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Nutritional Care of Older Adults Laurie B. Steenwyk M.Ed, RD, LDN Class Overview Assessing Nutritional Status Nutritional Needs of the Elderly Nutrition Interventions Eating Lifestyles Meal planning for optimal health Assessing Nutritional Status Factors Impacting Nutritional Status in the Elderly Assessing Weight Status BMI Percent Weight Loss (unintended) <23 considered underweight >65 yrs >5% in 1 month (quadruples risk of death) > 7.5% in 3 months >10% in 6 months Cachexia Severe wasting accompanying diseases such as cancer Mini Nutrition Assessment 6 question screening tool Complete in <5 minutes Validated for age >65 More sensitive than BMI Available at: http://www.mnaelderly.com/ Sarcopenia Sarcopenia Loss of skeletal muscle associated with aging Affects 8-40% of adults >60 yrs 50% of adults >75 yrs Sarcopenic Obesity Coexisting loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with excess body fat Nutritional Needs of the Elderly Energy Energy (calorie) needs decrease with age, mostly due to decreased physical activity LBM declines with age and influences energy needs Protein and vitamin/mineral needs remain the same or increase Challenge: adequate micronutrients within caloric requirement Nutrients of Concern Risk for deficiency with age Water Fiber Protein Calcium and Vitamin D Vitamin B12 Vitamin C and E – antioxidants Water Dehydration is a form of malnutrition Kidneys’ decreased ability to concentrate urine Adverse effects of medication Mobility disorders Fear of incontinence 25-30 mL/kg actual body wt Fiber Fiber Goals for adults over 50: Insoluble: Tough, fibrous plant material that does NOT absorb water Men: 30 g per day Women: 21 g per day Most grains and vegetables Soluble: Plant fibers capable of absorbing water and become gummy or gel-like Oats, fruit, legumes, pectin, inulin, psyllium Sources of Fiber Oats Barley Wheat Quinoa Flax Brown Rice Bran Legumes Seeds Fruits Vegetables Protein Muscle mass (LBM) decreases 15% per decade after age 70 Needs increase with illness, injury Surgery, wounds, CHF, COPD, Cancer Optimal intake: 25-30 gm/meal Even distribution most effective in preventing muscle loss during illness 1-1.6 gm/kg IBW may prevent sarcopenia PROTEIN Sources: Animal Proteins Dairy Milk, Cheese, Yogurt, Cottage Cheese… Legumes and Nuts Egg, Turkey, Fish, Beef… Black Beans, Red Beans, Lentils, Walnuts… Some from grains/breads/plants Quinoa, Greens, Broccoli, Oats, Pasta… Vitamin D 800 IU >70 years Safe upper limit 4000 IU Supplements are recommended for older adults Sources Fortified milk Fatty fish, fish oil Liver Egg yolk Some enriched beverages Exposure to sunshine during Spring, Summer, early Fall Calcium 1000 mg Men <70 years 1200 mg Men >70 1200 mg Women >50 Safe upper limit 2000 mg/day A large recent study suggests that calcium supplements don’t prevent hip fractures Calcium Dairy Sources 1 cup milk – 300 mg 4 oz yogurt – 200 mg 1 oz cheese – 200 mg ½ cup cottage cheese – 65 mg ¼ cup ricotta cheese 200 mg Non-Dairy Calcium Sources 1 cup Calcium fortified orange or apple juice (240 mg) Enriched, GF almond, soy or rice milk – 300 mg 3 oz Sardines – 370 mg 3 oz Canned Salmon w/ bones – 180 mg Almonds ½ cup Broccoli (90 mg) 2 oz Tofu (made w/ calcium sulfate Firm Tofu (385 mg) Regular Tofu (200 mg) 1 T Blackstrap Molasses – 135 mg 1 T Tahini – 65 mg Other Nutrients in Bone Health Vitamin K Manganese Leafy greens, broccoli, soybean oil Spinach, peanuts, almonds, brown rice, green tea Excesses of sodium, protein and phosphorus decrease calcium availability. Vitamin B-12 6-15% of older adults are deficient Another 20% have marginal status Compromised absorption Pernicious anemia Lack of intrinsic factor Atrophic gastritis Long-term use of PPIs Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Symptoms Folate Deficiency Numbness, tingling of arms, legs Difficulty walking Memory loss Disorientation Dementia Sore tongue Poor appetite Constipation Possibly depression Sources Meat Poultry Fish Dairy Products Supplement Recs: Adults 2.4 mcg/day >50 yrs should take supplement >65 yrs 100-400 mcg/day Anti-Oxidants (C and E) Vitamin C RDI 75 mg females and 90 mg males 400 mg may be beneficial to older adults UL is 2,000 mg The role of antioxidants in macular degeneration and dementia is unclear Vitamin E RDI: 15 mg for adults UL is 1000 mg Supplements can increase risk of bleeding in patients on anti-coagulant therapy Sources: oils, nuts, peanuts, avocado Nutritional Interventions Increasing Calories 5-6 small meals/between meal snacks Calorically dense foods Drink calories Nut butters, dried fruits, fruit purees, starchy vegetables, legumes, cheese, yogurt Milk, juice, smoothies, soups Increase fats butter, sour cream, cream cheese, oils, mayonnaise, avocado Oral Nutrition Supplements Use 1.5 -2.0 cal/mL Ensure Plus, Ensure Clinical Strength, TwoCal, Boost Plus, etc Serve 3-4 oz portions several times Use as a “med pass” Dilute with whole milk or serve frozen to reduce sweetness Encourage 1 sip every 5 minutes to reduce early satiety Texture Meats: chopped, ground, pureed Use puree molds or small colorful dishes Piping soft foods, garnish with sauce Cut hard fruits, vegetables into bite sized pieces Finger foods work well with dementia or severe arthritis The Dining Experience Buffet service, family style service Encourage selection Avoid social isolation Music Aroma Appearance and presentation Home Meals Financial limits Eggs, peanut butter, canned beans, tuna, turkey, frozen veggies, rice Limited cooking ability Weight Watchers, Healthy Choice, Kashi Meals Precut fruits and veggies Prepared soups, crackers, whole grain bread, bagels, quick oatmeal, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, frozen veggies, bananas, grapes, hummus Appetite Stimulants Limited evidence of effectiveness in the elderly Megace Remeron Eldertonic Marinol Periactin Oxandrin Eating Lifestyles The Mediterranean Diet The DASH Diet The New American Plate MyPlate for Older Adults 2009 Version Fruits, Vegetables, grains, olive oil, beans, nuts and seeds are grouped together at the base Herbs and Spices are added at base Fish is promoted over poultry and dairy Benefits 9% decrease in overall mortality 9% decrease in death from cardiovascular disease 6% decrease in death from cancer 13% decrease in incidence of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s Disease Safi, F. et al, Adherence to Mediteranean Diet and Health Status: Meta-analysis. British Journal of Medicine, 2008: 337:a1344. Key Mediterranean Principles Generous amounts of fruits and vegetables Healthy fats: olive oil Small portions of nuts Red wine in moderation, for some Very little red meat Fish on a regular basis DASH Diet Pyramid Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DASH Benefits Reduces blood pressure, especially in older adults. Also protective against Osteoporosis Cancer Heart Disease Heart Failure Stroke Diabetes Key DASH Principles Limits sodium to <2300 or <1500 mg/day Generous amounts of fruits & vegetables Whole Grains Emphasizes low fat dairy Monounsaturated Fats <27% of calories from fat Legumes, nuts or seeds daily Lean protein: fish, poultry, soy products High in calcium, potassium and magnesium New American Plate Proportions: 2/3 plate should be plant based Whole grain Vegetables Fruit Legumes 1/3 from protein Fish Lean Beef Poultry Dairy 1/3 2007 Expert Report on Cancer Prevention Joint effort of AICR and World Cancer Research Fund 7000 global scientific studies reviewed 10 lifestyle recommendations for cancer prevention Diet Recommendations Limit sugary drinks and energy dense foods Eat more of a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes Limit red meat and processed meats Limit salt and foods processed with sodium MyPlate for Older Adults MyPlate for Older Adults Bright-colored vegetables such as carrots and broccoli. Deep-colored fruit such as berries and peaches. Whole, enriched and fortified grains and cereals such as brown rice and 100% whole wheat bread. Low- and non-fat dairy products such as yogurt and low-lactose milk. Dry beans and nuts, fish, poultry, lean meat and eggs. Liquid vegetable oils, soft spreads low in saturated and trans fat, and spices to replace salt. Fluids such as water and fat-free milk. Physical activity such as walking, resistance training and light cleaning. http://now.tufts.edu/news-releases/tufts-universitynutrition-scientists-unveil- Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center http://fnic.nal.usda.gov/lifecyclenutrition/aging Tufts Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging http://hnrca.tufts.edu/ Resources DASH Eating Plan Booklet, free on the web: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/new _dash.pdf Mayo Clinic http://www.mayoclinic.com Use their search engine and type in “DASH Diet” or “Mediterranean Diet” to view numerous consumer friendly articles. Oldways: Mediterranean diet info http://www.oldwayspt.org/med_pyramid.html Resources AICR: The New American Plate Printable brochures, Cookbook, recipes http://www.aicr.org/site/PageServer?pagename=reduce_diet_ new_american_plate Linus Pauling Institute micronutrient information center http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/ Questions???