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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
DATA MINING FROM DOCUMENT-APPEND NOSQL
[Richard K. Lomotey, Ralph Deters]
[University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada]
[[email protected] [email protected]]
Abstract
Due to the unstructured nature of modern digital data, NoSQL storages have been adopted by some enterprises as the
preferred storage facility. NoSQL storages can store schema-oriented, semi-structured, schema-less data. A type of
NoSQL storage is the document-append storage (e.g., CouchDB and Mongo) which has received high adoption due to
its flexibility to store JSON-based data and files as attachment. However, the ability to perform data mining tasks from
such storages remains a challenge and the required tools are generally lacking. Even though there is growing interest
in textual data mining, there is huge gap in the engineering solutions that can be applied to document-append storage
sources. In this work, we propose a data mining tool for term association detection. The flexibility of our proposed
tool is the ability to perform data mining tasks from the document-source directly via HTTP without any copying or
formatting of the existing JSON data. We adapt the Kalman filter algorithm to accomplish macro tasks such as topic
extraction, term organization, term classification and term clustering. The work is evaluated in comparison with
existing textual mining tools such as Apache Mahout and R with promissory result on term extraction accuracy.
Keywords: Data mining; NoSQL; Kalman filter; Unstructured data; Big data; Association rule
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
data. Further, the data stored is treated as a resource and
1. INTRODUCTION
There is huge amount of digital data today that can be
used to achieve several goals. This data economy is referred
to as “Big data” (Zikopoulos et al., 2012). The highdimensional data comes in heterogeneous formats and at
high streaming velocity. This situation has rendered existing
Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS)
inefficient especially at the storage level. While RDBMS
systems are designed to store schema-based data in certain
predefined formats, the data being generated nowadays have
no schema. The greater portion of the generated digital
content has no particular structure and the data comes in
several formats such as multimedia, files, data, and so on.
Thus, the NoSQL (NoSQL, http://nosql-database.org)
storages have been proposed as a measure to accommodate
the growing style of data in unstructured formats. Different
types of NoSQL storages exist and some examples are
multimodal databases, graph databases, object databases,
and so on.
In this work, we shall focus on the document-append
style NoSQL storage. This style of storage supports
structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data. The
testing environment will be CouchDB which supports
upload of files as attachments and actual data in JSON
format. Identical to Web services, CouchDB can be
interacted with using the HTTP verbs following the
REpresentational State Transfer (REST) style such as GET
– to retrieve data, POST – to create new records, PUT – to
update an existing data, DELETE – to remove an existing
record, and HEAD - to retrieve the meta-info of a stored
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have unique identifiers per document.
The problem however is that, we are faced with the
challenge of performing data mining tasks from such
storage facilities. Even though the interaction with such data
storage is facilitated as Web service (and can be accessed
via the browser), we are not able to employ tools such as
Web crawlers to mine data from them. This is because,
crawlers rely on the HTML tags within the DOM of a
webpage to retrieve information. The presence of anchor
and href tags (i.e., <a href=””></a>) on a page enables the
crawler to traverse all hyperlinks that are found within the
search space. In the case of document-append storages,
there are no such tags; rather, the data is JSON or XML per
document. Also, while RDBMS storages have a structure
and support cross-database queries based on keys, the
document-append storage has no keys and relies on map
reduce. This situation has rendered data mining tools that
have been built for RDBMS and web crawlers inefficient in
the world of document-append storages (Fig. 1 compares the
two).
In this paper, we propose a data mining tool that can be
employed to perform analytics of terms and topics from the
document-append storage using CouchDB as case study.
Users are enabled to perform data mining tasks directly
from CouchDB via HTTP requests without any copying or
formatting of the existing JSON data. We propose the
Kalman filter algorithm to achieve requirements such as
topic extraction, term organization, term classification and
term clustering. The work is evaluated in comparison with
existing textual mining tools such as Apache Mahout and R
with promissory result on term extraction accuracy.
17
International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
{
“PatientID”: “SK102”,
“LNAME”: “DOE”,
“FNAME”: “JOHN”,
“DOC_ID”: “PH200”,
“OFFICE_LOC”: “ROOM 61”,
“SPECIALTY”: “GEN SURGEON”
}
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
Doctors Information
Patient Information
PatientID LNAME
FNAME
DOC_ID
DOC_ID
OFFICE_LOC
SPECIALTY
SK100
LOMOTEY
RICH
PH200
PH200
ROOM 61
GEN SURGEON
SK101
DETERS
RALPH
PH201
PH201
ROOM 78
PEDIATRICIAN
SK102
DOE
JOHN
PH200
PH202
ROOM 21
ORTHODONTIST
SK103
GOOD
JOE
PH202
PH203
ROOM 98
PEDIATRICIAN
Figure 1. The Representation of RDBMS (left) in a Document-Oriented NoSQL (right).
Here are the highlights of this work:




Proposed a data mining framework for DocumentStyle NoSQL
Proposed the Kalman filter algorithm to determine
term association between topics in the data source
The framework supports topic extraction, term
organization, term classification and term clustering
In comparison to Apache Mahout and R, the proposed
framework is:
o more accurate
o more flexible to adapt to other data sources
o more scalable to accommodate several data sources
o less scalable than Apache Mahout in terms of the
processing job per time.
The remaining sections of this work are structured as
follows. Section II reviews some works on unstructured data
mining, Section III describes our proposed search tool,
Section IV details the adapted Kalman filter algorithm and
the preliminary evaluation of the proposed tool is carried out
in Section V. The paper concludes in Section VI with our
findings and future work.
2. BACKGROUND WORKS
2.1 NoSQL Databases
Today, digital content generation is influenced by
multiple stakeholders such as: end-users, enterprise
consumers, services providers, and prosumers. This has also
fueled the nature of the data which has shifted from schemabased storages to semi-structured and unstructured data
(Rupanagunta et al., 2012). In summary, the concept of
unstructured data is described as:
o
o
o
o
Data Heterogeneity: The data is represented in
varying formats (documents, multimedia, emails,
blogs, websites, textual contents, etc.)
Schema-less: The data has no specific structure
because there is no standardization or constraints
placed on content generation.
Multiple Sources: The data is from diverse sources
(e.g., social media, data providers such as
Salesforce.com, mobile apps, sensors, etc.)
Varying API Types: The data requires multiple
APIs to aggregate data from the multiple sources;
and the APIs are not standardized nor have SLAs.
While the Web has been at the forefront of content
accessibility and delivery, it is not a platform for storage.
Thus, a revolution in storage has been proposed that shift
focus from RDBMS storages to NoSQL databases. There
are varying forms of NoSQL storages such as: documentappend NoSQL that supports textual and file attachments
(e.g., CouchDB), File-based storages (e.g., DropBox,
MEGA, Amazon S3), Wide-Column Storages (e.g., Hadoop,
HBase), Graph-based storages (Neo4J, InfoGrid), and so on.
While many of the ongoing works on big data and
unstructured data mining has targeted Hadoop and its family
line of storage, not many works is seen on the document
storage front. As of the time of writing, we could not find
any tool that is aimed at the document storage style. Our
work will therefore explore this option where CouchDB will
be our use case environment. The storage allows data to be
stored in a JSON format and does not use keys as in the case
of RDBMS.
Further, each document is uniquely identified by an
identifier which can be used to access the document over a
hyperlink. In order to query multiple documents, the
MapReduce methodology can be adopted.
Table I. Text-Based Data Mining Requirements and Proposed Techniques
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
Information
Extraction
Association
Rules
Topics
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
Terms
Document
Clustering
Document
Summarization
Re-Usable
Dictionaries
Goal
Data Retrieval,
KDD Process
Trend discovery
in text,
document or file
Topic
Recommendation
Establish
associative
relationships
between terms
Organize
documents into
sub-groups with
closer identity
Noise Filtering in
Large Documents
For
Knowledge
Collaboration
and Sharing
Data
Representation
Long or short
text, semantics
and ontologies,
keywords
Keywords, Long
or short
sentences
Keywords, Lexical
chaining
Keywords
Data, Documents
Terms, Topics,
Documents
Words,
Sentences
Feature
extraction
Keyword
extraction
Lexical chaining
Lemmas, Partsof-Speech
Feature
extraction
Lexical chaining
Feature
extraction
Output
Documents
(Structured or
semi-structured)
Visualization,
Summary report
Topic linkages
Visualization,
crawler depth
Visualization
Visualization,
Summery report
Summary
report
Techniques
Community data
mining, Tagging,
Normalization of
data, Tokenizing,
Entity detection
Ontologies,
Semantics,
Linguistics
Publish/Subscribe,
TopicsAssociationsOccurrences
Linguistic
Preprocessing,
Term
Generation
K-means
clustering,
Hierarchical
clustering
Document structure
analysis, Document
classification
Annotations,
Tagging
Search Space
Document, Files,
Database
Document,
Files, Database
Document, Files,
Databases
Topics vector
space
Documents,
Databases
Databases, Sets of
documents
Databases,
Sets of
documents
Similarity and
relatedness of
Documents,
sentences and
keywords
Similarity,
Mapping, Cooccurrence of
features,
correlations
Associations,
Similarity,
Sensitivity,
Specificity
Frequency of
terms,
Frequency
variations
Sensitivity,
Specificity
Transition and
preceding matrix,
Audit trail
Word
extensibility
Lack of research
on Data Pedigree
Uses varying
methods to multi
databases E.g.,
relational,
spatial, and
transactional
data stores
Identification of
Topics of interest
may be challenging
Community
based so crossdomain
adoption is
challenging
Can be resource
intensive
therefore needs
research on
parallelization
Not much is
available on Data
Pedigree
Challenges
with dictionary
adaptation to
new words
Natural
Language
Processing
Evaluation
metrics
Challenges
and Future
Directions
While the underlying technology on which documentstyle database are built follows the Web standard,
performing data mining will take different dimensions. Web
data mining is done using the Web crawler which relies on
the HTML tags to interpret data blocks (i.e., content) on a
web page. The anchor tag and href attributes also aids the
crawler to go to other interconnected pages. The documentstyle storage however does not have tags; rather, its textbased that follows the JSON. Moreover, RDBMS specific
data mining tools are not designed for textual mining and
storage facility such as CouchDB that allows file
attachments further complicates the issue. This creates the
need to research on how to perform data mining and
knowledge discovery from such storage. Thus, our major
goal in this paper is to research and design a data analytics
tool that targets the document-style NoSQL. However, to
achieve this goal, we need to explore the second major
aspect of the work, which is textual and unstructured data
mining.
2.2 Unstructured Data Mining
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Without data mining, we cannot deduce any meaning out
of the vast data at our disposal. As already posited, existing
data mining techniques that are well-advanced have been
designed to work either with schema-oriented databases
which are structured (Kuonen, 2003) or Web crawlers. To
enhance the data mining process, scientist in both academia
and industry are beginning to explore the best
methodologies that can aid in the unstructured data mining
process; especially in the context of textual data mining. As
a result, we have witnessed some requirements such as:
Information Retrieval (IR) algorithms based on templates
(Hsu and Yih, 1999), Association Rules (Delgado et al.,
2002, Zhao and Bhowmick, 2003), Topic tracking and topic
maps (Abramowicz et al., 2003), Term crawling (terms)
(Janet and Reddy, 2011, Feldman et al., 1998), Document
Clustering (Han et al., 2010), Document Summarization
(Dey and Haque, 2009), Helmholtz Search Principle
(Balinsky et al., 2010), Re-usable Dictionaries (Godbole et
al., 2010), and so on. For brevity, the reader is referred to
Table I to see the overview of the area including unexplored
areas.
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
There is an ever growing demand for the consumption of
high-dimensional data across different enterprises such as
Biomedical Engineering, Telecommunications, Geospatial
Data, Climate Data and the Earth’s Ecosystems, and Capital
Research and Risk Management (Groth and Muntermann,
2010). This has resulted into the employment of some or the
combination of the various requirements described in Table
I to deploy unstructured data mining tools. Though the
application of unstructured data mining tools is broad and
some previous works including Scharber (2007) focus on
the available tools in general textual mining, we can identify
with the fact that the deployment of these tools require the
active participation of software engineers as well as
software engineering principles.
Gonzalez et al., 2012 saw the need to implement a tool
that enforces employee data accuracy and completeness.
The tool is based on Information Extraction (IE), Adaptive
Learning, and Resource Classification. The main advantages
of the tool are: the transformation of the extracted data into
a planning decision data, the support for precision and recall
metrics, and resource utilization and demand economization.
While all efforts are being made to extract data, it is still
challenging to identify tools that can perform storage and
classification of extracted unstructured data into structured
databases. What is even more challenging is the extraction
of data from unstructured data sources that contain text and
other data formats such as multimedia. A good way to deal
with such challenging instances is the adoption of a flat-file
data storage approach. This is evidenced in the C# oriented
framework presented by Abidin et al., 2010 which employs
layered architecture to deal with the unstructured data
extraction regarding multimedia. The layers consists of the:
Interface layer (the view that will facilitate the interaction
between the user and the system), source layer (the data
sources which can be in a semi-structured or unstructured
format), XML layer (the extracted data is transformed into a
flat-file XML document format), and multimedia database
(the final storage of the structured data). The final storage
location in this case must be a data source that supports
multimedia data (e.g., Oracle 11g standards).
But one of the limitations that we perceive with this type
of framework is that, it requires the initial data source to be
in a webpage. Technically, webpages are in a form of a
structure which is defined within DOM elements. So,
passing the DOM structure into XML is straightforward.
What is difficult is when the source elements are not in any
defined tag and are just in documents. Most tools are yet to
address this challenge. Another challenge when faced with
data extraction especially in software engineering tasks is
the fact that mostly, the developers use jargons which are
not part of standard dictionaries. When one observes the
CTSS tool (Christy and Thambidurai, 2008) for instance,
the tool offers a lot of guarantees in terms of short
processing time and the fact that different underlying
modeling techniques are employed in its deployment. Some
of the techniques are passing and soft matching rules. But
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Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
since the input source is a URL, the wide array of benefits
that the tool offers is limited to only web contents.
It is therefore necessary to look for enhanced ways to
deploy applications that can accept inputs from nonwebpages as well. Moving away from Web contents, some
researchers focus on Request for Comments (RFC)
documents (Gurusamy et al., 2002). While RFC is
syntactically different from HTML, the authors’ definition
of unstructured RFC requires some level of structure or
organization of text in the document. The tool proposed
takes a document and reads certain semantic tags in the
document such as Content, Abstract and so on before
generating the required structured document. This also
means that some semi-structure initialization is required to
commence the mining process.
In an attempt to understand email and bug report
communication between developers (and knowing that the
communication takes unstructured textual format) and not a
web content, Panichella et al., 2012 propose the following
workflow: (1) Downloading emails and categorizing them
into classes, (2) Extracting paragraphs from the reports, (3)
Tracing Paragraphs onto Methods, (4) Filtering the
Paragraphs, and (5) Computing Textual Similarities
Between Paragraphs and Methods. Of course in this
approach, the dependency on a semi-structured HTML as
data source is alleviated but the challenge is the
interpretation of paragraphs in a general textual document.
What the authors propose is the extraction of methods as
paragraphs which limits the scope of the application in
terms of general textual data. But, the uniqueness of this
approach is the facilitation of re-documentation of source
code artifacts which are extracted from the unstructured data
sources to be presented in a summarized format. This
approach deviates a little from the overly used language
generation techniques to write the summarization through
automated techniques. Similarly, Mailpeek (Bacchelli et al.,
2012) focuses on text extraction by clustering email
contents which are shared by developers.
Realizing the fact that developers are saddled with the
responsibility of interacting with unstructured text
(especially source code), Bettenburg et al., 2011 outlined
some technical plans to establish a meaningful
communication between developers. The authors propose a
semantic detection module that checks and rectifies spelling
and grammar of the text. Clearly, the authors have seen that
the software engineering landscape is crowded with
violation of technical words which are not found in the
standard language dictionaries. A good way to enforce
spellchecking is to employ morphological language analysis
to identify and describe the morphemes (i.e., smallest
linguistic units that are semantically meaningful). The use of
linguistic can further aid developers to adopt rationale
detection. Rationale-containing texts have matching
linguistic relationships which means, the extraction of
useful information can be done through the identification of
rationale features (Rogers et al., 2012).
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
From the background works, we seek to adapt some of
the ideas to design terms mining tool for document-based
NoSQL. The next section details the proposed architectural
design.
3. THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN OF THE
DATA MINING TOOL
3.1 The Process Flow Execution
The entire system (as depicted in Fig. 2) is made of three
layers namely: the view layer, the data mining layer, and the
storage layer. The view layer represents a dashboard which
allows the user to enter the topics and terms to be mined.
This is the output/input layer where the user is enabled to
interact with the system. This layer is designed to be
deployed on heterogeneous devices such as mobile devices,
and desktop (including browser).
When the search term is specified from the input layer,
the request is sent as to the entry point on the analytics layer
which is designated as the Request Parser. At this point, the
specified term is treated as the search artefact. Further, the
user has to specify the link to the data source (i.e., the
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
NoSQL storage) in order to facilitate the request parser to
guarantee that the search can be carried out.
Without the specification of the link (which must be a
URL over an HTTP protocol), the system will not perform
the data extraction task. Once the initial requirements are
met, the search artefact is sent to the analytics layer for
Artefact Extraction Definition. The importance of this
component is to differentiate topics from terms, and to
further determine the exact requirement of the user.
Specifically to this work, we are focusing on extracting
single word terms as well as two word terms.
For example, single word terms may be heart, disease,
psychiatry, etc.; while two word terms may include heart
disease, psychiatry medication, etc. The successful decoding
of the search term activates the Semantic Engine component
where the analytics framework tries to understand the terms
to be extracted.
Initially, we consider the artefact specified by the user as
Topics. This aids us to do the traditional information
retrieval task which focuses on extracting the exact artefacts
specified by the user. This approach also suggests that when
a user specifies an artefact, we look for the exact keyword.
Document Style NoSQL
MAP/REDUCE
REST API
Artifact Extraction
Definition
Semantic Engine
Topics
Search Algorithm
Association Rules
Topic Parser
Output Layer
Search
Artifact
Request Parser
Web Browser
Mobile (e.g., Notebooks,
Tablets)
Extracted Artifacts
Topics Mapping
Thesaurus
Dictionary
Serializer
Dashboard
Filtering
Tagging
Search
Log
Input Layer
Terms
Clustering Data
(JSON)
Display
Topics Clustering
Terms Clustering
Visualization
User
Figure 2.
The architectural design of the data mining platform
However, to perform intelligent terms analytics, there is
the need to accommodate the concepts of synonyms,
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antonyms, parts of speech, and lemmatization as proposed
by Zhao and Bhowmick, 2003. Thus, the topics are sent to
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
the Topics Parser to check the meaning of the specified
artefact. There are two layers that are designed to check the
meanings of the artefacts, the Dictionary and the Thesaurus.
The dictionary contains standard keywords, their meanings,
and their antonyms. The thesaurus contains jargons that
otherwise are not found in the standard dictionary. This is
important for situations where the analytics is done in
certain technical domains such as the medical field where
most of the keywords are not in the standard dictionary. The
thesaurus can be updated by the specific domain that is
adopting the framework for the analytics task. This further
makes the proposed tool highly adaptable and agile. When
the artefact is reviewed by the topic parser by looking
through the thesaurus and dictionary, the Topics Mapping
task is enabled. The mapping tasks include the organization
of the specified artefact and possible synonyms as may be
found in the semantic engine. The expected artefact and the
newly found keywords from the dictionary and the
thesaurus are categorized as Terms. For instance, when
searching for the artefact haemophilia, the terms formation
can be formulated as:
{“Hemophilia”: “Bleeding Disorder”}
{“Hemophilia”: “Blood Clotting”}
{“Hemophilia”: “Pseudohemophilia”}
{“Hemophilia”: “Hemogenia”}
The successful formation of the terms leads to the
activation of the Search Algorithm component. The
algorithm we proposed is based on the inference-based
Apriori which, will be discussed in great depth in the next
section. The search algorithm component is also linked to
the main data source where the data is stored. Using the
CouchDB framework for instance, the data source can be
accessible over REST API. Primarily, the search algorithm
interfaces the data source through the HTTP GET method.
The data source which is document style stores the data
following the JSON format. Also, the Map/Reduce feature is
employed to query multiple documents within a single
database. In our framework, the documents are extracted
and written in a flat text file. This aids us to easily read
through the entire storage repository regardless of the
number of documents.
The extracted terms are then reviewed to determine the
association between the terms. We apply Association Rules
based on the similarities and diversity of the extracted terms.
Then, we employ the Filtering methodology to remove the
pollutants (or noise) from the data. In most instances, the
extracted artifacts are bound to contain keywords that
appear valuable but are not actually relevant to the term
mining tasks (e.g., antonyms, or similar written words but
mean different things). The next task is tagging, which is
applied to the filtered data. Tagging is employed to
determine the existing relationship between the filtered data
and how they are connected to the user specified artifact. At
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Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
this stage, the Serializer component checks the format of the
categorized data for visual presentation. The data must be
modelled in JSON format before it can be parsed to the
visual display. Once the data clustering is done in JSON, the
output is sent to the visualization layer as evidenced in
Appendix I. The user can then see the output of the result on
the dashboard.
4. THE KALMAN FILTER ALGORITHM
While the Kalman filter algorithm has been used
extensively in areas such as navigation control systems, the
adaptation of the methodology in data mining is limited
(Pietruszkiewicz, 2008). For further mathematical details
and formalisms on the Kalman filter, the intelligent reader is
referred to van der Merwe and Wan, 2003. In this section
however, we shall discuss how we employ a variance of the
Kalman filter which we model as a Bayesian estimate.
First of all, we consider the process of storing data in the
NoSQL as time dependent due to the fact that most storage
accepts streaming data. The Kalman filter can use recursive
estimates to determine states based on incoming data. This
is identical to the recursive Bayesian estimation that is an
unobserved Markov process, and the data states (i.e.,
measurements) can follow the hidden Markov model
(HMM).
The algorithm relies on the search history of the system
users to filter the search result. From the specified terms to
be extracted, we can establish the following base
relationships:
K ⊂ Dic
T ⊂ Db
to mean that the specified keyword (K) is a subset of the
vocabularies in the dictionary/thesaurus (Dic), and the
constructed terms (T) from the semantic engine is a subset
of the dataset in the NoSQL (Db). In a situation where there
are no vocabularies similar (i.e., absence of synonyms or
antonyms) in the Dic, then K = T. Also, it is practical to get
into situations where K is not found at all in the dictionary
and we treat this case also as K = T. The characteristics of T
can be defined as follows:
T = {n1, n2, n3, n4, …, nn}
to mean that T can contain a list of several artifacts, n, that
are related to the specified term (described earlier as topics)
and in the least, T = {t1} to mean that the specified term has
no related keywords. Thus, T =
is not supported
because this is an indirect way of saying that there is
nothing specified to be searched. The existence of T in the
data source is assigned a probability of 1 and the nonexistence of T in the data source is represented as 0.
The proposed system has a Search Log that keeps the
record of the frequency of the keywords being searched.
This is a disk storage that can grow in size so we use
ranking based on the frequency of hits to prioritize which
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
records to keep. When the storage is growing out of
proportion, less frequently searched keywords (i.e., less
prioritized keywords) are deleted.
Based on our goal, we expect the Kalman filter will be
the best fit to achieve a reliable data mining tasks based on
data source that is changing over time. The association rule
is designed so that we can determine the presence of
frequency of terms, T in the database Db. Further, we model
every pile of document as a row, identical to RDBMS
systems.
Also, it best if we consider the interactions within the
proposed system as a finite state machine where we can
define the states of the data in the NoSQL per every time
setup. Given a term A on a particular NoSQL document, the
conditional probability that the term or its dependency
keywords B exist(s) in other appended documents or in
another NoSQL database can be expressed as:
𝑓𝐴|𝐵 =
𝑓𝐴,𝐵 (𝑎𝑖 , 𝑏𝑗 )
𝑓𝐵 (𝑏𝑗 )
However, the condition of the existence of terms can be
independent and random which follows that:
𝑓𝐴|𝐵 (𝑎𝑖 , 𝑏𝑗 ) = 𝑓𝐴 (𝑎𝑖 ) 𝑋 𝑓𝐵 (𝑏𝑗 )
Which means following the Markov assumption, the
above expression can be re-written given the immediately
previous state as.
𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝐴0 , . . . , 𝐴𝑛−1 ) = 𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝐴𝑛−1 )
Similarly the measurement of the terms in the NoSQL at
the n-th timestamp is dependent only upon the current state
of available list of terms and is conditionally independent of
all other states given the current state.
𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝐴0 , . . . , 𝐴𝑛 ) = 𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝐴𝑛 )
These assumptions can then be extended to design the
hidden Markov model using the probability distribution:
𝑃(𝐴0 , . . . , 𝐴𝑛 , 𝐵1 , . . . , 𝐵𝑛 )
𝑛
= 𝑃(𝐴0 ) ∏ 𝑃(𝐵𝑖 | 𝐴𝑖 )𝑃(𝐴𝑖 | 𝐴𝑖−1 )
𝑖=1
But, the probability distribution of interest in the
estimation of A is conditioned on the availability of data in
the current timestamp if the Kalman filter methodology is
employed. This requires that we predict and update the next
steps. The predicted state can be derived as the sum (integral)
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Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
of the products of the probability distribution associated
with the transition from the (n − 1)-th timestamp to the n-th
and the probability distribution associated with the previous
state, over all possible An-1.
𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝐵𝑛−1 )
= ∫ 𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝐴𝑛−1 )𝑃(𝐴𝑛−1 | 𝐵𝑛−1 )𝑑𝐴𝑛−1
The recorded terms within a given timestamp can be
measured in different time slots since the data is streaming
as:
𝐵𝑡 = {𝐵1 , . . . , 𝐵𝑡 }
The product of the measurement likelihood and the next
predicted state (of possible terms within the document) is a
probability distribution:
𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝐵𝑛 ) =
𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝐴𝑛 )𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝑩𝑛−1 )
𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝑩𝑛−1 )
Where the normalization term is formalised as:
𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝐵𝑛−1 ) = ∫ 𝑃(𝐵𝑛 | 𝐴𝑛 )𝑃(𝐴𝑛 | 𝑩𝑘−1 )𝑑𝐴𝑘
The Kalman filter algorithm aided us to recursively go
through the documents in the NoSQL at various timestamps
and the result for the term miming is updated as new
readings are recorded.
5. EVALUATION
Two datasets from our medical partners (the
Saskatchewan Health Region) are analyzed based on the
proposed algorithms. These data is on Hemophilia and
Psychiatry. We deploy our framework on Amazon EC2
instance with the following specifications: Processor: Intel
Xeon, CPU E5410 @ 2.14GHz, 2.37GHz, RAM: 1.70GB,
System 32-bit operating system. The output layer is
deployed on a personal computer with the following
specifications: Windows 7 System 32, 4.12 3.98 GHz,
16GB RAM, 1TB HDD. The size of the training dataset
containing the Hemophilia related record is 2 terabyte and
the Psychiatry related data is 10 terabyte. The dataset is
spread across multiple NoSQL databases that are hosted on
separate EC2 instances so that there is not so much latency
experienced during the testing. The dictionary and thesaurus
are populated with almost 6000 medical jargons specific to
Psychiatry and Hemophilia.
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
For the purpose of testing, we reviewed some of the
existing tools on textual data mining and the prominent ones
are highlighted in Table II.
Table II. Some Textual Mining Tools.
Tool
Orange
Major Goal
Statistical, Machine Learning,
Visualization
WEKA
Machine Learning, Knowledge
Analysis
Apache
Mahout
Machine Learning
RapidMiner
R
Machine Learning Text Mining
Statistical Computing and Graphics
In this paper, we benchmark the performance of our
framework
against
Apache
Mahout
(https://mahout.apache.org/)
and
R
(http://www.rproject.org/). In the experimentation, we focus on four
major stages of the data mining process as represented in
Figure 3, starting with the basic requirement on topic
extraction.

Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
added to existing groups if they belong to that group;
otherwise, a new group has to be created to properly
classify those topics.
Term Clustering: At this stage, the terms are grouped
and we try to understand the best-fit relationship
between the topics in the group.
5.1 Accuracy Index
In Tables IV and V, we report the results of the
experiments on the accuracy of the various mining tasks. To
validate the result, we compared the reliability of the
proposed framework to Apache Mahout and R as shown.
There are four base factors that are measured which are:
True Positive (TP) - refers to the extraction of expected
terms (also referred to as success ratio), False Positive (FP) refers to the extraction of the desired terms plus unwanted
results, True Negative (TN) - is when the term is not found
because it does not exist in the NoSQL database, and False
Negative (FN) - is when the term could not be found but it
exists in the data source. The four base factors are extended
to calculate the Precision, Recall, Specificity, Accuracy, and
F1 Score. The formalisms are provided in Table III.
Table III. Calculated Parameters
𝑇𝑃
𝑇𝑃 + 𝐹𝑃
𝑇𝑃
𝑇𝑃 + 𝐹𝑁
Precision
Recall (Sensitivity)
Specificity
𝑇𝑁
𝑇𝑁 + 𝐹𝑃
Accuracy
𝑇𝑃 + 𝑇𝑁
𝑇𝑃 + 𝑇𝑁 + 𝐹𝑃 + 𝐹𝑁
Figure 3. The term mining steps
F1 Score



2∗
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 ∗ 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑙
𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 + 𝑅𝑒𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑙
Topic Extraction: This is the stage where the
specified keyword (artefact) is searched for in the
NoSQL and the result is returned with several other
For clarity, we shall refer to our proposed framework in
keywords. This is the initial step considered before
this paper as NoSQL Miner. Considering the two data
proceeding with the other activities.
sources, we studied the performance of each of the tools
Term Organization: This is topics ranking based on
under discussion. In both tables IV and V, the following
relevance. When the topics are extracted, there is no
activities are recorded: Topic Extraction (i.e., Topic Ext.),
guarantee that all the keywords are actually (truly)
Term Organization (i.e., Term Org.), Term Classification
relevant. Term organization is where the topics are
(i.e., term Class.), and Term Clustering (i.e., Term Clust.).
ranked and non-relevant ones are either eliminated or
We observed that the results for both data sets are
rated low. The determination of relevance is based on
symmetrical so the nature of data is not a determining factor
co-occurrence of terms at a particular timestamp.
for performance. This creates the need to study the details of
Term Classification: Since the terms are organized in
the output.
groups from initial stages, newly identified topics are
Table IV. 2 Terabyte JSON Text on Hemophilia Related Records in CouchD
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
True
Positive
False
Positive
True
Negative
False
Negative
Precision
Recall
(Sensitivity)
Specificity
Accuracy
F1 Score
Topic
Ext.
(%)
95.77
NoSQL Miner
Term
Term
Org.
Class.
(%)
(%)
92.87
90.33
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
Apache Mahout
R
Term
Clust.
(%)
89.22
Topic
Ext.
(%)
96.66
Term
Org.
(%)
94.80
Term
Class.
(%)
92.41
Term
Clust.
(%)
90.13
Topic
Ext.
(%)
97.45
Term
Org.
(%)
94.93
Term
Class.
(%)
93.01
Term
Clust.
(%)
91.44
9.19
13.10
15.21
17.09
16.22
23.16
28.12
30.23
15.23
21.77
25.90
28.80
96.32
97.04
94.71
94.11
96.43
96.98
95.82
95.23
97.91
96.87
96.31
96.55
6.71
3.66
6.98
9.45
11.60
14.35
16.33
18.21
9.22
10.04
12.75
17.33
91.24
87.64
85.59
83.92
85.63
80.37
76.67
74.88
86.48
81.35
78.22
76.05
93.45
96.21
92.83
90.42
89.29
86.85
84.98
83.19
91.36
90.44
87.94
84.07
91.29
92.36
92.34
88.11
91.89
91.72
86.16
89.29
89.06
84.63
87.35
87.05
85.60
87.41
87.42
80.72
83.64
83.48
77.31
80.90
80.61
75.90
79.28
78.82
86.54
88.88
88.85
81.65
85.77
85.65
78.81
83.05
82.80
77.02
80.30
79.86
Table V. 10 Terabyte JSON Text on Psychiatry Related Records in CouchDB
True
Positive
False
Positive
True
Negative
False
Negative
Precision
Recall
(Sensitivity)
Specificity
Accuracy
F1 Score
Topic
Ext.
(%)
93.19
NoSQL Miner
Term
Term
Org.
Class.
(%)
(%)
91.11
90.20
Apache Mahout
R
Term
Clust.
(%)
87.32
Topic
Ext.
(%)
96.00
Term
Org.
(%)
93.22
Term
Class.
(%)
92.98
Term
Clust.
(%)
91.00
Topic
Ext.
(%)
96.68
Term
Org.
(%)
95.30
Term
Class.
(%)
93.79
Term
Clust.
(%)
93.61
8.33
12.80
16.33
18.43
15.33
24.98
27.17
31.00
14.21
18.32
24.43
29.33
95.20
95.01
94.81
92.87
96.00
95.23
94.67
94.02
98.02
96.55
95.89
95.81
5.70
6.09
6.98
9.45
12.13
16.10
18.59
21.07
11.32
13.63
15.22
19.01
91.79
87.68
84.67
82.57
86.23
78.87
77.39
74.59
87.19
83.88
79.34
76.14
94.24
93.73
92.82
90.23
88.78
85.27
83.34
81.20
89.52
87.49
86.04
83.12
91.95
93.07
93.00
88.13
90.79
90.61
85.31
88.81
88.56
83.44
86.60
86.23
86.23
87.49
87.49
79.22
82.10
81.94
77.70
80.40
80.25
75.20
78.04
77.75
87.34
88.41
88.34
84.05
85.72
85.64
79.70
82.71
82.55
76.56
79.67
79.48
For brevity, the accuracy index of each of the tools is
plotted in Figure 5. Clearly, our proposed NoSQL Miner
shows better accuracy result than Apache Mahout and R
regarding extraction, organization, classification, and
clustering. But before we discuss the accuracy, there is the
need to understand the level of falsehood and truthfulness in
the result. These factors are the underlying principles for the
measurement of accuracy. To measure the truthfulness, we
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found the sum of the true positive and true negative values.
That is, truthfulness is formalized as:
𝑇𝑟𝑢𝑡ℎ𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑇𝑃 + 𝑇𝑁
Since we record the TP and TN values as percentages,
the expected maximum value for truthfulness is 200. This is
plotted in Figure 4.
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
Figure 4.
(a) Truthulness plot for Hemophilia
Figure 5.
(a) Accuracy plot for Hemophilia
Figure 6.
(a) Falsehood index plot for Hemophilia
It is interesting to observe that both Apache Mahout and
R outperform our proposed NoSQL Miner in terms of
truthfulness. This means for a given data set, the other tools
are likely to retrieve more desired topics (i.e., success ratio)
and also ignore unlikely topics. This behavior is good and
desired in certain systems where the focus is not on the
overall accuracy of the extracted terms but rather on the
success ratio of extraction. However, if the truthfulness of
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Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
(b) Truthfulness plot for Psychiatry
(b) Accuracy plot for Psychiatry
(b) Falsehood index plot for Psychiatry
Apache Mahout and R are better, how come they have least
accuracy? This question leads us to analyze the level of
falsehood. This is the case where the systems exhibit their
levels of wrong perception about topics and terms. In other
words, falsehood is the rate at which the tool is wrong.
Formally, we express this as:
𝐹𝑎𝑙𝑠𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑑 = 𝐹𝑁 + 𝐹𝑃
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
The level of falsehood in Apache Mahout and R is high.
Especially, the false positive results are high. This situation
explains why though both tools have high truthfulness result,
the final accuracy is poor. The result of both truthfulness
and falsehood give us an idea about how Apache Mahout
and R are probably doing the topic extraction.
When the data source is parsed to Apache Mahout and R,
they try to extract as much topics as possible based on their
underlying algorithms. This can be advantageous as more
topics (i.e., keywords/artefacts) can be captured which tends
to increase the true positive result. At the same time, this
behavior can lower the chances of ignoring a correct topic in
the data source. As already posited, the attempt to increase
the true positive value can be good for some systems.
However, the behavior that these tools exhibit shows that
while extracting more topics, the false positive value is also
increasing. This is because keywords in the data source that
are not needed for a particular query result get extracted and
added to the terms.
Since we evaluate the data mining activities in four steps,
it is important to state that errors are carried over from one
step to the next. So, errors in the topic extraction step are
carried to the term organization task. And errors in term
organization are carried to term classification, and finally to
terms clustering. Thus, if we observe the results in Table IV
and V, the false positive and false negative values increase
from one step to next.
5.2 Search Duration and Data Scale
One of the key contributions of this paper is offering
support for streaming data into document-based NoSQL
systems. Currently, we are not able to see such support for
Apache Mahout and R in this regard. Moreover, these tools
require some specific data formats to process the data, For
example, the R system uses a package called “rjson” which
converts the JSON objects into R objects. Though some
effort is required, it can be automated to retrieve data from
incoming sources.
Considering the search duration, our proposed NoSQL
Miner is faster. This is because we designed our system to
interact with the data source directly and process the JSON
data in its format without any further conversion. In the case
of the other two frameworks, we have to observe the
conversion period and when there are errors the procedure
has to restart. The search duration is the overall time
observed for each tool to perform topic extraction, term
organization, term classification, and term clustering.
After repeating the experiments over six (6) times, we
realized that to process data (of approximately 30 million
topics) on average, the NoSQL Miner spends 2718 seconds
while Apache Mahout and R spend 3958.8 and 4438.8
seconds respectively.
Another observation is the fact that Apache Mahout is
the most scalable in terms of job processing per time. The
framework processes lots of topics per time. In case we are
considering batch data, then Apache Mahout will have been
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Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
the fastest in terms of accomplishing the unstructured data
mining tasks. However, when the data is streaming and the
processing is done over time, the NoSQL Miner is the
fastest. The reason is most of the bottlenecks with object
conversion are not present in the NoSQL Miner.
5.3 Limitations
Though our proposed NoSQL Miner outperforms the
Apache Mahout and R tools, we cannot conclude that the
underlying algorithms of the various tools make the
difference. For instance, it is not clear whether we can
conclude that the Kalman filter algorithm in the case of the
NoSQL Miner is better than the Fuzzy K-Means clustering,
Naive Bayes classifier, and Random forest classifier in the
case of Apache Mahout.
The study of the underlying algorithms requires
independent research and it is best if these algorithms are
tested in the same framework. However, the proposed
NoSQL Miner can be considered as a preferred choice
within the context of our research goal which focuses on
mining unstructured streaming data at different times and
re-adjusting the classifier based on incoming data.
This goal naturally fits into the Kalman filter algorithm
and since we model this algorithm as a Bayesian estimate
(Section 4), we are able to attain good results. It will be
interesting to know how the result will be affected if the
engineering challenges of automatically mining streaming
data in Apache Mahout and R are overcome.
6. CONCLUSIONS
There is increasing amount of unstructured data and
NoSQL databases have been proposed as preferred storage
facilities. While several NoSQL databases exist, our work
focuses on the document-append NoSQL database. This
type of NoSQL supports actual data and files. Some
examples are CouchDB (which is tested in this paper) and
MongoDB. The challenge however is that, the support for
mining data from this type of storage is lacking from both
engineering and data mining perspectives. Most of the
textual mining tools available are not easily applicable to
document-based NoSQL. Even though the data from
document-based NoSQL can be accessed via the browser,
Web crawlers are not a good fit for mining data from this
storage facility. This is because Web crawlers rely on html
tags and attributes to understand contents on the Web while
data retrieved from document-based NoSQL is just text (e.g.,
JSON).
This paper therefore propose and design a data mining
tool for document-based NoSQL systems using the Kalman
filter as the underlying algorithm. Two main aspects of big
data, variety and velocity, are considered in the design of
the tool. The performance of the proposed tool is compared
with well-established frameworks for textual mining such as
Apache Mahout and R.
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International Journal of Services Computing (ISSN 2330-4472)
In summary, the work accomplishes the following in the
area of unstructured data mining in the big data era:




Proposed a data mining framework for DocumentStyle NoSQL
We proved that the Kalman filter algorithm though
used extensively in areas such signal processing can be
used in textual mining of streaming data in documentbased NoSQL systems.
The proposed framework supports topic extraction,
term organization, term classification and term
clustering
In comparison to Apache Mahout and R, the proposed
framework is:
o More accurate when considering data inflow over
some time slots.
o More flexible to adapt to other data sources.
Though not tested in this work, the framework can
process any text or flat database (e.g., XML).
o More scalable to accommodate several data
sources. This is because the framework can access
several data sources via HTTP connection.
o Less scalable than Apache Mahout in terms of the
processing job per time.
In the future, this work can be extended to other areas of
analytics outside topics and terms. Works can also be done
in the areas of re-usable dictionaries, and file organization.
7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Thanks to our industry partners from the Saskatchewan
Health Region, Canada who are the enterprise consumers of
this work.
Final big thanks to Prof. Patrick Huang (University of
Ontario Institute of Technology), Prof. Jia Zhang (Carnegie
Mellon University) and the entire editorial team of the
International Journal of Services Computing (IJSC).
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https://www.ibm.com/developerworks/community/wikis/home?lang=en#!/
wiki/Big%20Data%20University/page/FREE%20ebook%20%20Understanding%20Big%20Data .
Authors
Vol. 2, No. 2, April-June 2014
Richard K. Lomotey is currently pursuing his
Ph.D. in Computer Science at the University of
Saskatchewan, Canada, under the supervision
of Prof. Ralph Deters. He has been actively
researching topics relating to mobile cloud
computing and steps towards faster mobile query and search
in today’s vast data economy (big data).
Prof. Ralph Deters obtained his Ph.D. in
Computer Science (1998) from the Federal
Armed Forces University (Munich). He is
currently a professor in the department of
Computer Science at the University of
Saskatchewan (Canada). His research focusses on mobile
cloud computing and data management in services ecosystems.
Appendix I
Visualization on Hemophilia using our Data Mining Tool
http://hipore.com/ijsc
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