された TMT 寄付者銘板
2 月 10 日 : 全天球画像で見るすばる望遠鏡
1 月 14 日 : すばる望遠鏡国際研究集会「系外惑星と円盤:それらの進化と多様性その2」を開催
------------ 2013-------------------12 月 5 日 : 【速報】すばる望遠鏡が写したラブジョイ彗星の尾の微細構造
11 月 21 日 : 【速報】急増光直後のアイソン彗星にすばる望遠鏡が迫る
11 月 17 日 : 【速報】超広視野主焦点カメラ HSC が捉えたアイソン彗星の長い尾
11 月 11 日 : 見た人は幸せに?マウナケアで撮影された月の虹
11 月 10 日 : 【速報】すばる望遠鏡が写し出したアイソン彗星とラブジョイ彗星の核周辺
10 月 22 日 : 【速報】すばる望遠鏡が捉えたアイソン彗星
8 月 7 日 : 史上最遠方の宇宙立体地図が完成、ダークエネルギーの謎に迫る研究が進行中
7 月 30 日 : 新型の超広視野カメラが開眼、ファーストライト画像を初公開
6 月 20 日 : 第3回すばる望遠鏡公開講演会「宇宙最大の爆発を追う」を開催
4 月 23 日 : すばる望遠鏡を支えるスタッフ -パート 22: ハワイ観測所長4 月 17 日 : マウナケア山頂で目撃されたグリーンフラッシュ
3 月 13 日 : 2013 年度日本学士院賞に家正則教授
------------ 2012-------------------10 月 8 日 : すばる望遠鏡が写した土星と環のスペクトル
9 月 12 日 : 新型の超広視野カメラ Hyper Suprime-Cam、始動へ
6 月 19 日 : 太陽に現れた小さな影を追え - マウナケアで観測された金星の太陽面通過
5 月 16 日 : 第2回すばる望遠鏡公開講演会「宇宙史のなかの銀河とブラックホールの生い立ち」を開催
5 月 15 日 : 天頂を駆け抜ける太陽、ラハイナ・ヌーン
5 月 14 日 : すばる望遠鏡、補償光学を用いた可視光観測に成功
4 月 30 日 : ハワイ観測所スタッフ、石英質の塵粒が輝く恒星を発見 ー 惑星形成の途上にある恒星か
4 月 18 日 : 望遠鏡建物を回り込む空気の流れをとらえた!
3 月 20 日 : 接近する金星と木星、彩りを添える二つの「すばる」
2 月 21 日 : 雪化粧のマウナケア
2 月 17 日 : すばる講演会「宇宙史のなかの銀河とブラックホールの生い立ち」では何が語られるのか?
------------ 2011-------------------12 月 29 日 : ノーベル物理学賞受賞者・パールムッター博士、すばる望遠鏡を語る
12 月 8 日 : すばる望遠鏡国際研究集会「銀河考古学~近傍宇宙論と銀河系形成」を開催
11 月 22 日 : ハワイ観測所・家教授が紫綬褒章を受章
10 月 7 日 : すばる望遠鏡次世代 AO ワークショップを開催
9 月 1 日 : HSC 補正光学系がすばる望遠鏡に到着
- 134 -
8 月 5 日 : 「すばるキッズアイランド」スタート!
7 月 27 日 : 若田光一 JAXA 宇宙飛行士からの応援メッセージ
6 月 28 日 : すばる望遠鏡を支えるスタッフ -パート 21: すばる望遠鏡見学ガイド6 月 13 日 : 若田光一 JAXA 宇宙飛行士とともに宇宙を旅したすばる望遠鏡記念品
6 月 8 日 : 10 回目を迎えた「アストロ・デー」
5 月 31 日 : ハワイ観測所・家教授が東レ科学技術賞を受賞
4 月 19 日 : 世界に広がる「一家に1枚 天体望遠鏡 400 年」ポスター・アラビア語版
3 月 31 日 : 「すばるキッズ」卒業式
2 月 17 日 : ハワイ観測所研究員 福江 翼さんが井上研究奨励賞を受賞
2 月 9 日 : すばる望遠鏡の点字配布物が完成
2 月 4 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング開催 ~ 次世代主焦点多天体分光装置 PFS が具体的な検討へ
1 月 25 日 : マウナケア中腹、案内所の売店にすばるグッズも登場
1 月 19 日 : 笹木文部科学副大臣がすばる望遠鏡を訪問
1 月 7 日 : ギャラリー新シリーズ「すばる望遠鏡がある風景」
------------ 2010-------------------12 月 27 日 : 究極の「視力」達成へ向けて、補償光学系が再始動
11 月 24 日 : ハワイ観測所・高遠さんが南極へ出発
11 月 5 日 : すばるの夏休み、職員は大忙し (後編)
11 月 1 日 : すばるの夏休み、職員は大忙し (前編)
10 月 25 日 : すばる望遠鏡公開講演会を開催します
10 月 19 日 : ハワイ観測所にサマーステューデントがやってきた!
10 月 11 日 : すばる望遠鏡ウェブサイト、「ツイートボタン」機能を搭載
4 月 22 日 : ハワイ観測所・柏川准教授に井上学術賞
4 月 15 日 : ハワイ観測所の職員ら、平成 22 年度科学技術分野の文部科学大臣表彰を受ける
4 月 6 日 : ハワイ観測所研究員による研究成果「宇宙の特殊な光から地球上の生命の起源に新知見」
2 月 8 日 : 「地球型の系外惑星発見に向けた共同研究を開始」
1 月 14 日 : 「一家に1枚 天体望遠鏡 400 年」ポスター英語版
------------ 2009-------------------12 月 22 日 : プラネタリウム、コンサートと宇宙の講演
12 月 11 日 : ハワイ観測所長による世界天文年記念講演
9 月 6 日 : すばる望遠鏡 10 周年記念シンポジウム
8 月 20 日 : 球状星団赤色巨星におけるカリウム組成決定 --- 2008 年度総研大すばる実習の成果 --7 月 22 日 : ハワイ島で見られた部分日食
7 月 21 日 : 次世代超大型望遠鏡 Thirty Meter Telescope の建設場所がマウナケア山頂に決定
6 月 26 日 : 3本のレーザービームがマウナケア山頂の夜空を舞う
4 月 14 日 : 科学技術週間に配布される「一家に 1 枚 天体望遠鏡 400 年」ポスター
4 月 13 日 : ハワイ観測所のスタッフ、平成 21 年度科学技術分野の文部科学大臣表彰を受ける
4 月 8 日 : 次世代観測機器 FMOS がすばる望遠鏡に加入
4 月 3 日 : 世界天文年国際企画、望遠鏡 80 台世界一周
お知らせ
------------ 2014-------------------10 月 9 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所特任研究員の公募
9 月 11 日 : すばる望遠鏡公開講演会 2014「すばる望遠鏡、宇宙へのまなざし。」のご案内
8 月 5 日 : S15A Call for Proposals (英語)
7 月 1 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 助教公募 (国際公募)
6 月 18 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台 TMT 推進室/ハワイ観測所 望遠鏡構造機械系エンジ
ニア
6 月 3 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
6 月 3 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 サポート・アストロノマー
2 月 20 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - HYPER SUPRIME-CAM RESEARCH FELLOW (英語)
2 月 12 日 : S14B Call for Proposals (英語)
- 135 -
------------ 2013-------------------12 月 30 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - シニア装置/研究スペシャリスト (Senior
Instrumentation/Research Specialist)
12 月 19 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SCEXAO POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW (英語)
12 月 12 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 24
12 月 8 日 : リンクバナー: Exoplanets and Disks: Their Formation and Diversity II
12 月 5 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 助教公募 (国際公募)
12 月 4 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - シニア SCExAO スペシャリスト (Senior SCExAO Specialist)
11 月 18 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - シニア装置/研究スペシャリスト (Senior
Instrumentation/Research Specialist)
11 月 18 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - シニア装置エンジニア (Senior Instrumentation Engineer)
11 月 7 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 23
10 月 25 日 : 一連の復旧作業が完了 (最終報)
10 月 16 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 サポート・アストロノマー
10 月 10 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 22
10 月 7 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Subaru Telescope Project Research Fellow 2014 (英語)
9 月 5 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 21
8 月 9 日 : S14A Call for Proposals (英語)
8 月 1 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 20
7 月 31 日 : TMT 建設にむけまた一歩前進:各国が正式に参加する協定書に署名
7 月 11 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 助教公募
6 月 27 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 19
6 月 24 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - Adaptive optics system Engineer (英語)
6 月 6 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
5 月 30 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 18
5 月 13 日 : 国立天文台講演会・すばる望遠鏡公開講演会「宇宙最大の爆発を追う」開催のご案内
5 月 7 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 17
4 月 2 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - すばる望遠鏡バイリンガル計算機管理者の募集
4 月 2 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 16
3 月 22 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU SUPPORT ASTRONOMER
2 月 25 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - アウトリーチスペシャリスト
2 月 19 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 15
2 月 13 日 : S13B Call for Proposals (英語)
2 月 7 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台 TMT 推進室 特定契約職員 (専門研究職員) の募集
1 月 22 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 14
1 月 16 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 助教公募 (国際公募)
1 月 10 日 : 2012 年度 すばるユーザーズミーティング 最終サーキュラー
------------ 2012-------------------12 月 26 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 13
12 月 17 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング 2012 年度 ファーストサーキュラー
11 月 28 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 12
11 月 8 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台ハワイ観測所 准教授公募
11 月 8 日 : 「第一回 RAVEN サイエンスミーティング」のご案内
11 月 2 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - すばる望遠鏡ポスドク研究員の募集
11 月 2 日 : 「すばる秋の学校(FMOS)2012」のご案内
10 月 24 日 : すばる望遠鏡、全ての観測装置の機能が回復 (第八報)
10 月 8 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 11
9 月 14 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ 10
9 月 10 日 : 講演会「超大型望遠鏡 TMT がぬりかえる宇宙像」
8 月 15 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ9
8 月 7 日 : S13A Call for Proposals (英語)
7 月 19 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ8
7 月 16 日 : すばる望遠鏡、主焦点カメラ Suprime-Cam での観測を再開 (第七報)
6 月 20 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
- 136 -
6 月 13 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ7
6 月 8 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 国立天文台研究教育職員 (ハワイ観測所) の公募 (国際公募)
5 月 30 日 : 「宇宙、生命、エネルギー」若手研究者による Rising Sun - 自然科学研究機構若手研究者賞記念講演 5 月 16 日 : すばる望遠鏡バイリンガル計算機管理者の募集
4 月 30 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ6
4 月 17 日 : すばる望遠鏡共同利用観測追加公募 (4 月 26 日締切)
4 月 16 日 : 「すばる春の学校 2012」 2nd circular
4 月 2 日 : 「すばる春の学校 2012」のご案内
3 月 30 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ5
3 月 13 日 : IAP-Subaru Joint International Conference (すばる第4回国際会議)
2 月 24 日 : S12B Call for Proposals (英語)
2 月 14 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT ポスドク研究員 (MOIRCS アップグレード担当)
2 月 14 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU INSTRUMENTATION ASSOCIATE
1 月 18 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング 2011 年度 ファーストサーキュラー
1 月 18 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUMMIT TELESCOPE TECHNICIAN I (英語)
1 月 16 日 : 第2回すばる望遠鏡公開講演会 宇宙史のなかの銀河とブラックホールの生い立ち
------------ 2011-------------------11 月 16 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SCExAO POSTDOCTORAL RESEARCH FELLOW (英語)
11 月 1 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ4
10 月 5 日 : すばる望遠鏡、赤外線用主焦点での観測を再開 (第六報)
10 月 5 日 : すばる望遠鏡事故調査報告書 (第五報)
9 月 29 日 : すばる秋の学校 2011 2nd circular
9 月 22 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ3
9 月 15 日 : 「すばる秋の学校 2011」のご案内
9 月 1 日 : Hyper Suprime-Cam プロジェクトページがオープン
8 月 30 日 : すばる望遠鏡、カセグレン焦点での観測を再開 (第四報)
8 月 17 日 : すばるキッズアイランド:クイズ2
8 月 15 日 : S12A Call for Proposals (英語)
7 月 24 日 : すばる望遠鏡、共同利用観測を再開 (第三報)
7 月 13 日 : すばる望遠鏡に障害が発生しました (第二報)
7 月 4 日 : すばる望遠鏡に障害が発生しました (第一報)
6 月 21 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
5 月 5 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - アウトリーチ支援員 (英語)
5 月 3 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - SUBARU NIGHT OPERATION ASSISTANT (英語)
4 月 7 日 : すばる春の学校 2011 2nd circular
3 月 31 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー36 (最終回)
3 月 29 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - INSTRUMENTATION TECHNICIAN I (英語)
3 月 22 日 : すばる望遠鏡次世代 AO ワークショップ
3 月 7 日 : 「すばる春の学校 2011」のご案内
2 月 28 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー35
2 月 9 日 : S11B Call for Proposals (英語)
2 月 1 日 : すばる望遠鏡 FMOS 戦略枠公募 一次審査の結果について
1 月 4 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー34
------------ 2010-------------------11 月 23 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング 2010 ファーストサーキュラー
10 月 25 日 : 「すばる秋の学校 2010」のご案内
10 月 13 日 : すばる望遠鏡公開講演会 2010 「太陽系外の惑星を探る」
10 月 6 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ソフトウェアエンジニア (英語)
9 月 28 日 : 「TMT で切り拓く 2020 年代の新しい天文学」最終プログラム
9 月 28 日 : ALMA-Subaru Workshop 2010 (宇宙・銀河・星・惑星・生命の誕生) (final circular)
9 月 21 日 : 「TMT シンポジウム 第3サーキュラー」
9 月 20 日 : ALMA-Subaru Workshop 2010 (宇宙・銀河・星・惑星・生命の誕生) (3rd circular)
9 月 2 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - TMT プロジェクト 助教
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8 月 31 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー33
8 月 30 日 : ハワイ島レポート
8 月 27 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - ハワイ観測所教授
8 月 18 日 : 「すばる望遠鏡 将来装置計画 ワークショップ」のご案内
8 月 12 日 : 「すばる秋の学校 2010」のご案内
7 月 26 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー32
6 月 10 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 補償光学サイエンティスト
6 月 9 日 : すばるキッズ:お楽しみコーナー 「ワードサーチ」
6 月 9 日 : すばるキッズ:お楽しみコーナー 「クロスワードパズル」
5 月 18 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
4 月 15 日 : すばる春の学校 2010 参加申込み
3 月 18 日 : 「すばる春の学校 2010」のご案内
3 月 9 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT - 広報担当サイエンティスト
3 月 3 日 : ハワイ大学 2.2m 望遠鏡 (UH88) および英国赤外線望遠鏡 (UKIRT) の日本人研究者向け観測時間
(2010B 期) 公募について
2 月 26 日 : S10B Call for Proposals
1 月 25 日 : 観測者ヴァーチャルツアー天文学者になろう
1 月 5 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング 2009 プログラム
------------ 2009-------------------11 月 20 日 : すばるユーザーズミーティング 2009 ファーストサーキュラー
11 月 12 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT(英語)
9 月 29 日 : JOB VACANCY ANNOUNCEMENT(英語)
9 月 2 日 : RSS フィードを開始
8 月 13 日 : Call for Proposals: Semester S10A (英語)
7 月 24 日 : すばる秋の学校 2009 1st circular
7 月 14 日 : ALMA-Subaru Workshop「大質量星形成と ALMA;今なすべきことは何か?」(最終サーキュラー)
7 月 2 日 : すばるキッズ:すばるで働く人びと 「天文学者」
6 月 26 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー31
6 月 5 日 : ALMA-Subaru Workshop「大質量星形成と ALMA;今なすべきことは何か?」(1st サーキュラー)
5 月 7 日 : すばるキッズ:すばるで働く人びと 「大学院生」
5 月 1 日 : すばるキッズ:ストーリー30
4 月 17 日 : すばる春の学校 2009 2nd circular
4 月 15 日 : すばる望遠鏡・観測研究体験企画のご案内
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9. Education
Subaru telescope hosts and supervises many Sokendai (Graduate University for Advanced
Studies) graduate students as well as those from other universities in the world. Among 9
Sokendai students who are currently supervised by Subaru staff members, 2 are based in
Hilo office. Subaru actually hosts nearly one-third of the total Sokendai students at NAOJ.
13 Subaru staff members are concurrently appointed by Sokendai, of which 10 are based
in Hilo office. Also, 1 staff member participates the graduate course education at the
University of Tokyo.
The number of PhD and Master theses that are obtained based on Subaru telescope data
at Japanese universities are on average about 10 per year for both PhD and Master (see
the Table 1).
Table 1: The numbers of PhD and master theses obtained at Japanese universities based on
Subaru telescope data.
Fiscal year
PhD
Master
2009
12
8
2010
7
12
2011
10
8
2012
10
10
2013
12
12
Subaru telescope has been conducting a wide range of educational programs for both
undergraduate and graduate students. Subaru telescope annually hosts two observation
training courses; one for Sokendai graduate students and the other for undergraduate
students (mainly in 2nd--3rd grade) who belong to universities in Japan. The students are
brought to Hawaii to see and actually use the Subaru telescope. The obtained science data
are also processed by the students with data analysis tutorials, and the science outputs, if
significant, are reported at national astronomical society’s annual meeting in Japan.
Moreover, we host Subaru schools every year which are mainly focused on the training of
Subaru data analyses. The target participants are both graduate and undergraduate
course students. In late FY2013, we opened a Subaru school in Korea hosted by KASI for
the first time, and we invited both Korean and Japanese students. The undergraduate
student programs are intended to motivate excellent students to study astronomy and to
cultivate future-professional researchers. We have been receiving strong demand by the
community on these programs, and the oversubscription rates have been continuously
high such as 3 (Subaru data analysis school) or 4 (Subaru observation training course),
and we can select only brilliant students based on their applications.
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10. Safety and Internal Communication
161st Safety Committee Meeting Minutes
The 161st Safety Committee Meeting Minutes
Date and Time
Tuesday, November 18, 2014, 13:00~14:00
Place
104A Meeting Room
Attendees
Arimoto, Hasegawa, Noumaru, Ramos, Seto, Sugawara, Takiura, Tsutsumi
Absentees
Hayano, Letawsky, Toyofuku
Action Items
1. Write a procedure to reenter the building after the fire alarm goes off and put the procedure
into the safety manual (Noumaru)
2. Announcement for sign-off sheets and daily checklists for forklifts, aerial lifts and cranes,
and the training (Noumaru)
3. Job hazard analysis (Noumaru)
4. Revise the draft of the hazard communication program (Noumaru)
5. Find out 70ft lanyard which stretch down slowly (Noumaru)
6. Make a rough estimate to fix concrete/stucco crack, corrosion of rebar, falling patches and
water coming in the concrete throughout the summit facility (Toyofuku)
7. Make a Summit parking rule draft and add it to the safety manual or bring it to DCM
(Noumaru or Toyofuku)
8. The safety office plans shall includes (1) Education of staff members for summit tour (2)
Plan a responder drills (3) Access danger and possible accident for each location and
provide first aid items which suit for each location and (4) Introduce an inventory system
for first aid items (Noumaru).
9. The safety office shall develop a "SAMPLE" worksheet for each first aid kit (Noumaru and
Kobayashi).
10. The safety office shall provide blanket at each first aid station (Noumaru and Kobayashi).
11. The safety office shall check ANSI Z308.1 and make each first aid station comply with it
(Noumaru and Kobayashi).
12. The safety office shall establish the emergency plan for natural disaster and include the
shelter in the plan (Noumaru).
13. Make CCTV system at Hilo base facility capture vehicle registration number (Noumaru and
the facility team).
14. Install the gate at the rear driveway (Noumaru and the facility team).
15. Check the sample social media policy (Noumaru)
16. Study safety issues for M3 coating (Noumaru and Takiura)
17. Check training requirements for hazmat (Noumaru)
18. Check insurance (Noumaru)
1. The minutes of the last meeting and follow-up of the action items
1. [Final Minutes]
The minutes of the last meeting was approved.
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2. New Business
2-1 Subaru Telescope Job Safety Analysis Form [material]
1. Noumaru proposed that we Job Safety Analysis (JSA) should be conducted for each job or
task using the presented form. He said that it would be no problem for doing JSA for
routine jobs. As for non-routine jobs, JSA which is conducted for each equipment may be
substituted.
2. Tsutsumi said that JAC conducts JSA for major jobs such as aluminizing, instrument
exchange or snow removals.
3. Noumaru will present this at the schedule meeting and discuss items of JSA with the
schedule meeting members.
4. The proposal was approved.
3. Old Business
None
4. Reports
4-1 Injury Reports [material]
1. One injury occurred on October 17, 2014 at the summit observation floor.
2. Another injury occurred on October 22, 2014 at the base facility.
3. Related to the head injury, Noumaru raised the LOTO issue for the telescope. Hasegawa and
day crew team are currently working on labeling safety switches, making how they work
clear and making instructions.
4-2 Accident Report [material]
1. A vehicle accident occurred on October 27 at the summit parking lot.
2. No penalty was made to the person who involved the accident.
4-3 Trainings [No material]
1. OSHA Compliance – December 16. 2 student so far. New enrollment is accepted.
2. Fall Protection Competent/Authorized Person training – January 2015 or later. Need five
students per instructor for competent person training and five or more students for
authorized person training. Since there may not be enough number of students from
Subaru Telescope, we will call for students from neighbor observatories. Then schedule
coordination would become more difficult...
3. First Aid/CPR/AED – December 4 and 11.
4-4 Safety Officer Report [material]
1. NAOJ Safety Health Committee will recognize Subaru Telescope Safety Committee as the
officialsafety and health committee.
2. Personnel from Mitla and NTT and Noumaru discussed improvement of Remote medical
Monitor.
3. Debriefing for an October 17 accident was held at the summit on November 17.
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4. Noumaru will schedule the respirator fit test for those who use a respirator for M3 coating.
5. Others
1. Tsutsumi said that reporting requirement for accident/injury/death requirement to OSHA
will change from January 2015. Noumaru said that recording requirement will also change
from January 2015.
2. Errors in the material
a.
Page 6: Injury Report: Date is 10/17/14.
b. Page 6: Injury Report: Accident location is "Summit, Observation Floor".
5. Next Meeting

Tuesday January 6, 2015 from 1 p.m. at Room 104A.
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1st Subaru Internal Symposium
- 143 -
2nd Subaru Internal Symposium
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Appendix: Coolant Leakage at the Subaru Telescope
July 2, 2011, the Subaru Telescope had an incident of coolant leakage. After this incident,
the Subaru Telescope had been working on various things for recovery from the incident,
and also had been making various efforts to avoid a similar kind of incident again. In this
Appendix, all the reports regarding all the actions the Subaru Telescope had after the
coolant leakage.
Frist report (July 4, 2011, HST)
While shutting down the observation system at the end of the night shift during the early
morning of Saturday, July 2. 2011, the telescope operator detected an error signal from the
top unit of the telescope. The top unit, which includes the Subaru Prime Focus Camera
(Suprime-Cam) and auxiliary optics, is located at the center of the top ring of the Subaru
Telescope.
The operator contacted the Telescope Engineering Division (TED) and continued to check
the status of various parts of the top unit. The TED summoned three staff members who
immediately left Hilo for the summit to assess the situation. Meanwhile, the operator,
support astronomer, and nighttime observers left the control building and descended safely
down to the mid-level dormitory at Hale Pohaku. The incident did not harm any
observatory staff or observers.
When the TED staff members arrived at the telescope, they saw extensive leakage of
coolant (ethylene glycol) from the top unit. Although they promptly shut off the supply of
coolant, a significant amount of leakage had already occurred all over the telescope--from
the top unit itself and Suprime-Cam down to the tertiary mirror, the primary mirror and
some of its actuators, the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS, a Cassegrain
instrument) and its auxiliary optics, and the telescope floor.
TED staff members attempted to clean up and remove as much coolant as possible.
However, such areas as optics, control circuits, and the inside of Suprime-Cam and FOCAS
were inaccessible during the initial clean-up. Inspections have shown that the spillage is
confined to the enclosure itself and did not spread into the environment of the site.
The damage assessment is ongoing. During the clean-up and recovery of equipment,
nighttime observations as well as daytime summit tours of the Subaru Telescope are
temporarily suspended. Scheduled observers as well as tour visitors are being contacted.
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Figure 1. An orange-colored liquid covers the mirror surface. This is the coolant for the
electronics and other equipment at the top unit. The coolant consists of a mixture of water
and ethylene glycol, a liquid commonly used in a vehicle's radiator for cooling. The coolant
is not corrosive and does not damage the primary mirror, which has a foundation of glass.
The nozzles shown in the upper part of the photo are part of the CO2 cleaning device used
to remove dust from the mirror.
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Second report (July 14, 2011 HST)
Subaru crews have made progress toward restoring the telescope’s operation. This report
describes the current condition of the telescope and the prospects for resuming its
operation.
1. Affected Instruments and Other Equipment
Inspections located coolant on the following: the primary mirror, some of the actuators
supporting the primary mirror, part of the primary mirror cell, and both the optical and
infrared tertiary mirrors, the telescope floor, and the auxiliary systems (note 1) of the
primary and Cassegrain foci (note 2) as well as two instruments (the Subaru Prime Focus
Camera or “Suprime-Cam” and the Faint Object Camera and Spectrometer or “FOCAS”).
Crews did not find any coolant on the ground outside the telescope enclosure building. The
trace amount of coolant that fell to the concrete floor at the center of the enclosure building
was completely removed within hours of the incident. No coolant entered into the ground
but was completely contained on the concrete floor before it was removed.
An inquiry panel that includes external members has been established to determine the
cause of the leak.
2. Restoration Efforts
Subaru crews are working to clean and restore the operation of the telescope. During this
restoration process, open use has been suspended until July 21st at the earliest.
The restoration workvis now focusing on the inspection and testing of the instruments and
equipment. On July 6th, crews washed both of the tertiary mirrors with water. The
successful cleaning of the aluminum-coated tertiary mirror led to the July 7th waterwashing of the primary mirror, which also has an aluminum coating. There are no visible
effects either from the coolant or from the washing. Monitoring of the surface of the
primary mirror will continue. Crews have removed the instruments and auxiliary equipment
from prime and Cassegrain foci. Inspection of each piece of equipment as well as the
instruments Suprime-Cam and FOCAS continues.
3. Resumption of Operations
The results of the cleanup activities as well as the outcome of various tests and repairs will
establish the schedule for resuming open use observations. Different foci may become
operational at different times. The first test observations will be at the Nasmyth focus.
Resumption of primary and Cassegrain foci operations may take longer.
Notes:
1. The auxiliary optics systems help to ensure precise observations. The auto guider system
operates to accurately track a target object. Another system functions to inspect the shape
of the primary mirror and provides correction so that the shape of the mirror is always in its
ideal configuration.
Most of these auxiliary optics systems as well as the instruments used to obtain
astronomical data (e.g., a camera that captures an image of a galaxy) sit on an instrument
rotator that compensates for the rotation of the field of view as the telescope tracks a target.
An image de-rotation system is used for Nasmyth focus.
2. The Subaru Telescope enables observations at four different foci. The primary focus at
the top of the telescope collects light reflected from the primary mirror and provides a very
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wide field of view. The primary focus instrument can be exchanged with a secondary
mirror, which sends the light back down to other foci. Cassegrain focus is straight down
from the secondary mirror and below the primary mirror. When a third, flat mirror is
inserted into the optical path from the secondary mirror, it sends the light to the side of the
telescope, and one of the two Nasmyth foci becomes available for the observation.
Figure 2. A July 11th photo of the primary mirror of the Subaru Telescope after waterwashing. Coolant pictured in the first report has been removed, and the surface appears
normal.
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Third Report (July 27, 2011 HST)
On the night of July 22nd Subaru Telescope resumed open use observations at Nasmyth
foci. There are several instruments associated with the Nasmyth foci that were not affected
by the leak and are available in the open use observations: The High Dispersion
Spectrograph (HDS), the 188-element Adaptive Optics (AO188) system, the Infrared
Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS), and the High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next
Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO).
Although the incident affected the telescope's primary mirror, water washing has been
successful in restoring its surface and functionality. Coolant leaked inside the auxiliary
equipment of the Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). Both Suprime-Cam and its
auxiliary equipment have been removed from the primary focus for further inspection and
restoration. No coolant is currently circulating at the top end of the telescope. Observations
at Nasmyth foci use a secondary mirror located at the top end but do not require the use of
coolant.
The instruments of the primary focus are being thoroughly inspected. They will resume
operation after the implementation of corrective measures to prevent future incidents.
Observations using the Cassegrain focus will resume once the affected areas are cleaned
and tested.
Notes:
- High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS)
This instrument examines the visible light from an object by splitting it into highly
dispersed spectral lines. It is used to study the chemical composition of first-born stars in
galaxies or to reveal the presence of planetary systems by showing variations in the velocity
of the stars.
- Adaptive Optics with 188 Elements (AO188)
The AO system sharpens a stellar image blurred by atmospheric turbulence; it does so by
quickly changing the shape of a small mirror inserted into the optical path. This process
allows for very high spatial resolution observations. It currently operates with either IRCS
(Infrared Camera and Spectrograph) or HiCIAO.
- Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (IRCS)
This instrument enables imaging and spectroscopy in infrared wavelengths by utilizing the
high spatial resolution and high sensitivity of AO188. It covers a wide range of
observations that span from individual star/planet formation regions to areas of distant
galaxies.
- High Contrast Instrument for the Subaru Next Generation Adaptive Optics (HiCIAO)
This instrument blocks infrared light from a bright object and enables the search for objects
surrounding it. It is used to detect exoplanets, i.e., planets circling a star other than the Sun,
or to study the structure of circumstellar disks around young stars.
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Fourth report (September 123, 2011 HST)
Three of Subaru Telescope’s four foci are now operational. Subaru Telescope resumed
open use operation of the Cassegrain focus on August 26th, following the resumption of
observations at the two Nasmyth foci on July 22nd. Two of the three instruments for the
Cassegrain focus, the Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (COMICS) and the
imaging mode of the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS), are
available for open use; neither was affected by the July 2nd coolant leak. A third
instrument, the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) as well as the auxiliary
subsystem at the Cassegrain focus have been removed and are being repaired.
Notes: The instruments and auxiliary system at Cassegrain focus.
Subaru Telescope offers three observational instruments as well as an auxiliary system for
enhancing observations at the Cassegrain focus.
- COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer)
The thin, dry air over the 13,796' mountain of Mauna Kea gives the Subaru Telescope
excellent conditions for detecting mid-infrared light from astronomical objects. COMICS is
a camera and spectrograph that can take advantage of this unique observational setting. Its
applications include investigation of how individual stars in our own galaxy form; how
large-scale star formation in other galaxies takes place; and how interstellar dust, the raw
material of planets, comes into being. COMICS does not require the Cassegrain auxiliary
system for most of its observations.
- MOIRCS (Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph)
MOIRCS, a wide-field near-infrared instrument using eight megapixel detectors, has the
widest field of view of all infrared instruments among 8-meter class telescopes. It can
obtain spectra of multiple astronomical objects at the same time, dramatically increasing its
observational efficiency. Imaging observations with MOIRCS's camera do not usually
require the use of the Cassegrain auxiliary system.
- FOCAS (Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph)
FOCAS is Subaru's workhorse instrument for high-sensitivity optical observations. Its
multi-slit system allows it to capture spectra of up to 100 objects simultaneously. This
powerful capability facilitates measurement of distances to faint galaxies near the edge of
the Universe.
- Auxiliary System
The auxiliary system accompanies each focal station of the Subaru Telescope. It includes
the auto-guider, the Shack-Hartmann camera, the image rotator for Nasmyth foci, the
instrument rotator for primary and Cassegrain foci, and the atmospheric dispersion
corrector (ADC).
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Fifth Report (October 21, 2011 HST): Resumption of Open Use Observations at
Primary Focus with an Infrared Instrument
All of the Subaru Telescope's four foci are now operational. Subaru Telescope resumed
open use operation of the primary focus on September 22nd, following a verification
observation on September 20th. Three other foci have been in service: the two Nasmyth
foci since July 22nd and the Cassegrain focus since August 26th. The instrument available
at the primary focus is the FMOS (Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph).
Although the auxiliary system unit for infrared observations at the primary focus is
different from the one for optical observations, these two units share a few mechanisms for
their operation. Therefore, some additional safety measures were implemented for this
auxiliary system unit before resuming its operation on the telescope.
The Suprime-Cam and the auxiliary system for optical observations are being repaired and
will become available in 2012.
Sixth report (October 24, 2012 HST): Resumption of Open-Use Observations with
FOCAS Marks Functionality of Subaru Telescope's Entire Suite of Instruments
A functional test of the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph (FOCAS) took place the
night of October 5, 2012, and open-use observations resumed on the night of October 19,
2012. A year of careful steps took place to assure recovery of FOCAS from the July 2,
2011 coolant incident. Implementation of safety features mandated by the National
Astronomical Observatory's Inquiry Panel preceded the testing and observations. The
procedures included a thorough check of the entire range of operation of the active cable
wrap as well as careful reviews of checklists and instrument installation and operation
manuals. The successful operation of FOCAS means that Subaru Telescope's entire suite of
observational instruments is in working order. An announcement of full recovery will take
place when the primary mirror dons its shiny new coating after its realuminization
scheduled for the summer of 2013.
Seventh report (October 25, 2013 HST): Conclusion of Recovery Work
Since the coolant leak onto the primary mirror in July, 2011, Subaru Telescope has taken a
series of diligent steps to assure its full recovery. Recovery work has included meticulous
inspection and cleaning of the affected areas. Follow-up efforts concluded during the
summer of 2013, when the primary mirror was thoroughly cleaned, realuminized, and
inspected. Given the significant impact of the leak, the telescope engineering and science
operation divisions remain vigilant in ensuring the effective operation of the telescope and
its instruments. Subaru Telescope continues to give special attention to the careful design,
installation, and monitoring of its equipment.
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