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TM 22532-1e
TM
056-1e
Ice cream glossary
Acacia gum (or Arabic gum) – a vegetable
agitation, pumping or whipping in the freezing
of sodium alginate. Usage rates range from
based stabiliser. An exudate from incisions
process assisted by using certain emulsifiers.
0.10 to 0.20% in ice cream, depending on
made in the bark of acacia trees growing usu-
The structure formed gives structural rigid-
composition. Propylene glycol alginate gives
ally in the warmer regions of the world. Can
ity to ice cream and makes it stiff and dry.
favourable results with HTST mix process-
be used as a stabiliser for ices and sherbets.
Extremes should be avoided to minimise
ing. (1) and (2). Sodium alginate imparts a
(1)
possibility of defects related to “churning”,
relatively short texture to ice cream as well
Acesulfame potassium – a high intensity
“buttering out” or “mix breakdown”. See also
as good melting properties and good storage
sweetener also known as ACESULFAME K.
Fat clusters. (9)
stability. (11)
Where permitted it can be used in full fat,
Aging (or ageing) – a set period of time that
Alitame – an intense sweetener.
reduced fat, low fat and non-fat ice cream. (7)
the refrigerated (below 5°C/41°F) ice cream
Alkali – a metallic base that is quite soluble in
Acid – a substance capable of donating
mix is left to stand after cooling (with minimal
water, e.g., caustic soda or sodium hydroxide.
hydrogen ions. In aqueous solutions an acid
agitation) before the freezing operation takes
The pH of their aqueous solutions is usually
has a pH less than 7, depending on concen-
place. Aging allows fat present to solidify,
above 10.
tration and type of acid. Inorganic acids are
and stabilisers to swell or hydrate more fully
Alkaline – where the pH is greater than 7.
strong acids (e.g., hydrochloric, sulfuric, nitric
thereby increasing the viscosity of the mix.
Ammonia – a pungent, toxic gas that is used
acids) and lie in the low pH range i.e., 0 to 3.
Generally two to four hours is sufficient
as a common refrigerant in most large ice
Organic acids such as acetic, citric and lactic
although high fat mixes may require up to 24
cream factories.
acids are weak acids and have a slightly higher
hours. (1)
Amylaceous – starchy.
pH range, i.e., 3 to 6.
Air – a critical ingredient in ice cream. The
Anhydrous – without water; often applied to
Acid flavour (in ice cream) – is caused by the
amount whipped into frozen desserts is re-
salts without water of crystallisation, or milk
development of an excessive amount of lactic
ferred to as overrun. Good quality ice cream
fat from which all water has been removed.
acid. It can be avoided by using fresh, good
contains a uniformly dispersed number of fine
Anhydrous milk fat, AMF (butter oil) – but-
quality dairy products; prompt, efficient cool-
air cells. The more air present in ice cream,
ter with the moisture and non-fat compo-
ing of the mix; or avoiding prolonged storage
the higher the overrun and the easier it is to
nents removed to allow storage at ambient
of the mix at high storage temperatures. (1)
scoop and bite. Excessive air makes the ice
(unrefrigerated) temperatures.
Aeration – incorporation of air into a
cream light and fluffy.
Annatto – a vegetable based colouring agent
material; e.g., the incorporation of air into ice
Air cell – air is present in ice cream as fine
giving a yellow colour with a pinkish tinge.
cream.
air cells usually coated with fat globules as
Used for colouring butter, cheese and ice
Agar (or agar agar) – a hydrocolloid ex-
agglomerates or clusters.
cream.
tracted from red algae. It is recommended in
Albumin – a naturally occurring protein,
Anti-caking agents – added to powdered
combination with gums or gelatin for use as a
water soluble, coagulated by heat. Found in
foodstuffs to prevent caking, e.g., calcium
stabiliser in sherbets and ices. Agar is difficult
egg white, blood serum and milk. (6)
silicate in baking powder. (2)
to disperse in the mix and tends to produce
Alcohol – usually refers to ethyl alcohol (or
Anti-foaming agents – substances that
a crumbly body. It also has a high cost. Agar
ethanol). Used as a solvent and found in
reduce foaming.
is a galactan, i.e., a complex of galactose units,
alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, spirits). Ethyl
Anti-mould (or mold) agent (or antimy-
and is not digested by man. Agar gels are firm,
alcohol has a marked effect on lowering the
cotics) – substances that inhibit mould
brittle, show syneresis and do not melt in
freezing point of ice cream mixes, such as
growth, e.g., sodium and calcium propionate,
the mouth as the gel melting temperature is
when spirits are incorporated into speciality
sorbic acid, sodium benzoate.
above 85°C (185°F). (1) and (2)
ice cream.
Antioxidants – substances that inhibit the
Agglomeration of butterfat (in ice cream)
Algin, alginates – a vegetable hydrocolloid
development of “oxidised” flavour, often a
– due to coalescing of solid fat globules dur-
extracted from giant ocean kelp. Commercial
troublesome defect in dairy products. Only
ing exposure to high shear, such as in rapid
product seems to consist almost entirely
useful if added before the objectionable fla-
vour develops. e.g., butylated hydroxy anisole
Batch freezer – a small freezer unit in which
consistency. Used principally in confectionery.
(BHA), tocopherol. Usually used in fats or oils
each batch may be measured, flavoured and
(11)
to prevent oxidative rancidity. (1)
coloured separately. Ammonia is the most
Bloom – (I) a mould-like appearance on
Arabic gum – see Acacia gum.
common refrigerant. The dasher can easily be
frozen confections such as water ices due
Artificial cream – see Imitation cream.
removed for cleaning and consists of 2 parts
to sugar drying out on surface. Can be cor-
Artificial sweeteners – chemical substances
– the scraper blades and the beater. Refer also
rected by proper choice of stabiliser and/or
that have a sweet taste at very low concen-
to Continuous freezer. (1)
sweetener blend. (II) In confectionery defined
trations. These are used as sugar substitutes
Batch pasteurisation – pasteurisation by
as a mottled discoloration of confectioners
in low energy foods, e.g., cyclamate, saccharin,
heating in a single tank or vessel. (As opposed
coating preceded by loss of gloss, related to
aspartame, alitame.
to continuous pasteurisation through a series
fat. Common defect in chocolate.
Ascorbic acid – the chemical name for
of heat exchangers).
Bloom test, bloom gelometer – instrument
vitamin C found in many fruits and vegetables.
Beet sugar – sucrose derived from sugar
used for measuring the strength of jellies, and
Deficiency disease is scurvy.
beet. In purified form, it is identical to sucrose
also for any test of firmness. This test is com-
Ash – residue left behind after all the organic
refined from sugar cane.
monly used by gelatin manufacturers to grade
matter has been burned off. Serves as a
Biscuit – baked snack made from flour, sugar
gelatin on the basis of gel strength. (1)
measure of the inorganic salts that were
and shortening. Referred to as a cookie in
Body – term used to describe the weight
present in the original material.
USA.
and substance of the product and the feature
Aspartame – a high intensity sweetener
Bisque – ice cream containing particles of
that enables it to stand up well. Refers to
(peptide). Used in low calorie or no sugar
grapenuts, macaroons, ginger snaps, sponge
consistency (chewiness), firmness, or cohesive
added formulations. (11)
cake or other bakery products and appropri-
properties of ice cream. Common body
Aufait ice cream – two or more layers of
ate flavourings. (1)
defects are crumbly body, dry body, soggy
ice cream with pectinised fruits or preserves
Bitter flavour – results from the use of
body and weak body. (1)
spread thinly between the layers; or the fruits
inferior dairy products or flavourings. May be
Borden flow meter – a flow tube type
may be stirred gently into the ice cream as
prevented by using true extracts and avoiding
viscosity instrument made by Borden Co.,
it comes from the freezer, to give a marbled
use of dairy products stored for long periods
USA. Used to give comparative viscosities of
appearance. (1)
at high temperatures, as certain types of
ice cream mixes. (1)
Autoclave – a pressure cooker or vessel in
bacteria produce bitter flavour under such
Brine – concentrated salt solution (sodium or
which high temperatures can be reached by
conditions. (1)
calcium chloride). (A) An obsolete refrigerant
using high pressure. Sterilisation and shorter
Blast (freezer) tunnel – used for fast harden-
coolant. (1) Now used primarily in small
cooking times are achieved. (2)
ing by utilising an air blast at –34 to –46°C
pilot-scale equipment and novelty immersion
(i.e., –30 to –50°F). (1)
freezing equipment (e.g., RIA, Rollo, Vitaline)
Backpressure – the pressure that builds up
Bleaching – a process for removing the col-
(B) Some cheeses are steeped in brine as
in the ice cream filling line from the ice cream
our from an oil to obtain the more desired,
part of their maturation, e.g., mozzarella.
pump to the filling head.
light-coloured oil.
Brix – an expression of specific gravity giving
Bacteria – microscopic, unicellular life, which
Bleeding – term applied to the settling of the
grams of cane sugar (sucrose) in 100 g solu-
does not contain chlorophyll; mostly 0.5 to 3
sugar syrup to the bottom of the container in
tion at 20°C, i.e., degrees Brix = percent (%)
microns in size. Pathogenic bacteria can cause
sherbets and ices stored in freezer cabinets.
sugar by weight. (2)
disease. Most foodstuffs are pasteurised to
The usual causes are excessive overrun, insuf-
Browning reaction – see Maillard reaction.
destroy these bacteria.
ficient stabiliser, too much sugar (over 32%),
Bulk ice cream – ice cream packaged in large
Balance tank – a tank into which a liquid such
improper balance of sweetener types and
containers purchased by retailers intended
as ice cream mix can be pumped and drawn
temperatures too high in the cabinet. Using
for repacking and served directly to the
off at will. e.g., for bottling or can filling, or
more effective stabiliser or more stabiliser,
consumer in cones or dishes. (1)
transfer to heat exchange equipment.
reducing sugar content and avoiding high
Bulking agents – food ingredients used to
Balanced mix – is one in which the propor-
overruns will aid in preventing this defect.
add bulk or body to ice cream mixes.
tions of the constituents and ingredients will
Also, refers to colour bleeding. (1)
Butter – concentrated milk fat product pre-
produce a fine and generally satisfactory ice
Blending – combination of ingredients into
pared from pasteurised cream by churning or
cream. An ice cream in which the defects,
a homogeneous mixture. Mixing ingredients
an equivalent process. By CFR definition, but-
if any, cannot be further corrected by any
either in dry or liquid form.
ter is made exclusively from milk or cream, or
change in the composition or ingredients of
Block milk – a high solids sweetened
both, with or without common salt, with or
the mix.
condensed milk with a semi-solid, paste-like
without additional colouring matter,
2
and containing not less than 80 percent by
“Caramelised flavour” refers to a cooked
by enzymes, alcohols, heat, various salts and
weight of milk fat, all tolerances having been
flavour defect.
acids at a pH of 4.6. Casein is a complete
allowed for. (14)
Carbohydrates – a substance containing
protein and occurs in milk as a colloidal sus-
Butterfat, milk fat – the fat of milk. It should
carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, such as sugars
pension associated with calcium phosphate.
have a specific gravity of not less than 0.905
(simple carbohydrates), starch (complex
Major role in stabilising air cells and contribut-
at 40°C. (7)
carbohydrate), dextrine. Carbohydrates
ing to the structure of ice cream.
Butter oil – see Anhydrous milk fat.
liberate 4 kcal per gram (or 16 kJoule per
Caseinates – salts of casein, e.g., sodium
Buttermilk – (A) the liquid, rich in lecithin
gram) when oxidised to carbon dioxide and
caseinate, calcium caseinate. More soluble
and other natural surfactants, obtained from
water. Carbohydrates, which are not digested,
forms of casein.
the churning of cream in the making of butter.
include cellulose, pentosans, pectins, agar and
Catalase – enzyme in plants, animals and
In the dry form, it can be used as part milk
alginic acid.
microganisms that splits hydrogen peroxide
solids non-fat in frozen desserts. (B) Cultured
Carbon dioxide – chemical formula CO2.
into water and gaseous oxygen. (2)
grade A milk used for cooking and drinking.
“Dry ice” in solid form. The gas produced
Catalyst – a substance that alters the rate
Buttermilk solids – the dried form of but-
during fermentation, i.e., in beer and bread
of chemical reaction, mostly of use when
termilk.
dough using yeast. A colourless, tasteless,
it accelerates the reaction. All enzymes are
Buttery texture – caused by agglomerates
odourless gas.
proteins, produced by living cells, which react
of milk fat or butter fat large enough to be
Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), cellulose
as catalysts. (2)
easily detected in the mouth. Usually due to
gum – usually in the modified form of sodium
Celiac sprue – celia disease. A condition in
excessive agglomeration of fat of high butter
salt. Prepared from the pure cellulose of
which there is a reaction to gluten that causes
fat mixes. (1)
cotton or wood. Absorbs up to 50 times its
the destruction of the villi in the small intes-
Other possible causes are blunt scraper
weight of water to form a stable colloidal
tine, resulting in malabsorption of nutrients.
blades, insufficient refrigeration capacity, in-
mass. Used as a whipping agent and as an
Cellulose – polysaccharide that forms the
complete homogenisation, incorrect amount
inert food filler in slimming aids. (2) CMC is
supporting cell structure in plants, does not
of emulsifier. (8)
cold water soluble and imparts strong body
occur in animals. Consists of a long chain of
By-products – a general name applied to
and good heat shock resistance to ice cream.
glucose units linked (1-4) by chemical beta
all material other than the desired product
(11)
bonds. Indigestible by man, but useful in
in any manufacturing process, e.g., in dairy
Carcinogen – a substance that produces
providing bulk for intestinal functioning.
industry:
cancer in living tissues. (6)
Cellulose gel– see Microcrystalline cellulose.
Main product
By-product
Cardboard off-flavour – flavour defect usually
Cellulose gum – see Carboxymethyl cellulose.
Cheese
Whey
caused by dissolved metals or by absorbed
Centigrade (Celsius) °C – the temperature
Butter
Buttermilk
odours from the air. They are particularly
scale where O°C (32°F) and 100°C (212°F)
objectionable. (Oxidised flavour).
are based on the melting point of ice and the
C.P. – chemically pure.
Carob bean gum – see Locust bean gum.
boiling point of water, respectively. (4)
Calorie – the unit of heat (or energy) used in
Carotenes – precursor to vitamin A.
Centipoise (cP) – one hundredth (1/100)
nutrition, actually a kilocalorie. The amount of
Carotenes and riboflavin are the major
of a poise. A unit of viscosity measurement.
heat required to raise the temperature of 1
pigments in milk. A yellow-red fat-soluble pig-
Equivalent to 1 mPa/sec.
kg of water from 15°C to 16°C. (2)
ment which gives most of the yellow colour
Cephalin – a phospholipid present in milk as
Candy – sugar confectionery, sweets.
to milk and butter.
part of the natural emulsifying system.
Cane sugar – (sucrose or ordinary table
Carrageenan – a gum extracted from red
Cereal solids – in hydrolysed form can be
sugar) disaccharide extracted from the sugar
seaweed. Occurs mainly as kappa, iota and
used to increase the solids without adding
cane; composed of a glucose and a fructose
lambda types. Carrageenan is used in com-
much sweetness and has little effect on the
unit joined together. (4) See also Sucrose.
bination with other hydrocolloid stabilisers
freezing point.
Caramel – (A) a brown food-grade colouring
and aids in the prevention of wheying-off. (1)
CFR – Code of Federal Regulations.
agent prepared by heating sugar or a mixture
Kappa and Iota forms must be heated to over
Cheesy off-flavour – has a cheese based
of sugars at high temperatures, usually under
70°C/158°F to be effective, interacts with
flavour due to using a tainted dairy product,
pressure with or without the addition of
milk proteins. Kappa types can form gels, e.g.,
e.g., whey solids.
selected inorganic or organic compounds.
creme caramel. Lambda is cold soluble and
Chewy body – characteristic in ice cream
(B) Flavouring used frequently in ice cream.
not gelling.
usually caused by high levels of stabilisation,
(C) Confectionery. Produced by boiling
Casein – the major protein in milk comprises
specific types of stabiliser or a high total solids
together sugar, glucose syrup and sweetened
approximately 80% of the protein. Occurs in
content. Resistance to bite.
condensed milk with a suitable fat. (11)
milk (not all) as calcium caseinate precipitated
3
Chloramines – a class of chemical sanitising
automated programmed system which en-
Coconut oil – vegetable-based fat used in
agents.
sures essential cleaning operations are always
ice cream (where permitted), and mellorines.
Chlorine (Cl) – a gaseous element that is
carried out thoroughly and completely.
In ice cream, hydrogenated coconut fat is
found in biological tissue as the chloride ion
Cleaning – an operation that involves
used as it has the desirable properties of
(Cl). Free Chlorine (Cl2) is used as a sterilising
removal of contaminated material (i.e., dirt).
blandness, low colour and acceptable melting
agent, e.g., in drinking water. (2) Sanitises food
Maintaining equipment in an hygienic condi-
characteristics.
equipment, e.g., hypochloride.
tion.
Cold eating – describes the excessive
Chocolate, chocolate paste, drinking
Clumping or clustering – see Agglomeration
coldness on the palate when some frozen
chocolate, confectioners chocolate, choco-
and Fat clusters.
desserts are consumed. See also Warm eating.
late coating or chocolate powder – is the
Clustering – when a number of things of the
Coliform bacteria – group of aerobic, lactose
product prepared by mixing cocoa paste or
same kind grow closely together, e.g., cluster-
fermenters of which Escherichia Coli is the
soluble cocoa with sugar with or without the
ing of fat globules.
most important member. Many Gram-nega-
addition or subtraction of cocoa fat. (7)
CMC – see Carboxymethyl cellulose.
tive coliforms are not harmful but as they
Chocolate coating – prepared from cocoa
Coagulation – a process whereby soluble
arise from faeces, they are useful as an indica-
fat, sugar and non-fat chocolate solids.
proteins become insoluble; destabilised by
tor for the presence of faecal contamination
Lecithin is usually added to prevent thickening
heat, strong acid, or alkali, metals and various
particularly as a test for water pollution. (2)
on prolonged dipping and prevent brittleness.
other chemicals. (2)
Colloid – fine particles (the disperse phase)
Coatings are usually applied to ice cream
Coalesce – to combine, e.g., two fat globules
suspended in a second medium (the disper-
bars. (1)
combining into one.
sion medium); can be solid, liquid or gas,
Chocolate ice cream – flavoured with cocoa
Coarse ice cream – see also Icy texture.
e.g., fine clay in water. Colloids are classed in
or chocolate. (1)
Texture defect perceived as a roughness
between true solutions and suspensions. (2)
Chocolate – a high-energy food composed
caused by large ice crystals. Indicates that
Colour – different colours are made up of
of sugar, cocoa butter and cocoa solids.
the ice crystals are large or not uniform in
different wavelengths from the narrow visible
Cholesterol – a sterol usually associated with
size. May be controlled by using higher solids
region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The
animal fat, insoluble in water. Milk contains
in mixes, sufficient stabiliser, lower drawing
eye averages mixtures of wavelengths to give
about 0.015% cholesterol (120 to 150ppm).
temperature at the freezer, fast hardening,
a different colour, e.g., red and green produce
(1)
avoiding temperature fluctuation and shorter
yellow.
Churn, churning – process utilising high shear
storage periods.
Commercially dry – the moisture content of
used in butter and ice cream manufacture.
Coatings – outer thin covering usually on
a product as sold.
Also refers to excessive fat agglomeration in
novelties. (11) See Couverture.
Comminuted – finely divided, e.g., chopped
ice cream. Also refers to the item of equip-
Cocoa, cocoa powder or soluble cocoa – is
or minced. (2)
ment used to manufacture either butter or
the powdered product prepared from cocoa
Composition – statement of the level of
ice cream.
paste, whether or not deprived of a portion
major components in a product, e.g., fat, milk
Chymosin – enzyme used in cheese-making
of its fat and whether or not treated with
solids non fat, protein, etc.
to coagulate casein. (11)
alkali or alkaline salt. (7)
Condensed milk – (unsweetened) or
Cis-unsaturated – an isomer in which
Cocoa (caco) bean – is fermented and dried
evaporated milk that has been condensed
hydrogen bonded to carbon atoms attached
whole seeds from the pod of the cocoa tree,
by the evaporation of a portion of its water
by a double bond is on the same side of a
Theo Broma Caco L., native to the Amazon
content and sterilised by heat. (7) Must con-
double bond.
forests. Commercially grown worldwide in
tain 28.0% total milk solids. The sweetened
Citrates – salt derived from citric acid in milk.
tropical rainforests within the 20° latitude of
version, sweetened condensed milk, has sugar
Increases the solubility of casein and gives
the equator.
added and must contain 31% total milk solids
stability to the ice cream mix during heat-
Cocoa butter – the fat occurring in cocoa
and 9.0% milk fat. Filled condensed milk is
treatment and processing. (1)
beans.
prepared using vegetable-based fat. (7)
Citric acid – a tribasic acid, occurs widely
Cocoa nibs or cracked cocoa – is the
Confectionery – candy, sweets.
in nature in fruits, especially citrus fruits. (2)
roasted cocoa bean freed from its shell or
Consistency – refers to textural and rheo-
Added to many foodstuffs, e.g., fruit drinks,
husk, with or without the germ. (7)
logical properties such as viscosity.
confectionery to provide tartness, sorbet and
Cocoa paste – is the product prepared by
Contamination – undesirable incorporation
sherbet.
grinding cocoa nibs and is mainly composed
of bacteria or foreign material into a food
Cleaning in place (CIP) – forced circulation
of cocoa butter. Synonymous with – cocoa
ingredient, equipment, utensils or packaging.
of chemical solution through assembled
mass, caco mass, cocoa slab, cocoa neat work
Continuous ice cream freezer – a freezer
equipment and piping, etc. Usually done by an
and cocoa. (7)
(churn) in which the ingredients (i.e., ice
4
cream mix and air) are fed continually in
to the surface when at rest, or in which the
pressures, long storage at low temperature
and ice cream is continually produced. They
greater part of the milk fat has been concen-
and shrinkage of the ice cream. (1)
consist of horizontal and direct-expansion
trated by mechanical separation. Must contain
Custard ice cream – usually is the same as
types, and are widely used in commercial
at least 35.0% milk fat.
ice cream pudding. More correctly, it is a
production. (1)
Cream, half and half – contains 10.5-18%
cooked mixture of milk and egg that is added
Cooked flavour – caused by over-heating the
milk fat. (US definition, 14)
to the ice cream mix and then frozen. It
mix or using over-heated dairy ingredients.
Cream, heavy – contains not less than 36%
usually contains not less than 1.4% of egg yolk
This defect can be prevented by (A) carefully
milk fat. (US definition, 14)
solids by weight. (10)
controlling the pasteurisation process and (B)
Cream, light – contains 18.0-30.0% milk fat.
Custard powder – a product prepared from
by using ingredients free of cooked flavour.
(US definition, 14)
starch, sugar, (egg yolk solids) and flavour, for
(1) A small degree can be considered as
Cream, light whipping – contains 30-36%
reconstitution in milk by heating to make
desirable.
milk fat. (US definition, 14)
custard sauce.
Corn flour – purified starch from maize,
Cream, thickened – see Thickened cream.
Cyclamate – sodium cyclo hexyl sulphamate.
in USA called corn starch. Used in custard,
Creamy – smooth and rich in consistency,
A non-nutritive intense sweetener, 30 times
blanc-mange and baking powders.
texture or flavour; cream-like.
as sweet as sugar (sucrose) and stable under
Corn oil (or maize oil) – a highly polyun-
Critical control point (CCP) – a raw mate-
heating. Also used as the calcium salt. Useful
saturated, odourless and almost tasteless
rial, location, practice, process or process
in low calorie foods. Sucaryl is the trade
oil obtained from the endosperm of corn
stage at which a hazard may be controlled.
name. (2) Addition to food is prohibited un-
kernels. (7)
Crumbly body – ice cream which lacks
less specifically permitted. (7)
Corn sweeteners – sweeteners derived
cohesion and pulls or breaks apart very easily
from maize or corn. Consist of several types:
- a common defect of sherbets, ices and
D.E. (dextrose equivalent) – a term used to
dextrose, dried corn syrup (or corn syrup
unstabilised ice creams where it is less serious
indicate the degree of hydrolysis of starch
solids), liquid corn syrup (glucose syrup) and
than in ice cream. It is frequently associated
into glucose. It is defined as the total sugar
high fructose corn syrup. All these can be
with a low total solids content, insufficient sta-
content, expressed as dextrose, calculated as
used in ice cream. (1)
bilisation, excessive overrun, low homogenisa-
a percentage of the dry solids content. (2)
Corn syrup – see Glucose syrup.
tion pressure, large air cells and imperfect
Characterising term for glucose solids (corn
Corn syrup solids (CSS) – dried glucose
homogenisation. Incomplete hydration of the
syrup solids). The higher the DE, the more
syrup or glucose syrup solids.
proteins may also cause crumbliness. (1)
sweet and more freezing point depression.
Cottage cheese – a semi-soft cheese pre-
Crystal – glass-like symmetrical structure
Dashers – portion of ice cream freezer that
pared by coagulating skim milk, concentrated
formed when super-saturated solutions of
revolves rapidly within the freezing cylinder.
skim milk, dried skim milk or a mixture of two
pure substances are cooled or seeded, e.g.,
The important core of both batch and con-
or more thereof through the action of starter
sugar crystals.
tinuous freezers. Consists of scraper blades
lactic acid organism cultures, protein coagulat-
Crystallisation – the process of forming
to remove newly formed ice crystals from
ing enzymes, heat or acid or any two or more
crystals. In ice cream, ice crystals present
the barrel surface and a beater to introduce
of them. (7)
should be small and uniform so that the final
air into the ice cream mix. It is important to
Cottonseed oil – the oil derived from
texture is smooth. (1) (Uniformity less critical
have the dasher in proper alignment and the
the seeds of various cultivated species of
than size.)
scraper blade sharp (ground to the proper
Gossypium. (7)
CS – centistoke. Unit of viscosity measure-
angle.) (1)
Counter freezer – a freezer developed in
ment.
Defects (in ice cream) – imperfections, flaws,
1926 in USA used for making soft and hard
Curdled meltdown – indicates high acidity in
faults or conditions that make ice cream
ice cream. Drawing temperature is –3°C
the mix or any other factor that might cause
sub-standard. Main defects are usually due
(26°F) (1) Usually placed on a counter in an
instability of milk protein. Corrected by using
to flavour and/or texture, body, meltdown
ice cream parlour or outlet.
fresh dairy products, maintaining salt balance
appearance. (1)
Couverture – coating or covering.
and avoiding high acid ingredients. (1)
Defrosting – removal of built up ice on
Commonly used on frozen desserts such as
Curdy meltdown – includes finely divided
refrigeration equipment especially from the
ice cream, especially chocolate couvertures.
protein in watery liquid and also a dull, finely
coils. (1) Thawing of a frozen material.
Single novelty items are enrobed with a
wrinkled, scum-like surface on the melted ice
Density (of ice cream mixes) – synonymous
warm liquid couverture that sets upon cool-
cream, due to protein destabilisation caused
with specific gravity (S.G.) measured using a
ing.
by excess acidity, mineral/salt imbalance, heat
hydrometer or gravimetrically or by calcula-
Cream – that portion of milk containing a
shock, use of enzymatic improvers, use of
tion from a formula. S.G. of the mix may vary
concentration of milk fat which has risen
certain stabilisers, excessive homogenisation
from 1.0344 to 1.1232. (1)
5
Deodorisation – process that removes
uct containing a minimum of 90% monoester
Egg white – main (non-yolk) part of egg
from fats the volatile flavour, odour, materials,
(monoglyceride). Distillated monoglycerides
contains ovomycin, albumins, globulins and
reduces free fatty acid content and generally
can stabilise emulsions, improve whippability
glycoproteins. Chief protein of egg white is
improves colour.
and form complexes with starch.
albumen.
Dextrin (or dextrine) – industrial product
Dosage (doseage) – level of addition or
Egg yolk – richest part of the egg containing
prepared from starch by heat treatment
usage level of an ingredient, usually those
most of the fats, lecithin, colouring agents
in the dry state with or without chemicals
used at low levels.
(xanthophyll and carotenoids which gives
added in small amounts. NOTE: The term
Drawing temperature – temperature at
the yellow colour) and fat soluble vitamins A,
dextrine is also used to designate the
which ice cream is drawn from (or exits) the
D and E. Also contains cholesterol. Egg yolk
oligosaccharides resulting from the hydrolytic
freezer. (1)
solids have emulsifier properties and improve
or enzymatic depolymerisation of starch.
Batch freezer
(5) (Used as bulking agents, particularly in
Continuous freezer –5 to –6°C 21 to 22°F
EH – equilibrium humidity.
reduced calorie/fat products.)
Low temp.
Emulsification – the process of forming an
Dextrose – pure D-glucose (crystalline).
continuous freezer
Alternative name for glucose solids, although
Soft serve freezer
–7 to –8°C 18 to 20°F
Emulsifiers (emulsifying agents) – surfactants.
commercially the term “glucose” often refers
Counter freezer
–3°C
Substances which aid the uniform dispersion
to glucose syrup (a mixture of glucose, higher
Dried glucose syrup – solid product, granular
of oil in water and which stabilise emulsions,
sugars and dextrines. (2) Molecular formula
or powdered, obtained by almost complete
e.g., lecithin, glycerol monostearate. (2) Used
C6H12O6, of which several stereoisomers
drying of glucose syrup. (5) See Corn syrup
in ice cream to improve stiffness, dryness,
exist.
solids.
whippability and stand-up properties. In ice
White, crystalline powder, rather less soluble
Drumstick – in USA is a patented ice cream
cream, functionality associated with controlled
in water than sucrose and not as sweet
novelty. Consists of flavoured ice cream in a
destabilisation of the emulsion.
(about 70% sweetness of sucrose). If all the
sugar cone. Usually with chocolate and nuts
Emulsion – an intimate mixture of two im-
sugar in an ice cream mix was dextrose, the
on top.
miscible materials, one being dispersed in the
frozen product would be softer at the same
Dry ice – solid carbon dioxide (CO2), has a
other in the form of fine droplets, e.g., oil in
temperature than ice cream based only on
temperature of –79°C (–110°F); used to re-
water such as salad dressings and milk. They
sucrose.
frigerate foodstuffs in transit; for carbonation
will stay mixed together as long as they are
Diabetes – is characterised by an excessive
of liquids and for cold traps in laboratories.
stirred unless an emulsifying agent is added to
accumulation of glucose in the blood due to
(2)
stabilise the emulsion. (Butter is an emulsion
inadequate insulin production.
Dry solids or dry substance – matter
of water in milk fat). (2)
Diabetic – a person suffering from diabetes.
remaining after all moisture has been evapo-
Energy value – depends upon the food value
Diabetic and dietetic frozen dairy foods
rated.
of the ingredients from which a product is
– are special preparations for persons on
Dryness – term used to describe ice cream
made.
restricted diets. (1)
appearance and mouthfeel. Absence of gloss
Carbohydrates
4 kCal/g
Dietary – relating to diet.
or wetness at extrusion. Dryness (and stiff-
Fat
9 kCal/g
Diglycerides – an emulsifier glyceride con-
ness) is correlated with emulsion stability (fat
Protein
4 kCal/g
taining two fatty acid molecules to one mol-
clumping). (1)
E-numbers – a system for classification of
ecule of glycerol (see monoglycerides). Rarely
Dutch process cocoa – produced by treating
additives to food products adopted by the
used alone, usually with monoglyceride.
the beans with alkali at the time of roasting.
European Community. An E-number shows
Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate – ice cream
A darker, more soluble, fuller-flavoured cocoa
that an additive has been toxicologically
emulsifier. (1)
that leaves no bitter taste when used as
tested and approved, and complies with a
Dipper – ice cream scoop.
flavouring in ice cream.
stringent standard of purity.
Dipping – scooping. The process of dispens-
Dynamic extrusion – 3-dimensional extru-
Enzymes – catalysts produced by living cells.
ing the ice cream from the container using a
sion of ice cream products.
They are responsible for catalysing most of
–3 to –4°C 24 to 26°F
–8 to –9°C 16 to 18°F
the whipping properties of the mix. (1)
emulsion.
26°F
device that measures standard portions. (1)
the reactions carried out in plants and ani-
Disodium phosphate – mineral salt effective
EDTA – ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid.
mals. Composed of proteins and destroyed
in protein stabilisation, helps control the
Sequestering or chelating agent.
by heat and chemicals that coagulate proteins,
churning defect of soft serve ice cream. (1)
EEF – ether extractable fat.
e.g., alpha amylase, lactase; name usually ends
Distilled monoglyceride – distilled monoglyc-
Egg custard – milk that has been thickened
in -ASE. (2)
eride is produced by high vacuum distillation
with egg, heated to a high temperature.
Ergosterol – a sterol associated with milk fat,
of mono-diglycerides, which results in a prod-
precursor of vitamin D. (1)
6
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) – Gram-negative
Farinaceous – containing or consisting of
Fining agents – substances used to clarify
coliform.
flour. (6)
liquids by precipitating and carrying down
Eskimo Pie – (trademark) a chocolate coated
Fat – term used most often for those
suspended matter. Common examples, egg
bar or rounded dome-shaped ice cream,
components in food that are insoluble in
albumin, casein, bentonite, isinglass, gelatin. (2)
either vanilla flavoured or with other flavours,
water and soluble in solvents such as ethyl
Flaky texture – occurs when air cells in
in particular mint. (8)
ether and are actual or potential esters of
ice cream are large and the amount of air
Essential fatty acids (EFA) – collective name
fatty acids. The term includes triglycerides,
(overrun) is excessive. Gives the ice cream
for the two unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic
phospholipids, waxes and sterols, also termed
a flake-like mouthfeel or appearance. Such a
(18 carbon chain, two double bonds) and
lipids. In solid or semi-solid form at room
condition might be more properly noted as
arochidonic (20 carbon chain, four double
temperature called fats, in liquid form called
both fluffy and coarse. It may be corrected by
bonds). Also called polyunsaturates. (2)
oils.
decreasing the overrun, increasing the total
Required for maintenance of healthy condi-
Fat clusters – formed during the whipping
solids or decreasing the amount of emulsifier.
tion in mammals.
and freezing process in ice cream manufac-
(1)
Ethyl alcohol – commonly known as alcohol.
ture. Also called agglomerated fat and tends
Flat flavour – caused by use of insufficient
(See Alcohol).
to reside at the air cell surface thus assisting
flavour, sugar or milk solids, and can be
Ethyl vanillin – synthetic vanilla flavour.
with air incorporation and overrun stability.
remedied by increasing the amount of these
Evaporated milk – see Condensed milk.
(1)
materials. (1)
Evaporated milk differs from condensed
Fat content – the percentage by weight of
Flavour – the taste without the sensations of
milk in that it has received a sterilisation heat
triglycerides in a formulation. Usually the
body and texture. Considered to be the most
treatment and this process imparts a notice-
acid-Gerber method is used for rapid result
important characteristic of dairy products.
able cooked and caramelised colour, which is
and the Rose-Gottlieb method is used as the
Delicate flavours are preferable to harsh
undesirable in most ice cream.
reference when measuring the fat content in
ones. (Combined perception of taste and
Extruded water ice – extruded water ice
ice cream.
aroma.)
novelties can be defined as a sugar and water-
Fatty acids – the fatty acids of milk fat exist
Flocculation – flocculation is an aggregation
based, fruit flavoured frozen dessert with
in combination with glycerol as glycerides.
of dispersed pactiles, forming clusters, which
very fine ice crystals, a smooth texture, fresh
Glycerol molecules combine with fatty acid
behave like large droplets.
and cold-eating properties and clear colours.
molecules according to the reaction – 1
Fluffy texture (in ice cream) – is readily de-
In order to obtain these characteristics, ex-
glycerol + 3 fatty acids = 3 H2O + 1 fat.
tected by the presence of large air cells and
truded water ice novelties are typically made
When the three molecules of fatty acid are
an open texture, and a light body. Corrected
with an overrun of 0% to 15%.
the same, a simple glyceride is formed. When
by decreasing the overrun; increasing the total
Extrusion – expression of ice cream into
the three molecules of fatty acid are not
solids, or decreasing the amount of emulsifier.
controlled shapes, usually at low temperature.
similar, a mixed glyceride is formed. In milk
(1)
Ice cream can be extruded to form shapes
fat the mixed glycerides predominate over
Foam – finely divided gas bubbles in a liquid,
and flavour combinations, e.g., funny face.
the simple. (1) Examples of longer chain fatty
usually floating to the surface. (6)
Special equipment such as extrusion nozzles
acids include stearic, palmitic, oleic. May be
Foamy meltdown (of ice cream) – retention
and hardening tunnels are employed. Even
saturated or unsaturated. (Tricylglycerides is
of excessive air in the melted ice cream. The
highly stabilised (or very cold) water ices can
becoming the fashionable term.)
foamy defect may be corrected by reducing
be extruded. The ice cream must be frozen
FCC – Food Chemicals Codex. Committee
the overrun or reducing the amount of
to a certain stiffness so that it retains its form
body set up to formalise definitions of food
emulsifier or egg products used. (1)
between the time it is extruded until it enters
additives.
Fondant – minute sugar crystals in a satu-
a hardening tunnel. Extruded ice cream is
FDA – Food and Drug Administration (in
rated sugar syrup; used as the creamy filling
drawn from the freezer at –6 to –7°C (20 to
USA).
in chocolates and cookies and for decorating
22°F). (1)
Feed flavour – flavour defect due to the feed
cakes. Prepared by boiling sugar solution
consumed by dairy cattle. (1) (Not significant
with addition of confectioner’s glucose or
°F – degree Fahrenheit.
in ice cream).
an inverting agent and cooling rapidly while
Fahrenheit – temperature scale used in
Filter – device for separating solids or sus-
stirring. (2)
USA. At 32°F (O°C) ice forms and at 212°F
pended particles from liquids. (4)
Food additive – minor functional ingredient
(100°C) water boils.
Filtration – the process of separating a
generally recognised as safe (GRAS) such as
FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of
suspended or colloidal solid from a liquid by
flavourings, stabilisers, emulsifiers, sweeteners
the United Nations.
means of a porous substance through which
and acid materials. (1) Not normally con-
Farina – alternate term for starch. (2)
only the liquid passes. (6)
sumed as a food in its own right.
7
Food colours – approved colourings are
of free fatty acids, hence determination of
is first of all dependent on the amount of
used in ice cream to add appeal. Most
FFA is an index of quality. (2)
dissolved solids. The more solids dissolved (in
colours are of synthetic origin. Colouring so-
Freeze concentration – the concentration of
the genuine solution), the lower the freezing
lutions are usually prepared by dissolving the
ingredients that results from the removal of
point. The sugars produce a lowering of
dry powdered food colours in boiling water.
water in the form of ice.
the freezing point and it is thus the molar
A preservative such as sodium benzoate
Freeze-drying – a method of drying in which
concentration that determines the freezing
should be added at 0.1% if stored in solution.
the material is frozen and a high vacuum
point of the ice cream mix. In order to survey
(1)
applied. The cooling effect of the evaporation
the effect of different products, it is necessary
Food ingredient – foodstuff incorporated
keeps the material frozen while the water
to introduce a factor that are related to the
into food product that could be consumed as
distills off as a vapour. Freeze-dried foods
lowering of the freezing point. This factor is
a food in its own right.
reconstitute rapidly, and show minimum loss
the freezing point depression factor (FPDF).
Food intoxication – illness caused by toxins
of flavour and texture. (2)
Sucrose is chosen as the datum point with a
released by bacteria, not related to infection
Freezer – equipment which can maintain
FPDF of 1.
by the bacteria itself.
perishable food at temperatures well below
French/French custard ice cream – see
Food poisoning – may be due to (I) con-
0°C (32°F). Ice cream should be stored at
Frozen custard.
tamination with harmful bacteria; (II) toxins
temperatures below –18°C (0°F). See also
Freon refrigerants – chemically-dichloro di
released by bacteria, (III) allergic reaction to
batch and continuous freezer.
fluro methine C2C12F2. Also known com-
certain proteins, (IV) chemical contamination.
Freezing (of ice cream mix) – for pure
mercially as F12 and K metic no. 12. It is
(2)
water freezing begins at 0°C (or 32°F). As
non-toxic, odourless, non-inflammable. Main
Food solids – that part of food with all the
ice cream mix contains soluble ingredients
disadvantage is environmentally it causes
water removed. For full fat ice creams, the
such as sugar, glucose syrup, lactose and milk
damage to the ozone layer. (1)
food solids is approximately 40%. (Typical
salts these have the effect of lowering the
Fromage frais – cultured dairy product. The
range 38-42%.)
freezing point. Thus, water in the ice cream
term “fromage frais” (“fresh cheese”) has
Food standard – a detailed description of the
mix starts to freeze at about –3°C (27°F). In
been adopted for marketing reasons since
properties and ingredients of a food, usually
order to freeze more of the mix and form
it has a more exotic and up-market image
as presented by a government regulatory
more ice crystals, the temperature must be
and a more pleasing sound than quarg. (11)
body.
lowered further as the unfrozen solution
Covers a range of soft, spoonable products,
Food value – see Energy value.
portion becomes more concentrated and
usually thicker than yogurt. See Quarg.
Foreign matter – contaminants.
the freezing point is depressed. When the
Frostings – decorations for cakes or pies. Can
Formulation – quantifies the ingredients
temperature is reduced to the new freezing
be based on cream or fat (such as butter)
present, e.g., formulation for standard or plain
point, more water will freeze. (9) During
with sugar, colour and flavour added. (1)
ice cream mix:
this freezing process, air is also whipped into
Frozen custard – similar to ice cream but
10.00%
the mix forming a complex mixture of small
must contain 1.4% (in U.S.A.) egg yolk solids.
Milk solids non fat (MSNF)
11.50%
ice crystals, minute air cells, numerous fat
Also called French ice cream and French
Sugar (sucrose)
10.50%
globules and a continuous matrix of a freeze-
custard ice cream. (9)
Glucose syrup solids
7.00%
concentrated solution containing sugars, salts,
Frozen desserts – encompasses a broad
Stabiliser/emulsifier
0.50%
milk proteins and stabilising gums. (9)
range of products including ice cream, frozen
Flavour
0.10%
Freezing curve (for ice cream) – this curve
custard, water ices, sorbet, sherbet, frozen
Colour
0.10%
shows the amount of water frozen at various
confection. (1)
temperatures. (1)
Frozen puddings – ice cream containing a
Freezing point (of ice cream) – temperature
generous amount of mixed fruits, nut meats
Frappe – an ice made from a mixture of
during cooling at which ice crystals begin to
and raisins with or without liquor, spices or
fruit juices, frozen to a slushy consistency and
form.
eggs. Examples are nesselrode and plum
served as a drink. (1) (In U.S., refers to a milk
Freezing point depression – soluble compo-
puddings. (1)
shake in some regions.)
nents, especially sugars, in an ice cream mix
Frozen yogurt (yoghurt) – a frozen dessert
Free fatty acids (FFA) – fatty acids not
can lower or depress the freezing point to
containing similar ingredients to ice cream
chemically associated with glycerine or not
different extents. Sugars with low molecular
plus live yogurt cultures. Cultures can be
present as glycerides. Fats are esters of
weights will cause the greatest lowering of
added just prior to freezing or yogurt can be
glycerol with three molecules of fatty acids.
freezing point.
added. Normally, it has a titratable acidity of
Under adverse storage conditions, there is
Freezing point depression factor (FPDF)
not more than 0.35%.
some degree of hydrolysis with the liberation
– the freezing point of an ice cream mix
Milk fat
Water
Total
60.39%
100.00%
8
Fructose – (laevulose, levulose) a monosac-
Gel, jel or jelly – an intricate network of large
certain types of gum (pectin, oat gum, etc.)
charide (6 carbon sugar), C6H12O6, differing
molecules in a liquid giving the liquid solid or
(1)
from glucose in containing a ketonic group
semi solid properties. Common gelling agents
Gluten – proteins found in wheat.
(on carbon 2) instead of an aldehydic group
include – gelatin, agar, carrageenan, alginate.
Glycerides – esters of glycerol with fatty
(as in glucose). Combined with glucose in
Gelatine or gelatin – a hot water soluble
acids. As glycerol, possesses three hydroxyl
sucrose, yet fructose is 173% as sweet as
hydrocolloid protein (animal origin) prepared
groups. It can combine with three molecules
sucrose. Fructose rotates polarised light to
from collagen or bones by boiling with water.
of fatty acid to form a triglyceride or simple
the left hence the name laevulose. (2) Also
As a protein, it is of poor nutritive value on
fat (or oil). If all three molecules of fatty acids
known as fruit sugar.
its own, as it lacks tryptophan. (1) An effective
are the same, a simple triglyceride is formed,
Fruit feeder – equipment used in metering
stabiliser. It was one of the first hydrocolloids
e.g., tristearin, triolein. (2) Naturally occurring
fruit pieces, chocolates, nuts and food pieces
used in ice cream.
fats and oils are mixtures of various triglycer-
into ice cream to give a fairly uniform distri-
Gelato (plural gelati) – Italian style ice cream
ides. Mono and diglycerides are employed as
bution. The pieces are injected in the output
characterised by intense flavour, low overrun,
emulsifying agents.
line from the freezer in accurately controlled
low butterfat content (relative to American
Glycerol, glycerine – a trihydric alcohol. A
amounts by means of an auger screw or
ice cream) and served semi-frozen.
clear, colourless, sweet, viscous liquid, made
metering gear wheel.
Genetically modified organism (GMO) – an
from fats (triglycerides) by alkaline hydrolysis
Fruit ice cream – ice cream containing
organism in which the genetic material has
(saponification). Soluble in water or alcohol.
10-15% fruit based on the weight of the mix.
been altered in a way that does not occur
Used as a solvent for flavours, as a humectant
May contain additional fruit flavourings or
naturally by mating and/or natural recombina-
to keep foods moist and in cake batters to
colour. The fruit such as strawberry, apricot
tion.
improve texture and slow down staling. (2)
or pineapple may be fresh, frozen, canned or
Glace – French style ice cream, characterised
Glycerol monooleate (GMO) – a com-
preserved. (1)
by relatively low butterfat content, high den-
mon food emulsifier. Common name for
Fudge – caramel in which crystallisation of
sity, smoothness and intense flavouring.
a monoglyceride in which oleic acid is the
the sugar (graining) is deliberately induced
Glacier freezing tunnel – a trademarked
predominant fatty acid.
by the addition of fondant (saturated syrup
piece of equipment used for the high volume
Glycerol monostearate (GMS) – a com-
containing sugar crystals). (2)
hardening of extruded novelties. (1)
mon food emulsifier. Common name for a
Furcelleran – a hydrocolloid extracted from
Glacier machine – a trademarked piece
monoglyceride in which stearic acid is the
red marine algae. It is quickly soluble in hot
of equipment popularly used for making
predominant fatty acid (about 8%). Used to
(80°C/175°F) water or hot milk products and
extruded ice cream products. (1)
describe mixture of mono and diglycerides
will thicken or gel depending on concentra-
Glucose, D-glucose, dextrose – common
(40-60% mono), or a product in which mono
tion and temperature. (1)
name for D-glucose, grape sugar or blood
has been concentrated to 90%.
sugar. Also used to describe glucose syrup.
Glyceryl mono palmitate (GMP) – emulsifier
Galactose – a monosaccharide (hexose)
(See Glucose syrup.) C6H12O6. A six carbon
commonly used in ice cream. Not derived
similar to D-glucose, differing only in the
sugar (a hexose) widely distributed in plants
from animal source, i.e., vegetable based.
position of the hydroxyl group on carbon
and animals, particularly in compounds as
A monoglyceride or mixture of mono and
four. It occurs mainly linked with D-glucose to
disaccharides, e.g., sucrose and polysaccha-
diglycerides in which palmitic acid is the
form lactose (milk sugar). Galactose is 32% as
rides, e.g., starch, cellulose and glycogen. 74%
predominant fatty acid.
sweet as sucrose. (2)
sweetness of sucrose. (2)
Grainy – an alternative term to “coarse” or
Gallon – unit of measure based on volume.
Glucose syrup (liquid glucose) – clear
“icy” used to describe a rough texture in fro-
1 Imperial Gallon = 4.546 litres
viscous liquid produced from starch by acid
zen desserts. Sometimes used to characterise
(= 10 pounds water at 62°F)
and/or enzymatic hydrolysis. Composition
a product containing particles that are softer
1 U.S. Gallon = 3.785 litres
will vary depending on degree of hydrolysis,
than ice or lactose crystals, such as particles
1 Imperial Gallon = 1.2 U.S. Gallons (2)
starch source, catalyst and processing
of destabilised protein or unhydrated NFDM,
Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) – a
conditions. Graded according to the D.E. or
whey solids or protein concentrates.
method of separating volatile substances. (4)
Dextrose Equivalent. Consists of D-glucose,
Granita (plural granite) – a type of Italian
The volatile material is injected into a column
maltose, maltotriose and higher saccharides
ice that is coarser in texture and often less
containing a liquid absorbent supported
(dextrines). Also known as corn syrup in
intensely flavoured than sorbetto. It is frozen
on an inert solid. An inert gas carries the
U.S.A., starch syrup, confectioner’s glucose
much harder than ices with little whipping or
separated components to a suitable detecting
and liquid glucose. (2)
stirring during the freezing process. (1)
device.
Gluey body – defect in ice cream caused by
GRAS – an acronym used by the USA Food
excessive stabilisation or use of syrups and
and Drug Administration for the phrase
9
Generally Recognized As Safe. Used on food
water ice at a set rate to a set depth at a
fat globules and degree of agglomeration
ingredients or additives to characterise them
precise temperature.
microscopically. (1)
as safe or unsafe. When a substance is found
Hazard analysis critical control point
Homogeniser – equipment and process
to be safe for its intended use in a food prod-
(HACCP) – a systematic approach to the
which consists of a high pressure pump
uct (at a specified dosage) it can be labelled
identification and assessment of hazards and
that forces ice cream mix under high pres-
as GRAS. (1)
risks associated with the manufacture, distri-
sure through a restricting device known
Greasy – oily or slimy. A body defect in ice
bution and use of a particular foodstuff and
as a homogenisation. In that valve the fat
cream in which destabilised fat adheres to
the definition of means for their control.
globules are substantially reduced in size and
the lips and interior surfaces of the mouth,
Heat exchanger – equipment for heating or
dispersed. Two-stage homogenisations have
providing a lingering perception of excessive
cooling liquids rapidly by providing a large
a second homogenising valve in which the
smoothness.
surface area and turbulence for the rapid and
pressure is much lower than the first. In the
Gritty or grittiness – see Sandy.
efficient transfer of heat. Used for continuous
second stage valve clumps of small globules
Guar gum – a complex carbohydrate (galac-
pasteurisation and also for subsequent cool-
resulting from high pressure treatment in the
tomannan) obtained from a legume grown in
ing. (2) See Plate heat exchanger.
first stage will be disrupted. (9)
India and Pakistan. Guar gum is readily soluble
Heat shock stability – the degree to which
Honey – a syrupy liquid manufactured by
in cold solutions and is used as a stabiliser for
ice cream maintains desirable properties dur-
bees from the nectar of flowers. Average
mixes undergoing either HTST or continuous
ing repeated thawing and freezing cycles.
composition: water 18%, invert sugars, i.e.,
pasteurisation. (1) Low cost general stabiliser.
Hexahydric alcohols – sugar alcohols made
glucose and fructose, 74%, sucrose 2%. (2)
Gummy body – a sticky body characteristic
from corn sugar, e.g., sorbitol, mannitol. These
Hydrocolloids – see Stabilisers.
in frozen desserts. Caused by excessive water
have about half the sweetening value of
Hydrogenated glucose syrup – glucose syrup
immobilisation. Also referred to as pasty,
sucrose. They affect the freezing point of ice
that has undergone a hydrogenation reaction.
doughy, gluey. (1)
cream and contribute to the total solids as
Hydrogenation – the process of chemi-
do sugars. (1)
cally adding hydrogen, in the presence of a
Hard frozen – the condition of ice cream at
High cup – ice cream or related product that
catalyst, to double bonds of the fatty acid of a
frozen storage below –18°C (0°F), at which
has a large portion of the product above the
natural fat in most cases to make it plastic or
over 90% of the water is in the form of ice.
rim of the container.
firmer. In addition, hydrogenation retards the
Hardening (of fats and oils) – a chemical
High fructose corn sweetener – a sweetener
development of rancidity of a fat by reducing
process involving hydrogenation, frequently
consisting primarily of fructose and dextrose
its reactivity towards oxygen. Addition of
used to convert liquid fat into hard or plastic
with a small amount of polysaccharides,
hydrogen raises the melting point of a fat,
fats, convert soft fat into harder fats, improve
derived from the hydrolysis and subsequent
converting it generally from a relatively liquid
the resistance of fat or oil to deterioration.
enzymatic conversion of corn starch. (1)
state to a more solid state.
(See also Hydrogenation).
High solids ice cream – ice cream that
Hydrolysis – a cleavage reaction of an ester
Hardening (of ice cream) – the process of
contains more than 41% total solids.
(a glyceride, for example) by water. The end
lowering the temperature of ice cream to
High temperature short time (HTST) – a
products from the hydrolysis of an ester,
the point where enough water is frozen to
pasteurisation treatment that consists of heat-
if complete hydrolysis were to occur, are
create a hard, undippable consistency. The
ing to a temperature of at least 80°C (175°F)
glycerin and free fatty acids.
semi-frozen product is hardened in cold
for at least 25 seconds.
Hygiene – the process of achieving and
rooms maintained at –23 to –29°C (–10 to
Hold-up – the ability of ice cream to retain
maintaining a clean and sanitary condition.
–20°F) and held at this temperature until
its shape even after partial melting of the ice
delivered. (1)
crystals.
Ice confection – a frozen product usually not
Hardening tunnel – used for high volume
Homogenisation – the process of making
dairy-based. Sugar, water, flavour, colour. (7)
freezing, especially smaller packages that can
homogeneous. This is done by reducing the
Ice cream bar – snack-sized ice cream
be hardened in 1 hour. The tunnels utilise an
size of fat particles or globules to a very small
novelty usually coated in chocolate, with or
air blast at –35 to –45°C (–30 to –50°F)
diameter (less than 2 µm). Homogenisation
without a stick, possibly including nuts, biscuit
for fast hardening. (1) Chambers in which ice
provides a more uniform ice cream with a
fragments or a caramel, fruit or nougat strip.
cream is hardened very rapidly by exposure
smoother texture and improved whipping
(1)
to fast moving air at very low temperature.
ability. (1)
Ice cream brick – a bulk form of ice cream
Hardness – hardness is an inferential test,
Homogenisation index (of ice cream mix)
in a rectangular or brick form. The ice cream
measured as the force required using, e.g., a
– gives a measure of the homogenisation
is usually in one, two or more layers, or with
texture analyser, to thrust a probe of known
effectiveness by checking the size of the
fancy centre. (1)
dimensions into a sample of ice cream or
10
Ice cream cabinet – insulated storage units
flavourings, including fruit, stabiliser, emulsifier,
sucrose. It has 130% of the sweetness of
cooled by mechanical refrigeration used in
colour, and containing air. The standard of
sucrose. It is important in the manufacture
retail outlets and operating usually at tem-
identity for ice cream varies by country. For
of sugar confectionery, as the presence
peratures of between –23 to –26°C (or
instance, in the USA, ice cream must contain
of 10-15% of invert sugar prevents the
–10 to –15°F). (1) (Dipping cabinets warmer.)
10.0% milk fat, 20% total milk solids, at least
crystallisation of cane sugar. (2) Used also
Ice cream cake – one or more layers of
1.6 lb./gal of food solids, and weigh at least
as a humectant in confectionery. Acts like
ice cream hardened in cake tins, the sides
4.5 lb./gallon. (14)
dextrose in depressing the freezing point of
and top being covered with a thin layer of
Ice cream, fat free/non-fat – contains less
ice cream. (1) It is sometimes used as an ice
whipped cream that has been flavoured and
than 0.5 grams of total fat per 0.5 cup serv-
cream sweetener.
sweetened after whipping. Decorations are
ing. (US definition, 14)
Iodine value (I.V.) – an expression of the
then applied. (3)
Ice cream, low fat – contains less than 3
degree of unsaturation of an fat. The value re-
Ice cream cone – a popular, edible holder
grams of total fat per 0.5 cup serving. (US
ported is the grams of iodine that reacts with
(cone-shaped) for scooped ice cream made
definition 14)
100 grams of fat under specified conditions.
from a pancake batter. First appeared at the
Ice cream, reduced fat – contains a 25%
The I.V. represents a measure of unsaturation
World’s Fair in St. Louis in 1904.
reduction in total fat from the reference ice
for most fats and oils encountered in the
Ice cream freezer – see Continuous ice cream
cream. (US definition, 14)
food industry. For this reason, it is often used
freezer, Churn.
Ice lolly – see Water ice.
as a guide in evaluating the stability of fat.
Ice cream log – a form of ice cream with a
Ices – frozen confections made from fruit
Normally, the stability increases as the iodine
cylindrical shape and decorated in a fancy
juice, sugar and stabiliser with or without ad-
value decreases. Hydrogenation lowers the
style. (1)
ditional fruit acid, colour, flavouring or water,
iodine value.
Ice cream mix – liquid ice cream preparation
and frozen to the consistency of ice cream.
Isoelectric point (IEP) – proteins and amino
before freezing. It consists of all ingredients of
Usually contains 28-30% sugar, 20-25% over-
acids carry both negative and positive charges
ice cream with the exception of air and some
run and no dairy products. (1)
on their molecules and are therefore called
flavouring materials. (1)
Icy texture – an extremely coarse texture
amphoteric. At a certain degree of acidity,
Ice cream pies – generally a single layer of
caused by the presence of large ice crystals.
depending on the particular protein or amino
ice cream that has been hardened in a pie
(1)
acid, the substance becomes electronically
plate, sometimes with an underlying crust and
IDF – the International Dairy Federation.
neutral, i.e., the isoelectric point. Proteins are
appropriately decorated. (3)
Imitation cream – a product that resembles
usually least soluble and therefore precipi-
Ice cream pudding – an ice cream pudding
cream in appearance but doesn’t meet the
tated from solution at the IEP. (2)
is a fruit ice cream made with an appreciable
standards for cream. Usually made from
Isoionic – the pH at which an amino acid has
amount of egg or egg yolk.
other fats than milk fat, and sometimes
a net charge of zero.
Ice cream sandwich – a slab of ice cream
includes non-dairy sources of protein and
Isomaltose – two molecules of glucose
pressed between cookies, wrapped and
carbohydrates.
joined 1-6’ alpha, as distinct from maltose in
hardened. (1)
Imitation ice cream – products which do
which the bond is 1-4’ alpha. (2)
Ice cream soda – a mixture of carbonated
not meet established standards for ice cream,
Isomers – these are compounds, usually or-
water and scooped ice cream, usually served
such as those made from vegetable fat and
ganic, with the same molecular form but dif-
with some fruit syrup for flavouring. (1)
non-fat milk constituents, or consisting entire-
ferent structures, e.g., the molecular formula
Ice cream tarts – products from vanilla brick
ly of non-dairy sources of fat, carbohydrate
C2H6O can be either ethanol CH3-CH2-OH
cut into eight slices, and again cut in halves
and protein. See also Frozen confection.
or dimethyl ether CH3-O-CH3.
trianglewise. A small dent is made in the
Impulse ice cream – ice cream purchased for
Isotonic – two solutions are iso-osmotic
centre of one triangle and the depression
immediate consumption.
(isosmotic) when they have the same total
filled with some highly coloured fruit; the
Intense sweetener – an alternative term for
osmotic pressure. (2)
second triangle is fitted over this, the sides
artificial sweetener.
Italian ice – similar to an American-type ice in
are smoothed up and the top sprinkled lightly
Interfacial tension – the force operating
composition although it is less tart, less sweet
with bisque crumbs. (3)
at the boundary between substances that
and is normally flavoured with an extract
Ice cream waffles – made in waffle shaped
are not soluble in each other. The addition
flavouring and served in a semi-hard form. (1)
moulds using vanilla ice cream. After harden-
of emulsifiers lowers the interfacial tension
ing the sides are covered with bisque crumbs.
between oil and water allowing it to more
Jam – fruit preserve set to a gel by reaction
(3)
readily form an emulsion.
between acid, pectin and added sugar.
Ice cream – is a popular frozen dessert pre-
Invert sugar – a mixture of glucose and
Jelly crystals – preparation of gelatin, sugar,
pared from dairy foods, sugar, glucose syrup,
fructose (50:50) produced by hydrolysis of
citric acid and flavouring , with or without
11
permitted colouring matter. Used to prepare
Lactones – a class of flavour compound
its activity can create a rancid flavour in dairy
jellies or gelatin-type desserts. Part or all of
formed in milk fat through a non-oxidative
products.
the sugar may be replaced by glucose and
chemical reaction. (2)
Lipids (or lipins) – general term embrac-
part or all of the citric acid may be replaced
Lactose – the only carbohydrate present in
ing fats and oils and waxes, as well as the
by tartaric acid or lactic acid.
milk, also referred to as milk sugar, sugar of
complex compounds, the phosphatides
Jelly – a colloidal suspension that has set; may
milk, lactobiose, 4.8% of milk. A disaccharide
and cerelvosides, i.e., all naturally occurring
be made from gelatin, pectin, agar, starch, car-
that is hydrolysed by acid or the enzyme,
compounds of fatty acids. Also referred to as
rageenan, etc. usually flavoured and coloured.
lactase. It is used pharmaceutically as a tablet
lipides (the term lipoid is obsolete). (2)
(2)
filler and as a medium for growth of micro-
Lipolytic – capable of lipolysis, i.e., splitting fats
Joule – official unit for expressing the energy
organisms. Ordinary lactose is alpha-lactose
forming glycerol and fatty acids. Lipases are
value of foods. Usual term is kiloJoule = 1000
(16% of sweetness of sucrose); if crystallised
lipolytic enzymes.
Joules. This is the preferred term to use in
above 93°C, it is changed to the beta form,
Litesse® – Litesse® is the commercial name
place of calories (see Calorie). 4.2 calories =
which is more soluble and sweeter than the
for the polydextrose produced by Danisco.
1 Joule
alpha form. (2) The crystallisation of lactose
See also Polydextrose.
produces a defect known as sandiness.
Locust bean gum (or carob bean gum) – a
kcal – kilocalorie = calorie = 1000 calories.
Laevulose (levulose) – alternative name for
galactomannan extracted from seeds of the
kg – kilogram = 1000 grams.
fructose. (2)
carob tree grown around the Mediterranean.
kJoule – kiloJoule = kJ = 1000 Joules.
Latent heat – see Sensible heat.
It requires heating to 80°C for complete
Kosher – a food that conforms to Jewish
Lauric acid – one of the intermediate chain
hydration. Commonly used as an ice cream
Dietary Laws.
saturated fatty acids, CH3(CH2)10COOH.
stabiliser.
Koumiss (or Koumyss, Coomys) – a
Occurs in the triglycerides of coconut oil and
Low Joule food – one in which the energy
fermented milk traditionally prepared from
palmkernel oil and to a lesser extent in palm
value is low compared to the standard ver-
mare’s milk.
oil and butter.
sion of food. The use of this term to describe
Lecithin – the principal member of a group
a food is usually regulated by food laws.
Lactase – an enzyme that catalyses the
of fatty substances called phospholipins or
Low temperature extrusion – extrusion of
hydrolysis of lactose (milk sugar) to glucose
phospholipids (also phosphatides) which is
ice cream with very low temperature, –12
and galactose.
the principal emulsifier in naturally secreted
to –18°C (–0.4 to 10.5°F), using a special
Lactic acid organisms – microorganisms
milk and egg yolks. Consists of glycerol, fatty
extruder. This extruder, which is either a single
where metabolism involves the conversion of
acids, phosphoric acid and choline. Helps
or twin screw, is a heat exchanger designed
lactose to lactic acid.
emulsification and prevents bloom; also
for high viscosity materials, low temperature
Lactic acid – the acid produced by the
used as anti-spattering agent in frying fats.
products.
fermentation of milk sugar, responsible for the
Obtained commercially as a by-product
acidity of sour milk and precipitation of the
in the processing of soya beans, rapeseed,
Magma – mixture of sugar syrup and sugar
casein curd in cultured dairy product manu-
peanuts and corn. (2) These compounds
crystals produced during sugar refining. (2)
facture. Used as an acidulant (as well as citric
can be useful as a “natural” emulsifier, either
Maillard reaction – (non-enzymic browning)
and tartaric acids) in sugar confectionery, soft
added in the isolated form or as one of the
the reaction between proteins or amino acids
drinks, pickles and sauces. (2)
components of such ingredients as egg yolk
and sugars which gives a brown coloration.
Lactic ice – Japanese ice with minimum 3%
solids and buttermilk solids.
Malic acid – an organic acid sometimes used
milk solids, no minimum milk fat content
Linoleic acid – an essential, unsaturated fatty
as acidifier in ices and sherbets as an alterna-
(the term lactic used here does not imply a
acid with 18 carbon atoms and two double
tive to citric acid.
cultured milk flavour).
bonds (a diene). Occurs at low level in milk
Malt, malt extract, malt barley – a mixture of
Lactitol – a sugar alcohol derived from
fat. (2)
starch breakdown products containing mainly
lactose. It has the same freezing point depres-
Lipase – an enzyme occurring naturally in
maltose (malt sugar), prepared from barley or
sion effect as sucrose, but is only 0.3 times
milk that catalyses the hydrolysis of fat to
wheat. (2)
as sweet as sucrose with no after taste. Can
glycerol and fatty acids. Has a low specificity
Maltodextrins – partially hydrolysed starch
be used in frozen desserts as alternatives to
and will attack any triglyceride or long chain
usually spray dried. D.E. (dextrose equivalent)
sucrose.
ester. Present in the intestinal juice and in
range from 3 to 20. Used as fillers, bulking
Lacto ice cream – this product is a milk sher-
many seeds and grains. Sometimes responsi-
agents in many foods, low sweetness, bland
bet made from cultured sour milk, buttermilk
ble for the development of rancidity in stored
tasting.
or fermented milk. (1)
foods. (2) Unless inactivated by pasteurisation,
12
Maltol – starch-derived substance with a
Melting characteristics – describes behaviour
Milk shake – beverage prepared by mixing
fragrant, caramel-like odour and bitter-sweet
of ice cream during meltdown. Defect
together milk, ice cream and flavouring under
taste, used as flavour enhancer. (2)
descriptions may include curdiness, foamy,
rapid agitation. Freezer-made milk shakes are
Maltose (or malt sugar) – disaccharide
does not melt and whey leakage. The causes
frozen direct from a sweetened mix usually
derivative of corn starch composed of two
may be lack of aging of the mix, high acid
containing between 3.25 and 6.0% milk fat
molecules of D-glucose joined by 1,4 links.
ingredients, excess stabiliser and emulsifier,
and not less than 9-12% milk solids non fat.
33% the sweetness of sucrose.
excessive overrun, improper homogenising
Milk solids non fat (MSNF) – the term used
Mannitol, mannite or manna sugar – an alco-
temperature or pressure, poor quality
to identify the solids of skim milk. It consists
hol formed by hydrogenation of the hexose
ingredients.
of protein, milk sugar (lactose), minerals and
sugar, mannose, when the terminal - CHO
Melting point – the temperature at which a
water soluble vitamins. High in food value,
group is reduced to - CH2OH. Also extracted
solid, on being heated, changes into a liquid.
is inexpensive and enhances palatability. The
commercially from seaweed (Laminaria). (2)
The melting point depends on both the
lactose adds to the sweetness slightly and the
Mannose – a hexose sugar related to glucose
chemical composition and crystallographic
minerals give a slightly salty taste rounding
but of slightly different chemical configuration.
nature of the solid.
out the flavour. Besides contributing to the
(2) Mannose is found in mannitol and many
Mesophase – opalescent or transparent liquid
flavour, the MSNF contributes to ice cream’s
polysaccharides.
formed by a mixture of surfactant and water.
body and texture. (1)
Maple syrup – the heated and condensed
Mesophiles – microorganisms that grow best
Mineral salts – inorganic compounds which
sap of certain varieties of the maple tree.
at temperatures between 25 and 40°C (77
include citrates and phosphates. These ingre-
Acer saccharinum (USA and Canada). It is
and 104°F), usually will not grow at tempera-
dients are used in limited amounts to control
evaporated either to syrup or finally to sugar.
tures below 5°C. (2)
protein stability. (1)
Contains 62-65% sucrose, 1.5% invert sugar
Metabolism – in general, the chemical proc-
Molasses (treacle) – the uncrystallisable
and characterising flavour compounds. Used
esses occurring within an organism which
syrup obtained on boiling down raw cane or
to provide a distinctive flavour to ice cream.
convert nutrients into energy and by-prod-
beat sugar. (6) It is sometimes used to impart
(2)
ucts essential to life.
its distinctive flavour to ice cream.
Marbling – a special effect in ice cream and
Metallic – a flavour defect caused by copper
Mono and diglycerides – a mixture of
related products where a coloured syrup or
contamination and in some cases may be the
monoglycerides and diglycerides forms. Most
differently coloured product is distributed in
result of bacterial action. (1)
commonly used commercial ice cream emul-
it giving a marbled appearance.
Methyl cellulose – a hydrocolloid derived
sifier. See Glycerol monostearate (GMS).
Marshmallow – a soft sweet made from an
from cellulose fibres by reacting with methyl
Monoglycerides – a glyceride in which
aerated mixture of gelatin or egg albumin
chloride. Soluble in cold water and forms a
one fatty acid molecule is attached to one
with sugar or glucose syrup. Differs from
gel on heating. Used as a whipping agent in
molecule of glycerol. (6)
nougat in containing less glucose and more
sorbets and sherbets.
Monohydrate – term used to indicate that
water. (2)
Microcrystalline cellulose (cellulose gel) – a
each molecule of a substance is associated
Mellorine – term used in US for products
physically modified form of cellulose fibre
with one molecule of water, e.g., dextrose
which are similar to ice cream in which the
useful as a bulking or bodying agent in dairy
monohydrate.
butterfat has been replaced by a suitable
products, especially low fat foods. MCC is
Mono portions – ice cream product, usually
vegetable or animal fat. The vegetable fat
useful in maintaining small ice crystals in ice
catering products, which are made for only
may include coconut, cottonseed, soya bean,
cream. Not soluble in water.
one person.
corn or other plant fat. Must contain at least
Milk – is the lacteal secretion of one or
Monosaccharide – also monosaccharose,
6.0% fat from one or more specified sources,
more healthy cows properly fed and kept,
monose. Group name of the simplest sugars,
and not less than 3.5% protein of biological
except that it must not contain colostrum or
including those composed of three carbon
value at least equivalent to that of whole milk
abnormal constituents. Fat and MSNF level
atoms (trioses), 4 (tetroses), 5 (pentoses), e.g.,
protein. (1) Also known as imitation frozen
differs from country to country, in the USA,
xylose, 6 (hexoses), e.g., glucose, 7 (heptoses).
dessert.
milk must contain 3.25% milk fat and 8.25%
These simple sugars cannot be hydrolysed
Meltdown – term used to describe the
milk solids non fat (14).
into smaller units under reasonably mild
behaviour of ice cream while melting.
Milk fat – see also Butterfat. A fat source for
conditions. (2) Simplest form of sugar.
Important elements include the rate at which
ice cream. Gives ice cream its richness in
Mother liquor – the residual saturated liquor
liquid flows from the portion studied and the
flavour, smooth and creamy texture and pro-
which remains after the crystallisation of a
degree to which shape and surface features
vides air cell stability and body. Best source is
portion of a liquid or solution.
are retained as the ice melts.
fresh cream. (1)
Mould (mold) – (I) fungi that produces
branched filaments, mycelia; reproduce by
13
spores, e.g., penicilium, aspergillus. Used in
fudge; and other ice-like mixtures frozen on
using only stainless steel equipment to avoid
cheese ripening, citric acid manufacture and
sticks. (1)
the catalysing effect of iron and copper; or
antibiotic manufacture. (2) Can grow in high
Nut ice cream – ice cream containing
pasteurising at high temperatures. (1)
sugar ice cream ingredients such as glucose
nutmeats, such as almonds, pecans, pistachio
syrup, jam, etc. Its growth can be inhibited by
nuts or walnuts, with or without additional
“Pancake” defect (in ice cream) – a taffy-
propionates, sorbic acid and carbon dioxide.
flavouring or colour. (1)
like deposit composed of the serum of ice
(II) A specially shaped receptacle into which
Nutrition – the study of foods in relation to
cream at the bottom of the package. Similar
softened ice cream is placed to harden into
the needs of living organisms. (2)
to the bleeding defect in ices and sherbets.
the shape of the mould.
When hardened these so-called pancakes
Mousse – a dessert composed of whipped
Odour – the property of a substance which
are very coarse and unpalatable. Conditions
cream of various fat levels, to which colour,
affects the sense of smell.
favouring this defect are: storage at too high a
flavouring and often a setting agent (e.g., gela-
Off-flavours – flavour characteristics which
temperature, weak body due to an improper
tin) have been added. It can be served frozen
detract from the appeal of ice cream. These
balance of the mix constituents such as a high
or unfrozen. Sometimes condensed milk is
include stale, rancid, tallowy, acid, bitter,
sugar content, low concentration of stabiliser,
added to improve consistency. (1)
cardboard, cheesey, cooked, feed, flat, salty,
particularly carrageenan and low total solids
Mouthfeel – the sensation perceived in the
storage, etc.
content, destabilised milk protein. (1)
mouth due to the body and texture of a
Oil – a mixture of triglycerides which is liquid
p.s.i. – pounds per square inch. A unit of
food.
at relatively low or room temperatures. In
pressure.
Musty – a flavour associated with the use of
food processing, an oil is a natural or proc-
Palmitic acid – a saturated fatty acid. Wax-like
mouldy ingredients.
essed edible triglyceride which is normally
solid. Melting point 64°C. (2), (4), (6)
Mycotoxin – a toxin of fungal origin. (2)
liquid under the existing climatic conditions.
Pantothenic acid – white insoluble solid,
Olarine – in USA (some states), the term
member of the vitamin B complex. (4)
Neapolitan ice cream – two or more distinct
used to describe a low fat mellorine-type
Parfait – a dessert served in a tall glass with
flavours in the same package, usually layered.
product. (1)
alternating layers of ice cream and crushed or
(1)
Oleic acid – a long chain monounsaturated
syrup fruit. Usually decorated with nuts and
New York ice cream – usually plain vanilla
fatty acid with total of 18 carbon atoms per
whipped cream. (1)
with extra colour and may contain extra fat
molecule. Found in most fats; high percentage
Pasteurisation – the exposure of dairy
and eggs. (1)
in human fats and butter. By far the most
products to a prescribed set of time and
Non fat dry milk (NFDM) – also referred to
abundant of the unsaturated acids. (2)
temperature conditions which will kill patho-
as skim milk powder. See also MSNF or Milk
Organoleptic evaluation – the process of
genic bacteria. Partial sterilisation, especially of
solids non fat. (1)
evaluating foods using the various senses. Also
milk; heating to a temperature sufficiently high
Nougat – sweet made from a mixture of
referred to as sensory evaluation. (2)
to kill bacteria, followed by immediate cooling.
gelatin or egg albumin with sugar and glucose
Overrun (in ice cream manufacturing) – the
(2), (4)
syrup and the whole thoroughly aerated. (2)
increase in volume of the ice cream over the
Pasty body – a defect similar to gummy also
Contains less water and air than marshmal-
volume of the mix due to the incorporation
described as sticky or gluey. Caused by exces-
low and so has a firmer texture.
of air. The air is usually incorporated during
sive use of syrups and certain types of soft
Novelties – quiescently frozen dairy confec-
the freezing operation. (1)
gum, pectin, oat gum. (1)
tions and frozen confection. A novelty ice
Oxidase – enzyme found in milk. Oxidises
Pathogenic – causing disease. (4)
cream or frozen confection is a specially
compounds by removing hydrogen and add-
Pectinase – an enzyme that hydrolyses
shaped and usually a low-priced package
ing it to oxygen to form water. (2)
pectins by converting them to pectic acid;
containing an individual serving, the main ap-
Oxidation – a chemical reaction in which
found in fruits. (6)
peal of which consist of its shape, size, colour,
oxygen is added or combined with the react-
Pectins – occur widely as structural elements
or convenience for eating.
ing substance. Oxidation of fats eventually
in plant tissues. The primary source of com-
Novelty (ice cream) – individual portion of
results in development of rancidity, which
mercial pectin ingredients include citrus peel,
quiescently frozen, moulded or extruded
is accompanied by objective flavours and
apple pomace and pressed sugar beet pulp.
dairy and frozen confections, the main appeal
odours.
(11) Pectin consists of polymers of galactose,
of which consists of its shape, size, colour
Oxidised flavour – a strong off-flavour
arabinose and galacturonic acid. (4) It is used
or convenience for eating. Examples include
associated with unsaturated fatty acids. Also
as an ingredient in the syrups and fruits used
candy or chocolate coated ice cream with or
referred to as tallowy or cardboard. It may be
in making aufaits and rippled effects in ice
without sticks, ice cream sandwiches, pop or
avoided by using fresh dairy products,
cream. It is also an effective stabiliser in sorbets, sherbets, water ices and frozen yogurts,
14
but is not usually used as a stabiliser for ice
orbate 80 and sorbitan tristearate is known
milks to combat the adverse effects of the
cream. (1)
as polysorbate 65. A common name for a
gut flora and improve the quality of life. In the
Peroxide value – a chemical characteristic
group of emulsifiers which consist of various
ensuing years, evidence has accumulated for
that reflects quality of edible oil or fat through
types of fatty acids esterified to sorbitol to
the effectiveness of microbial supplements
indicating the degree of oxidation which has
which are attached repeating ethyoxylate
in promoting the health of farm animals
taken place.
units. The predominant polysorbate used in
and thereby improving their performance
Philadelphia ice cream – see New York ice
ice cream is polysorbate 80 - polyethylene
(Marriott & Davidson, 1924; Fuller, 1977;
cream.
(20), sorbitan monooleate. It is very effective
Yakult, 1980; Pollman, 1986; Fuller, 1992).
Phosphatase – an enzyme which is inacti-
in producing dryness and stiffness in ice
Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) – a hydro-
vated by proper pasteurisation. A test for
cream as it exits the freezer, and shape reten-
colloid which is a modified form of alginic acid
its presence is used to verify that proper
tion in the hardened product. Polysorbate 65
extracted from kelp. It is used as a stabiliser in
pasteurisation has taken place. (1)
(polyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate) is less
many frozen desserts including ice cream.
Phosphates – an important group of minerals
frequently used, since its functionality is less
Propylene glycerol ester – a class of com-
which are involved in controlling the stability
than that of polysorbate 80.
pounds comprised of one or two fatty acid
of protein in dairy products. Salts of phos-
Polyunsaturates – fatty acids that contain
units esterified with propylene glycol.
phoric acid, H3PO4, containing the tri-valent
two or more cis methylene interrupted dou-
Proteases or proteinases – a group of
PO43- radical. Phosphate bonds are important
ble bonds per fatty acid chain. Linoleic acid is
enzymes capable of breaking down the
in energy transfer in the body. (2) (6)
an example of a polyunsaturated acid.
structure of proteins through hydrolysis of
Phospholipids – also phosphatides or phos-
Popsicle (or ice pop) – a trademark term
the peptide linkages.
pholipins. Compound lipids which contain
used to refer to a group of frozen dessert
Proteins – essential constituents of all living
phosphoric acid groups and nitrogenous
novelties usually water ices frozen quiescently
cells; distinguished from fats and carbohy-
bases, e.g., lecithins, cephalins. Sometimes
without overrun. Contain sugar, stabiliser, citric
drates in containing nitrogen (approx. 16%).
used as emulsifiers. (2) (4)
acid, flavouring and water. (3)
All proteins are composed of amino acids
Plate heat exchanger (PHE) – equipment
Pre-aeration – the incorporation of air into
joined together by peptide linkages. (2)
used for heating and cooling liquids in which
an ice cream mix, by means of an aerator,
Proteolysis – the hydrolysis of proteins to
the liquid flows between plates exposed on
before the mix enters the ice cream freezer.
component amino acids or peptide units by
the opposite surface to hot or cold materials,
This result in a reduction in the size of the air
alkali, acid or enzymes. (2)
as appropriate. Continuous indirect heating
cells and promote their even distribution in
Psychotrophic bacteria – bacteria capable
and cooling takes place in sections of plates
moulded ice cream.
of surviving and reproducing at refrigeration
clamped together under pressure (sometimes
Premium ice cream – common term for high
temperatures.
called a press). High energy efficiencies can be
quality ice cream. Usually characterised by
Psychrophilic bacteria – bacteria which has
achieved through counterflow design.
high fat content and sometimes less overrun
optimum growth at refrigeration tempera-
Polydextrose – a polymer of dextrose which
than conventional ice cream.
tures.
is only partially metabolised, yielding 1cal/
Press – see Plate heat exchanger.
Punch – punch is an ice in which fruit juices
gram, a characteristic which makes it a desir-
Probiotic – “probiotic” is a word derived
have been reinforced with an alcoholic bever-
able bulking agent in reduced calorie foods.
from the Greek meaning “for life”. It was
age. Often rum flavouring (non-alcoholic)
Polyglycerol ester – a class of compounds
first used in the modern context to describe
is used instead of alcohol. (1) Also a liquid
comprised of two or more polymerised
“organisms which contribute to intestinal mi-
beverage containing a variety of fruit juices
glycerol units, esterified with one or more
crobial balance” by Parker in 1974. Probiotics
and sugar. (3)
fatty acid units.
maintain or enhance the indigenous defense
Polymorphism – the property of fatty acids
mechanisms in the animal without disturbing
Quarg – also known as fromage frais.
and fats, that causes them to solidify in differ-
normal physiological or biochemical functions.
Cultured dairy product obtained by ferment-
ent crystal forms. These crystal forms display
The definition was later revised to “a live
ing milk to a pH of 4.3-4.8 with mixed mild
their own melting point, densities, heat of
microbial feed supplement which beneficially
cheese cultures. The soft-textured yogurt-like
fusion, etc.
affects the host animal by improving its in-
product should have a clean lactic flavour and
Polyols – sugar alcohols such as glycerol,
testinal microbial balance” (Fuller, 1989). This
be mildly acidic. (11)
sorbitol, inositol, etc. Contain more than one
revised definition stressed the need for the
Quiescently frozen – frozen without stirring
hydroxy group. (2)
probiotic to contain live microorganisms. The
or agitation.
Polysorbates – used as ice cream emulsifiers
concept is not a new one. It dates from the
as they give very stiff, dry extrusion. The sorb-
beginning of this century when Metchinkoff
Rainbow frozen desserts – products made
itan monooleate derivative is known as polys-
was advocating the consumption of soured
by carefully mixing multiple coloured ice
15
creams as they are drawn from the freezers
Rheology – the science of behaviour of
in the mouth giving a rough, sandy or gritty
to give a marbled or rainbow-coloured effect
liquids. Study of the deformation and flow of
effect. The sandy defect occurs in frozen des-
when the product is hardened. (1)
matter (4), e.g., elasticity, plasticity, viscosity, etc.
serts when dairy ingredients high in lactose
Rancid, rancidity – in the dairy industry, an
Riboflavin – vitamin B2. Found in most dairy
content such as whey solids are utilised at
off-flavour formed by the hydrolytic release
foods. Range of 0.6-3.0mg per kg. (1)
high levels.
of short chain fatty acids from milk fat. In
Ripples – stabilised sugar syrups, sometimes
Sanitary – having an hygienic condition.
fats and acids, the term refers to off-flavours
containing fruit or confectionery (e.g., choco-
Sanitation – refers to the general level of
created by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty
late, caramel, etc.), in intimate contact with
cleanliness in order to preserve one’s health.
acids. To avoid confusion, the term should be
the ice cream.
Sauces – similar to ripples, but added as
appropriately qualified, e.g., “oxidative” rancid-
Rollo – a trademarked piece of equipment
well-defined layers, often on top or bottom,
ity or “hydrolytic” rancidity.
used for freezing stick novelties. It consists of
of a product.
Recipe – a listing of the identity and amounts
a series of moulds immersed in a cold brine
Scoop – see Dipping. (1) Utensil for removing
of ingredients used to make a particular
tank in a circular configuration with extension
standard-sized, ball-shaped portions of ice
product. See Formulation.
equipment for filling, inserting sticks, removal
cream from a container.
Recombined dairy products – dairy products
of the frozen products and packaging. The
Sensible heat – is associated with merely
which are prepared by reconstituting dry
equipment is produced by Tetra Pak.
reducing the temperature of the ice cream
dairy products in water, with or without the
Rotary ice cream assembly (RIA) – a trade-
mix and latent heat is given out when water
inclusion of vegetable fat or stored dairy fat
marked piece of equipment used for freezing
crystallises to ice without a reduction in
(butter oil, butter, anhydrous milk fat).
stick novelties. It consists of a series of moulds
temperature.
Refrigerant – the medium used indi-
immersed in a cold brine tank in a circular
Sensory evaluation – the observation of the
rectly to cool, freeze or store dairy products.
configuration with extension equipment for
characteristics of a food through the direct
Ammonia is the most commonly used refrig-
filling, inserting sticks, removal of the frozen
application of the human senses and an alter-
erant in dairy plants while freon and similar
products and packaging. The equipment is
native term to “organoleptic evaluation”.
compounds are the refrigerants of choice in
produced by Gram Equipment.
Serum albumin – in dairy products, refers to
small freezing units, trucks, ice cream cabinets,
a component of whey protein.
etc.
Saccharin (saccharine, glucide) – an intense
Serum solids – the solids remaining after
Refrigeration – the process of maintaining a
sweetener, benzoic sulphamide, 550 times
the removal of fat and water from the non
cold temperature in a product. The removal
as sweet as sucrose. Soluble saccharine is
fat solids in ice cream derived from dairy
of heat from a substance and therefore is
the sodium salt. Used in foods as the soluble
ingredients. (9)
concerned with heat exchange (i.e., heat
sodium salt.
Shape retention – the ability of a frozen
transfer). The excess heat in the substance
Saccharometer – type of hydrometer used
dessert product to keep its shape under
being cooled (refrigerated) is transferred
for determining the concentration of sugar
specified conditions.
to a cooler substance which itself becomes
solutions by determining the specific gravity;
Sherbet – a frozen product made from sugar,
heated. The dairy industry uses the term to
usually graduated to read the percentage of
water, colour and flavouring, with or without
mean cooling to temperatures below 4°C
sugar concentration direct. (2) (4)
fruit acid stabiliser and a small amount of milk
(40°F), mainly between 4 and –35°C. (40 and
Saccharose – see Sucrose. (4)
solids added in the form of skim milk, whole
–30°F).
Salmonellae – Genus of bacteria of family
milk, condensed milk or ice cream mix. (1)
Retort – see Autoclave. In canning, a large
Enterobacterioceae. Common cause of food
Shrinkage – a defect in ice cream in which
autoclave for heating sealed cans by su-
poisoning - destroyed by adequate heating.
contents of a filled container lose volume
perheated steam under pressure. (4) Types
(2)
(shrinks) leaving a space at the top and/or
of retorts are: agitating, batch, continuous,
Salt balance – the relative proportion of salts
the sides of the container. Characterised by
hydrostatic, etc.
in dairy products; important in maintaining
a reduction in volume from that occupied by
Reverse osmosis – a process for concentrat-
protein stability.
the product when first packaged.
ing milk solids which uses flow across semi-
Salt – (I) usually refers to sodium chloride
Skim milk – milk from which most or all of
permeable membrane to separate colloidal
(NaCl), i.e., common salt or table salt. (2) (II)
the milk fat has been removed. (12) In the
and non-colloidal components.
Generally refers to a compound of a metal
US, contains less than 0.5% milk fat and at
Rework – surplus product, subsequently
and a non-metal or negative radical which
least 8.25% milk solids non fat. (14)
repasteurised and used as a mix ingredient.
may result from the reaction between acids
Skim milk replacers – products that can be
Rhamnose or rhamose – a methyl pentose
and bases, e.g., sodium citrate.
used as a replacement of the milk solid non
sugar. 33% sweetness of sucrose. Formed by
Sandy – an undesirable defect in ice cream
fat in ice cream. Skim milk replacers available
hydrolysis of glycosides.
caused by lactose crystals which are detected
in liquid condensed form and as powder.
16
Skim milk replacers are concentrated whey
Solid fat index – a number giving the propor-
Specific gravity (SG) – the ratio of the den-
protein products that in the liquid condensed
tions of solid to liquid present in a fat at a
sity of a substance at the temperature under
form have a total solids content of 30% and
given temperature. It is a common expression
consideration to the density of water at the
a protein content of 10%. The powdered ver-
for designating the result obtained from
temperature of its maximum density (4°C).
sions have a protein content between 18%
dilato-metric study.
Numerically equal to the density in grams
and 35%. The protein source is mainly whey
Solids non fat (SNF) – usually refers to the
per cubic centimeter, but is stated as a pure
proteins but some powdered skim milk re-
solids of milk, excluding the fat, i.e., protein,
number, while the density is stated as mass
placers are mixed with 10% to 30% ordinary
lactose and salts. (2)
per unit volume, e.g., gm/ml. (4)
skim milk powder. The lactose level in skim
Solids – see Dry substance or Dry solids or
Split – frozen ice cream centre surrounded
milk replacers is kept at approximately the
Total solids. Matter remaining after all mois-
by water ice. Split ice is also called shell and
same level as that of skim milk powder.
ture has been evaporated.
core ice in some parts of the world.
Slick – see Greasy.
Solvent extractable fat (SEF) – measurement
Spumoni – a combination of vanilla ice cream,
Slimy – see Greasy.
of the amount (in percentage) of fat it is
chocolate ice cream or mousse, cherries and
Smoothies – smoothie-type products origi-
possible to extract from an ice cream with
tutti frutti ice cream or whipped cream com-
nated approximately from 1990 in California.
an organic solvent under specified conditions.
bined with fruits, arranged in a spumoni cup
Although there is no standard of identity
The higher the SEF figure, the more destabi-
and hardened to serve; sometimes classed a
for smoothies, they are typically blended
lised fat in the ice cream.
parfait. (1) Sometimes used to refer to pack-
beverages that have high levels of fruit juices
Sorbet – a water ice with a relatively high
aged ice cream containing several flavours in
and fresh fruit, along with a small amount
fruit juice and sugar content, with an over-
distinct layers, similar to “Neapolitan”.
of yogurt or skim milk. In the US, smoothies
run between 50% and 90%. According to
Stabilisers – hydrocolloids that control the
have a fresh, healthy, natural image.
standard of identity for sorbet in Europe,
mobility of water in foods, by thickening or
Snowy texture – see Fluffy. A flaky open
sorbet should contain minimum 35% of single
gelling. They affect the final texture of foods
texture often associated with high overrun
strength fruit juice or equivalent, except for
by increasing the viscosity. In ice cream, their
and/or large air cells.
citrus fruits where requirement is minimum
major function is to control the growth of ice
Sodium alginate – see Alginates. A vegetable,
15% single strength citrus fruit juice. The high
and sugar crystals.
seaweed-derived stabiliser used in ice cream.
fruit juice content imparts a high flavour level.
Starch (or amylum) – vegetable carbohydrate
(1)
(1)
occurring in granular form in the organs
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose – see
Sorbitan ester – a class of compounds, used
of certain plants and corresponding to a
Carboxymethyl cellulose.
as emulsifiers, resulting from the esterification
polymer composed almost exclusively of
Sodium caseinate – the sodium salt of casein,
of sorbitan with one or more fatty acids.
alpha-D-glucose groups. (5) Starch is a white,
the predominant protein in milk sometimes
Sorbitol – a sugar alcohol formed by the
tasteless, insoluble powder, which on hy-
used to supplement the dairy ingredients of
reduction of D-glucose. It is 60% as sweet as
drolysis (with acid or enzymes) initially gives
ice cream.
sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally in plum, ap-
dextrines, glucose syrup, and finally glucose.
Sodium citrate – see Citrates.
ricot, cherry and apple. It is readily soluble in
All starches usually are mixtures of amylose
Sodium hexametaphosphate – a mineral salt
water. Its effect on freezing point is twice that
and amylopectin.
which when used in liquid dairy products can
of sucrose. Insulin is not used to metabolise
Stearate – salt or ester of stearic acid. (4)
increase fat stability. (1)
sorbitol.
Stearic acid – melting point 69°C (156°F). A
Sodium tetrapyrophosphate – a mineral salt
Soufflé – a sherbet containing egg yolk or
long-chain saturated fatty acid with a total of
which when used in liquid dairy products can
whole eggs. (1)
18 carbon atoms/molecule. Present in most
increase fat stability.
Sour cream – pasteurised cream that is acidi-
animal and vegetable fats.
Soft serve – is a term used to describe a
fied by lactic acid-producing bacteria. Sour
Sterilisation – process of killing or removing
complete category of ice creams and frozen
cream contains not less than 18% milk fat.
all microorganisms present in a food.
desserts. Soft serve products are frozen and
(US definition, 14)
Sticky body – see Gummy body. Caused by
dispensed direct from the freezer to the cus-
Sour flavour (in ice cream) – see also Acid
excessive use of ingredients such as glucose
tomer. The products are normally dispensed
flavour. Caused by the presence of an exces-
syrup or sugar-based syrups and certain types
into either cups or cones.
sive amount of lactic acid produced by the
of gum. Characterised by the product sticking
Soggy body – (opposite to fluffy or snowy
growth of lactic acid bacteria. (1)
to the spoon rather than dipping clean, and
in ice cream.) Associated with a low overrun
Soya protein – a protein extracted from soya
presenting a gummy character in the mouth.
(especially if the total solids content is high).
beans. It is often utilised in non-dairy frozen
Stiffness – the degree of rigidity exhibited by
Ice cream is dense and wet in appearance,
desserts. (1)
ice cream.
usually during melting.
17
Storage off-flavour – stale off-flavour pos-
such as saccharin, sucralose and aspartame.
Tofutti – a registered trademark which refers
sibly absorbed from the surrounding air in
(III) Various other chemicals such as glycerine
in many countries to a non-dairy frozen des-
the hardening room, may result because of
and glycine (70% as sweet as sucrose).
sert containing tofu made in the US.
chemical changes and is particularly objec-
Syneresis – separation of a clear liquid from a
Total solids – the amount of material remain-
tionable. (1)
colloidal system.
ing after all the moisture has been removed
Sucralose – a high intensity sweetener that is
or driven off.
600 times sweeter than sucrose.
Tagatose – a naturally occurring multipurpose
Tragacanth – a gum obtained from shrubs of
Sucrose – the most commonly used
low calorie bulk sweetener derived from
the genus Astragalus. Used as an emulsifying
sweetener in ice cream. Cane sugar or beet
lactose. It has less than half the calories of
agent in pharmaceutical preparations and as
sugar, saccharose (common or table sugar).
sucrose, sweetness around 0.9 and a freezing
a thickener (also used in mayonnaise). (2)
Disaccharide of glucose and fructose. White,
point depression factor of 1.9.
Sometimes used as a stabiliser in sherbets. (1)
sweet, crystalline solids. Melting point 160-
Tallowy off-flavour – a term sometimes used
Rarely used in ice cream.
186°C (320-367°F). Found in sugar cane
to describe oxidised flavours.
Trans fatty acids (TFA) – are naturally
sugar, beet and maple tree syrup. Refined
Tartaric acid – a dibasic organic acid
occurring at low levels in some foods, such
sugar is 99.9% pure. Crude brown sugar is
(dihydroxy succinic acid). A white soluble,
as in meats and milk. However, most TFAs
97% pure. (2) (4) See also Cane sugar.
crystalline solid. Melting point 170°C/338°F.
are formed during the process of partial
Sugar – in general, any sweet soluble
Occurs in fruits, the chief source is grapes;
hydrogenation used during the conversion
monosaccharide or disaccharide (simple
used in preparing lemonade, added to jams
of vegetable oils to margarine and vegetable
carbohydrates, e.g., dextrose, lactose, maltose,
(to increase acidity), in baking powder, and
shortenings. During this process, the naturally
fructose). Does not include artificial sweeten-
effervescent “health salts”. (2) (4)
occurring unsaturated fatty acids are partially
ing agents such as cyclamate, saccharin or
Taste – includes the most important
hydrogenated, resulting in a decrease in
aspartame. When unqualified usually refers to
characteristic of ice cream - flavour - as well
polyunsaturated fatty acids, increase in mono
sucrose or table sugar. (2) (4)
as mouthfeel, body and texture. (1) In the
unsaturated and a slight increase in saturated
Sulphonated alcohols – wetting agents com-
pure sense, refers to sensory perception
fatty acids. Isomerisation of cis to trans forms
monly used in washing/rinsing.
initiating in the mouth - sweet, sour, salty,
can occur during this process. Unsaturated
Sundae – a portion of ice cream over which
bitter. Sometimes more broadly used to
fatty acids naturally exist in cis or trans con-
one or more dressings of syrups, fruits, nuts
describe the overall sensory characteristics of
figurations. Fatty acids in the cis configuration
or other toppings are poured. (3)
a product.
are liquid at room temperature. However,
Super premium – ice cream made from high
Temperature – a measure of the degree of
fatty acids in the trans configuration increase
quality ingredients, characterised by a high
heat in a body, as measured by a thermom-
the melting point of the product.
fat content, high total solids and a very low
eter. More technically it is a measure of the
Triglycerides, triacylglycerides – see
overrun (20-60%).
kinetic energy of the molecules, atoms or ions
Glycerides.
Surface tension – is a force resulting from
of which matter is composed. Measured using
Trans unsaturated – an isomer in which
an attraction between surface molecules of
Celsius, Fahrenheit, Absolute, or Kelvin scales.
hydrogen bonded to carbon atoms attached
a liquid that gives surface film-like properties.
(4) (6)
by a double bond are on opposite sides of a
The greater the attraction between the
Texture – refers to the touch or mouthfeel,
double bond.
molecules, the higher the surface tension.
or the degree of smoothness. (1)
Tutti Frutti – ice cream coloured light pink
Unit of measurement is the dyne. Emulsifiers
Thickened cream – is cream thickened to a
(usually) and containing a mixture of pre-
decrease the surface tension of liquids. (1)
spoonable consistency usually with gelatin or
pared fruits such as cherries, pineapple, raisins
Surfactant, surface active agent – substance
alginate (in Australia). (7)
and nuts. (From the Italian “all fruit”).
that lowers the surface tension. Aids wetting
Thickener – a material that increases the
of powders, e.g., detergents, mono and diglyc-
viscosity of a liquid.
UHT (ultra high temperature) – a form
erides, polyethylene derivatives,
Thixotropy – a rheological term defined as
of pasteurisation using temperatures in the
lecithin, emulsifiers. (2) Materials which have a
the increase in fluidity (or decrease of viscos-
range of 135 to 140°C (275-285°F) for a
strong influence on the surface or interfacial
ity) with increased stirring (rate of shear), also
few seconds. The product is often packaged
tension of liquids and air.
referred to as “shear thinning”.
aseptically to maximise shelf life and stored at
Sweeteners or sweetening agents – these
Tiramisu – Italian dessert made with the
ambient temperature. This form of pasteurisa-
fall into three groups: (I) Sugars, such as
Italian sweet wine Marsala and Mascapone
tion extends the shelf life for products not
sucrose (100%), fructose (173%), glucose
cheese.
packaged aseptically.
(74%), maltose (35%) and lactose (16%). (II)
Tofu – a curd mass consisting of coagulated
Ultrafiltration – the process of concentrating
Synthetic (artificial) non-nutritive sweeteners,
soya protein which is a food staple.
milk solids by passing a fluid dairy product
18
through a membrane that separates the
and whose absence results in deficiency
Whey protein – that proportion of the milk
components on the basis of their particle size.
diseases. Ice cream is a good source of vita-
protein system which is not coagulated by
Unclean off-flavour – a flavour defect result-
mins such as vitamin A, thiamine (vitamin B1),
the manufacture of cheese, or casein and
ing from the use of poor quality or spoiled
riboflavin (vitamin B2), vitamin B6 and niacin.
which therefore remains in the whey when it
ingredients, absorbed from an unclean envi-
Volatility – the degree to which liquids va-
is separated from the curd.
ronment, or from the use of ice cream mix
porise under any given set of conditions. The
Whey solids – the dried solids of whey used
that has undergone microbiological spoilage.
greater the rate of evaporation, the greater
as a low cost source of milk solids non fat
Unnatural flavour (in ice cream) – a defect
the volatility.
(MSNF) in ice cream. They are often used in
found when the flavour of the product is
Votator – scraped surface heat exchanger.
economy ice cream. Usually whey solids are
one not associated with the flavour declared.
not used at levels of over 25% of the MSNF
Usually caused by the use of imitation or
Waffle – consumed with ice cream and syrup
in ice cream to avoid any problems possibly
synthetic flavouring material. Medicinal flavour
such as maple syrup and/or butter. A flour-
caused by its high lactose content or flavour
in cherry flavoured products is an example.
based batter baked between heated plates
profile. Sweet whey has a pH of 5.9 to 6.3.
Unsaturation – the property a fatty acid (e.g.,
that impart a characteristic grid pattern.
Acid whey has a pH of 4.3-4.6. (1)
in fat, oil or mono-diglycerides) if the hydro-
Warm eating – a term to describe the sensa-
Wheying-off – the drainage of whey or
carbon chain of the fatty acid contains one or
tion on the palate when a frozen dessert is
serum from ice cream mix or ice cream, usu-
more double bonds between carbon atoms.
consumed. Pleasant, not too cold or refresh-
ally caused by instability in the protein system.
ing as experienced with cold eating. See also
Whipped cream – cream with a fat content
Vacreation – a process for the pasteurisation
Cold eating.
between 30% and 40% that is aerated by
of ice cream mixes by heat treatment under
Water ice – frozen desserts composed of
either mechanical whipping or by the release
reduced pressure (1-3 seconds, at 90°C
sugar(s), fruit solids or fruit juice usually fla-
of a compressed gas.
or 194°F). Also assists in removing volatile
voured, stabilised, coloured and acidified with
flavours. Extensively used to pasteurise cream.
food acids (except for chocolate, etc.) (1)
Xanthan gum – a high molecular weight
(1)
Water soluble gums – see Stabilisers.
polysccaride gum produced by a pure-culture
Vanilla – a flavouring extracted from the fer-
Weak body – an undesirable defect in ice
fermentation of a carbohydrate by a bacteria
mented fruit of one or more varieties of an
cream due to a low total solids content
called Xanthomonas campestris. Functions
orchid, Vanilla planifolia. It is the most popular
combined with insufficient stabilisation and
include: thickening, stabilising, emulsifying
flavour for ice cream. The principal flavour-
results in a thin mix - a mix of weak consist-
and foaming. Xanthan gum can be used as a
ing component is vanillin. The flavouring is
ency. Also lacks firmness or chewiness and is
stabiliser in ice cream.
available as pure vanilla (true), reinforced
accompanied by rapid melting.
Xylose – a five-carbon sugar (pentose).
vanilla with vanillin (compound), and imitation
Wetting agent – a substance that lowers the
Found in plant tissues often as complex
(artificial or synthetic vanillin).
surface tension of a liquid, e.g., detergent. (4)
polysaccharides, i.e., xylan, pentosans, etc.,
Vegetable fat – includes purified and proc-
Surfactant.
40% sweetness of sucrose. (2), (6)
essed edible fats from coconut, cottonseed,
Whey – the portion of dairy products
Xylitol – a sugar alcohol made from xylan
soya bean, corn and other plants. When mak-
remaining after removal of the casein from
hemicellulose sources such as birch and
ing imitation ice cream vegetable fat is usually
dairy products. Composed of mostly water,
other hardwoods. The hemicellulose is
hydrogenated.
lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Whey is
hydrolysed to produce D-xylose, which is
Viscosity – a measure of the resistance of a
removed in cheese making.
then hydrogenated to produce xylitol. Xylitol
liquid to flow. In ice cream mixes, a certain
Whey leakage defect (in ice cream) – ob-
is also widely found in nature, in fruits and
viscosity is essential for whipping and reten-
served during the melting of ice cream when
vegetables, and indeed the human body itself
tion of air. Ice cream mix ranges in viscosity
the mix is of poor quality or if the mix is
produces xylitol. Xylitol is the sweetest of all
from about 50 to 300 cps. (1)
improperly balanced or stabilised. (1)
polyols, with a sweetness equal to that of su-
Vitaline – a trademarked piece of equipment
Whey protein concentrate – an ingredient
crose, and in crystalline form it has a pleasant
used for freezing stick novelties. It consists
derived from whey in which the level of whey
cooling effect, which is far more pronounced
of a series of moulds on a continuous chain
protein has been increased by the removal
than that of sorbitol. It has a freezing point
immersed in a cold brine tank in a linear
of lactose and minerals by a process such as
depression factor of 2.25.
configuration with extension equipment for
ultrafiltration or reverse osmosis.
filling, inserting sticks, coating, removal of the
Whey protein isolate – a material consisting
Yeast – unicellular microorganism of the
frozen product and packaging.
of one or more specific proteins recovered
fungi group. Useful in brewing, baking and
Vitamin – essential dietary factors that are
from whey.
winemaking. Also in production of fermented
required by an organism in small amounts
milk liquors like koumis, kefir. Yeast can spoil
19
ice cream fruit and syrup ingredients. Most
REFERENCES
yeast is destroyed by heating to over 60°C
1. Arbuckle, “Ice Cream” 1986, 4th Edition.
(140°F).
2. Dictionary of Nutrition and Food
Yeast flavour (in ice cream) – a defect
Technology, by A.E. Bender.
caused by use of syrup that has begun to
3. Dairy Handbook and Dictionary, J.H.
ferment. (1) Due to the activity of yeast, or
Frandsen (1958).
any other ingredient in which significant yeast
4. A Dictionary of Science, by E.B. Uvarov,
activity has occurred.
Dr. Chapman and A. Isaacs.
Yogurt (yoghurt) – a name of Turkish
5. International Standardization of Terms and
origin for a fermented milk of the lactic
Definitions Associated with Starch, Die Starke.
acid type. Cultures used in making yogurt
6. Hack’s Chemical Dictionary, by J. Grant.
usually contain Streptococcus thermophilus
7. Australian Food Standards Code, July 1992,
and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and sometimes
National Food Authority.
Lactobacillus bifidus. (10)
8. “Ice Cream”, by K.A. Hyde and J. Rothwell.
9. Commercial Ice Cream and Other Frozen
Zabaglione – dessert cream mousse, consist-
Desserts by Philip G. Keeney, Churchill
ing of egg yolks, white wine or marsala and
Livingston, 1973.
sugar, which are whisked together in the top
10. Modern Dairy Products, by L.M. Lampert
of a double boiler over boiling water until
(1975).
thick and foamy.
11. The Technology of Dairy Products, by R.
Zahn cup – a device for measuring liquid
Early (1992).
dairy product viscosity. It consists of a round
12. Ice Cream Course Notes, Germantown.
bottom cup with an aperture of variable
13. Dairy Handbook, Alfa Laval.
standardised size at the bottom. Viscosity is
14. US Code of Federal Regulations, 21
expressed as the time (usually in seconds)
(1996).
required for the liquid being tested to drain
from the cup at a specified temperature. The
device is available with aperatures of several
sizes, identified by number - Zahn No. 1, Zahn
No. 2, etc.
The information contained in this publication is based on our own research and development
work and is to the best of our knowledge reliable. Users should, however, conduct their own
test to determine the suitability of our products for their own specific purposes. Statements
contained herein should not be considered as a warranty of any kind,
expressed or implied, and no liability is accepted for the infringement of any patents.
11.03
Danisco A/S
Edwin Rahrs Vej 38
DK-8220 Brabrand, Denmark
Telephone: +45 89 43 50 00
Telefax: +45 86 25 10 77
[email protected]
www.danisco.com