Download Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Outline

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Lunar theory wikipedia, lookup

Constellation wikipedia, lookup

International Ultraviolet Explorer wikipedia, lookup

Serpens wikipedia, lookup

Aries (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Observational astronomy wikipedia, lookup

Canis Minor wikipedia, lookup

Corona Borealis wikipedia, lookup

Cassiopeia (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Ursa Major wikipedia, lookup

Corona Australis wikipedia, lookup

Capella wikipedia, lookup

Auriga (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Star wikipedia, lookup

CoRoT wikipedia, lookup

Star catalogue wikipedia, lookup

Cygnus (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Timeline of astronomy wikipedia, lookup

Boötes wikipedia, lookup

Perseus (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Canis Major wikipedia, lookup

Lyra wikipedia, lookup

Astronomical spectroscopy wikipedia, lookup

Stellar classification wikipedia, lookup

Cosmic distance ladder wikipedia, lookup

Malmquist bias wikipedia, lookup

Stellar kinematics wikipedia, lookup

Aquarius (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Stellar evolution wikipedia, lookup

Hipparcos wikipedia, lookup

Star formation wikipedia, lookup

Ursa Minor wikipedia, lookup

Hayashi track wikipedia, lookup

Corvus (constellation) wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
HR Diagram
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Relativity and Astrophysics
Lecture 14
Terry Herter
Outline


Magnitudes
Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram


Summary of M-S stellar properties

A2290-14
A2290-14
Main-sequence, giant, supergiants, and white
dwarfs
Mass, size, temperature, lifetime
HR Diagram
2
1
HR Diagram
Magnitudes


We would like a way of specifying the relative
brightness of stars
Hipparchus



Devised a the magnitude system 2100 years ago to classify
stars according to their apparent brightness.
He labeled 1080 stars as class 0, 1,.. 6.
0 was the brightest, 1 the next brightest, etc.

The magnitude scale is logarithmic.

An increase in magnitude by 2.5 means an object is a
factor of 10 dimmer, e.g.


a 0 mag star is 10 times brighter
than a 2.5 mag star.
a 0 mag star is 100 times brighter
than a 5 mag star.
A2290-14
HR Diagram
3
Example magnitudes
Star or Planet
mv
Sun
-26.8
Sirius
-1.47
Canopus
-0.72
Car
Arcturus
-0.06
Boo

Vega
0.03
Lyr
0.45
 Ori
Altair
0.77
Aqu
1.26
Cyg
A2290-14
Venus
-4.6 to -3.8
range
Mars, Jupiter
-2.9
max
Saturn
-0.4
max
A dark adapted person with good eyesight can see to ~ 6th magnitude.
Hubble Space Telescope can observed objects fainter than 30 mag.

A2290-14
 CMa
Betegeuse
Deneb

Designations/Comment
4x109 times fainter than the eye!
HR Diagram
4
2
HR Diagram
Big and Little Dippers
4.95
3.00
4.21
4.29
4.35
You can barely see 4th
magnitude stars from
north campus.
2.07
1.97
Alcor (3.99)
Visual apparent
magnitudes in red.
1.85
2.23
1.76
3.32
2.41
1.81
2.34
Fluxes and Magnitudes


Flux is the power per unit area received from an
object, e.g. fsun = 1 kW/m2
If two stars, A and B, have fluxes, fA and fB, their
magnitudes are related by
m A  mB  2.5 log( f A / f B )


We can also write the inverse relation
m A  mB
fB
fB
or
 2.512m A  mB 
 10 2.5
fA
fA

A2290-14
A2290-14
Thus if fB / fA = 10, then mA - mB = 2.5
So that if mA = 5 and mB = 0, fB / fA = 100.
HR Diagram
Each magnitude is a
factor of 2.512 and
2.5 mag. is a factor 10.
6
3
HR Diagram
Absolute & Bolometric Magnitudes

mv – apparent magnitude

Mv – absolute magnitude



How bright a star appears in the sky.
Brightness if the star were at 10 pc
This is an intrinsic property of the star!
M – absolute bolometric magnitude


Brightness at ALL wavelengths (and 10 pc).
To get Mv or M we must know the distance to the star.
Example:





Suppose a star has mv = 7.0 and is located 100 pc away.
It is 10 times the standard distance, thus, it would be 100 times
brighter to us at the standard distance.
Or 5 magnitudes brighter => Mv = 2.0
A2290-14
HR Diagram
7
Example Absolute Magnitudes
Object
Sun:
Full Moon:
Sirius:
Canopus:
Arcturus:
Deneb:
A2290-14
A2290-14
mV
-26.8
-12.6
-1.47
-0.72
-0.06
1.26
HR Diagram
MV
4.77
(32)
1.4
-3.1
-0.3
-7.2
8
4
HR Diagram
The Distance Modulus Equation

The relation between mv and Mv is written in equation
form as:
mv - Mv = - 5 + 5 log10( d )
(d in pc)
mv - Mv is called the distance modulus.

Examples:



A2290-14
Deneb: mv = 1.26 and is 490 pc away.
mv - Mv = - 5 + 5 log10( d )
1.26 - Mv = - 5 + 5 log10( 490 ) = -8.5
=>
Mv = -7.2
Sun: mv = -26.8, d = 1 AU
-26.8 - Mv = - 5 + 5 log10( 1/206265 )
=>
Mv = 4.8
HR Diagram
9
Luminosity vs. Color of Stars

In 1911, Ejnar Hertzsprung investigated the
relationship between luminosity and colors of stars in
within clusters.

In 1913, Henry Norris Russell did a similar study of
nearby stars.

Both found that the color (temperature, spectral type)
was related to the luminosity.
A2290-14
A2290-14
HR Diagram
10
5
HR Diagram
Schematic Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
-10
Supergiants
-5
Luminosity (Lsun)
104
102
Ma
1
0
i n-
Se
Giants
qu
en
5
ce
10-2
Absolute Magnitude
106
10
White Dwarfs
10-4
O
B
A
F
G
Spectral Class
K
M
15
Notes on H-R Diagram

There are different regions



Most stars lie along the main-sequence.
For a given spectral class (e.g. K), there can be more
than one luminosity.

i.e. main-sequence, giant or supergiant

On the main sequence, there are many more K and
M stars than O and B stars.

Observational Effects


A2290-14
A2290-14
main sequence, giant, supergiant, etc.
An H-R diagram of the brightest stars will preferentially show
luminous star because we can see them farther away.
An H-R diagram of the nearest stars show many M type
stars because M stars are very numerous.
HR Diagram
12
6
HR Diagram
Luminosity Classes
106
Luminosity (Lsun)
Ia
104
Ib
II
102
III
IV
1
10-2
B
A2290-14
A
F
G
Spectral Class
K
Ia
Ib
II
III
IV
V
:
:
:
:
:
:
Brightest Supergiants
Less luminous supergiants
Bright giants
Giants
Subgiants
Main-sequence stars
V
M
HR Diagram
13
Hipparcos H-R Diagram
Hertzsprung-Russell (M_V, B-V) diagram for the
16631 single stars from the Hipparcos Catalogue
with relative distance precision better than 10%
and sigma_(B-V) less than or equal to 0.025
mag. Colors indicate number of stars in a cell of
0.01 mag in (B-V) and 0.05 mag in V magnitude
(M_V).
Note that this sample is biased towards more
luminous stars.
From:
http://astro.estec.esa.nl/Hipparcos/vis_stat.html
A2290-14
A2290-14
HR Diagram
14
7
HR Diagram
H-R Diagram (Nearest Stars)
-5
Hipparcos (d < 10 pc)
B0
V
III
Hertzsprung-Russell (M_V, B-V)
diagram for the stars within 10 pc with
better than 20% distance accuracy.
Data extracted from Hipparcos
catalog.
M2
B5
M5
0
K5
A0
G5
K0 K2
A5
F0
Shaded areas represent rough regions
occupied by the previous H-R diagram
with 16631 stars.
Mv
F5
G0
5
G5
K0
Open symbols represent spectral type
for luminosity classes V (squares) and
III (diamonds).
K2
K5
M0
10
M2
M5
15
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
B-V
A2290-14
HR Diagram
15
Number of Stars vs. Type
A2290-14
A2290-14
HR Diagram
16
8
HR Diagram
How big are supergiants?

Using the expression relating luminosity, temperature and size
we can compare a supergiant with the Sun.

Betelgeuse: M2 Iab (supergiant)
L ~ 40000 Lsun , T ~ 3500 K


Sun: G2 V (main-sequence)
T ~ 5800 K

L  4 R 2 T 4

2
Lbet Rbet
T4
 2 bet
4
Lsun RsunTsun

40,000 Lsun  Rbet   3500 

 

Lsun
 Rsun   5800 
2

4
Rbet ~ 550 Rsun
A2290-14
HR Diagram
106
17
Betelgeuse
Deneb
104
Luminosity (Lsun)
100
R
102
s un
Vega
0.1
R
s un
H-R
Diagram
10
R
Sirius A
s un
1
0.0
1R
Sun
s un
10-2
1R
Sirius B
0.0
01
R
s un
s un
Procyon B
10-4
30,000
A2290-14
10,000
5000
Temperature (K)
3000
2500
9
HR Diagram
Sun’s radius is about
1/200 of an AU. So
largest stars would
extend beyond the
orbit of the earth!!
A2290-14
HR Diagram
19
Spectroscopic Parallax




From a star’s spectrum, we can determine its spectral and
luminosity class.
Given the star’s apparent brightness (observed flux), we can
then estimate its distance.
This distance determination technique is called spectroscopic
parallax
Example:
Observe a G2 Ia star (supergiant) with


A2290-14
A2290-14
apparent magnitude mv = 10.
The absolute magnitude (from the H-R diagram) is Mv = -5.
but
mv - Mv = - 5 + 5 log10( d )
=>
log10( d ) = 20/5 = 4
=>
d = 10,000 pc
HR Diagram
20
10
HR Diagram
Stellar Masses

We know many properties of stars now:

But the most important determining characteristic of a star is its
mass.

How do we “weigh” a star?
Binary stars (75% of all stars are “binary stars”)




Temperature, radius, luminosity, surface composition
pairs of stars that orbit each other
used to determine masses of stars
Type of Binaries

Visual Binary

Spectroscopic Binary

Eclipsing Binary (rare)



A2290-14
Stars are separated in a telescope
See two sets of spectral lines Doppler shifted due to orbital motion
Stars cross in front of one another
HR Diagram
21
Spectroscopic Binary Simulation
The Doppler shift shows the velocity changing
periodically. The system is probably not a “visual”
binary and you may only be able to detect one star.
A2290-14
A2290-14
HR Diagram
22
11
HR Diagram
Binary simulation
Cross indicates the “center of mass” of the system.
The stars orbit about this point.
A2290-14
HR Diagram
23
Masses of Binary Stars


Newton’s laws allow us to determine the total mass in a binary
system.
For star of mass MA and MB (in solar masses), the total mass is
related to the period, P, in years and the average distance
between the stars, a (in AU).
MA  MB 

Example:

If a visual binary has a period of 32 years and an average
separation of 16 AU then
MA  MB 

A2290-14
A2290-14
a3
P2
163 16 16  16 16


 4 M sun
32 2
32  32
4
Now with stellar masses in hand we can compile table with
properties of stars
HR Diagram
24
12
HR Diagram
Summary of Main-Sequence Stellar Properties
Class
Mass
(Msun)
L
(Lsun)
Temp.
(K)
Radius
(Rsun)
Lifetime
(106 yrs)
O5
40
400,000
40,000
13
1
B0
15
13,000
28,000
4.9
12
A0
3.5
80
10,000
3.0
440
F0
1.7
6.4
7,500
1.5
2,700
G0
1.1
1.4
6,000
1.1
7,900
K0
0.8
0.46
5,000
0.9
17,000
M0
0.5
0.08
3,500
0.8
57,000


The luminosity of stars on the main-sequence varies approximately as L  M 3.5
with mass.
Since the fuel in stars is proportional to the mass, M, the lifetime of a star is
roughly
tlife 
fuel
M
 3.5  M 2.5
burn rate M
A2290-14
Where M is in solar masses and
tlife is in solar lifetimes (~ 1010 yrs).
HR Diagram
25
Extra Slides


A2290-14
A2290-14
Binary stars
Deriving Kepler’s Harmonic Law
HR Diagram
26
13
HR Diagram
Visual Binary
2030
- Both stars seen
- Orbital motion observed
2020
Apparent Orbit - project
path on the sky.
2010
1960
Examples: Cen A & B
Sirius A & B
2000
1970
1980
A2290-14
HR Diagram
6
27
Eclipsing Binary
5
- Stars cross
in front of
one another
1
4
Apparent Magnitude
2
A2290-14
A2290-14
3
Schematic Light Curve
7
Examples:
Algol
 Persei
 Lyrae
7.5
8
1
2 3
4
5 6
1
Time
HR Diagram
2 3
Simulation
28
14
HR Diagram
Spectroscopic Binary
3
Doppler shift due to
orbital motions.
2
4
Example:  Aurigae
1
Radial Velocity
Period
4
60 km/s
4
2
30 km/s
1
3
4
2
This technique is the
one used to discover
exoplanets but the
effect is much, much
smaller, typically less
than 100 m/sec!
-10 km/s
0
140
Time (Days)
A2290-14
HR Diagram
29
Bonus: Deriving Harmonic Law


The “Harmonic Law” of Kepler related period to
distance in an orbit.
Newton’s triumph was deriving this relationship


What follows is simplified derivation based on circular (rather
than elliptical) orbits and M >> m.
Start with Newton’s equation for acceleration by a
force
F  ma


that is, force is mass times acceleration
For a circular orbit, the (centripetal) acceleration is
given by:
2
a

A2290-14
A2290-14
v
r

F m
v2
r
Now we use Newton’s law of gravity
HR Diagram
30
15
HR Diagram
Newton => Kepler

Newton’s law of gravity is
F

Setting this equal to the centripetal force gives
mv 2 GMm
 2
r
r

A2290-14
A2290-14

v2 
GM
r
The orbital period, P, and the velocity are related.
Using this and combining with the above equation
gives:
2
2 r
4 2 r 3
GM
2 r 
2
 

v

GMm
r2
P

 
r
 P 
P 
GM
Which is Kepler’s Harmonic Law, P2  r3.
HR Diagram
31
16