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The Effects of Climate Change on
Advanced Ecology
Climate change alone is expected to threaten with
extinction approximately one quarter or more of all
species on land by the year 2050, surpassing even
habitat loss as the biggest threat to life on land.
Species in the oceans and in fresh water are also at
great risk from climate change, especially those that
live in ecosystems like coral reefs that are highly
sensitive to warming temperatures, but the full extent
of that risk has not yet been calculated.
IPCC Climate Change Predictions
The average temperature of the Earth’s surface
during the peak of the last Ice Age, 20,000
years ago, when large areas of North America,
northern Europe and northern Asia were
under a sheet of ice 2 miles and more thick,
was only about 6 degrees C. cooler than it is
Review of Biomes
Plant and Animal Responses to Climate Change
Phenological Changes and Disequilibria
Facilitation of Biological Invasions
Alteration of Migratory Habitats
Changing Human Pressures
Responding to Climate Change