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Statistical Information
The Examiners' Report may refer in general terms to statistical outcomes. Statistical
information on candidates' performances in all examination components (whether internally
or externally assessed) is provided when results are issued. As well as the marks achieved
by individual candidates, the following information can be obtained from these printouts:
For each component: the maximum mark, aggregation factor, mean mark and standard
deviation of marks obtained by all candidates entered for the examination.
For the subject or option: the total entry and the lowest mark needed for the award of each
Annual Statistical Report
Other information on a centre basis is provided when results are issued. The annual
Statistical Report (issued in the second half of the Autumn Term) gives overall outcomes of
all examinations administered by WJEC.
General Certificate of Secondary Education 2010
Chief Examiner:
Judy Gardiner, Educational Consultant
Principal Moderator:
Jean Batchelor, Yardleys Science College,
16122 candidates from 650 centres completed the examination.
The mean mark, out of a possible 200, was:
Foundation Tier:
Higher Tier:
The cumulative percentage pass rates at each grade were:
Option 01 Foundation Tier
Option 02 Higher Tier
Total Mark
Total Mark
The cumulative percentage pass rate overall at each grade was:
A* − 2.8; A − 14.9; B − 40.3; C – 62.6; D – 82.8; E – 93.4; F – 97.2; G – 99.0.
Theory Paper
General Certificate of Secondary Education 2010
Note: This is the final time candidates will be entered for this examination.
Foundation Tier (Grades G – C)
Generally there was a good response to this question and most candidates earned 2
or 3 marks. Many did not know that cheese does not contain dietary fibre.
Many gained full marks for this question although some thought that an hors
d’oeuvre was a puff pastry case and that a vol au vent was a cold starter to a meal.
This question was generally well answered with most candidates gaining at least 2
marks. However, many candidates incorrectly stated that a Chef’s jacket was to
protect clothes. The correct response was to provide extra protection from heat and
could be changed when dirty because most are white in colour so dirt could be seen.
Many candidates incorrectly stated that a neckerchief was to make the chef ‘look
Many candidates gained at least 5 marks for this question. If points were lost they
were in sections b) and c). The majority thought incorrectly that chocolate could be a
filling in a Swiss roll and many also thought ice cream or custard would be suitable.
Most candidates knew two other methods of cake making although some did not
read the question correctly and repeated the ‘whisking method’ as one of their
A well answered question.
Hygiene rules were well covered with most knowing that washing hands, tying
back hair, having short, clean nails and wearing the correct uniform was an
essential part of being hygienic. Some incorrectly gave food hygiene rules
instead of personal hygiene rules.
Most candidates knew that they had to report to the supervisor and go home
if they felt sick at work but very few included the fact that they needed
medical advice or clearance before returning to work.
Generally this question was not well answered.
Most candidates gave at least one correct answer stating why barbecuing
was popular. They indicated it was a quick method of cooking and enhanced
the flavour of food. Many thought incorrectly it was an ‘easy’ method of
cooking and failed to gain a mark.
The question on safety rules for barbecuing was poorly answered. Many
candidates gave ‘food safety’ rules. Possible correct answers included the
wearing of protective clothes, the use of correct tools e.g. tongs, for handling
hot foods, placing the barbecue on a level surface, never leaving the
barbecue unattended and keeping children and pets away.
Very few candidates were able to discuss the main points to consider when
choosing foods for a barbecue and failed to give valid reasons or examples.
The points they could have mentioned included selecting expensive cuts of
meat as cooking time is short, selecting small thin items that cook quickly,
serving plenty of accompaniments, using marinades to improve the flavour
and catering for all tastes and diets. Food examples, when mentioned, tended
to be sausages and beef burgers with little reference made to other meats,
fish, vegetables or sweet food. Very few considered food safety and the fact
that food should be kept chilled until ready to be used and that frozen food
should be defrosted thoroughly prior to cooking on the barbecue.
Most candidates knew two reasons why fast food was so popular and gained
full marks.
Candidates understood the qualities needed by staff working in a fast food
outlet and included answers such as numerate, sociable, quick, accurate,
smart, hygienic, good team members, etc. Those who listed the qualities
gained half marks.
Many candidates only gained 2 or 3 marks out of a possible 6 for this
question. Candidates tended to give a list of packaging but failed to explain
why they were suitable. A good answer would state that polystyrene is used
to keep food hot, is light to carry, can be printed easily but is not
environmentally friendly. Cardboard boxes are easy to print, soak up excess
fat, keep food hot, protect food from damage, are easy to assemble and are
environmentally friendly. Many incorrectly thought that plastic was easy to
recycle, however, they did state the correct use for plastic containers such as
cups, sandwich boxes and salads. If candidates had selected three types of
packaging and discussed them in some detail they would have been able to
gain full marks.
This section of the question was well answered. Candidates were able to
give three health risks for obese children such as heart disease, diabetes,
high cholesterol, high blood pressure, increased risk of cancer and a shorter
life span. The more sympathetic candidates also stated the psychological
problems such as lack of friends, low self-esteem and depression.
There was a varied response to this question. Many candidates failed to state
what the main problems were with children’s menus. Most candidates stated
that fruit and vegetables should be included to make meals ‘healthier’ but
failed to give any suggestions. Some mentioned that they were high in fat but
did not say how this could be remedied. Similarly, foods that were high in
sugar were mentioned but there were very few suggestions as to how this
could be improved. Few realised that by offering nuts, cereal bars and fruits
as snacks the salt and sugar levels would be reduced. Some candidates
gained marks by suggesting that cooking methods could be changed such as
less frying and more grilling but they too failed to give examples to achieve
the higher marks.
The HACCP chart proved to be very difficult for the majority of candidates.
Candidates were far too vague and failed to give relevant temperatures with their
Many candidates misread the question and wrote about frozen fish instead of
fresh fish. They should have stated that fish is highly perishable and could be
contaminated with food poisoning bacteria. The control should have included
the points that fish should be delivered on ice or chilled and the appearance
and smell of the fish should be checked.
The hazard of raw meat in the refrigerator was generally understood, with
most candidates stating the risk of blood dripping onto other foods and the
danger of cross contamination. Similarly most candidates knew the control
i.e. placing raw meat on the bottom shelf. Very few mentioned that the
refrigerator temperature should be under 5ºC.
The hazard of the roast chicken was badly answered. To gain the mark,
candidates should have stated that food poisoning bacteria (salmonella)
survive if the core temperature of the chicken is not hot enough to kill
bacteria. Not many stated that chicken should be defrosted thoroughly before
cooking. Several suggested using a probe to check the core temperature but
failed to state that it should reach a temperature of 72ºC.
This was also badly answered. Many candidates wrote about customers
burning themselves on the hot counter but failed to mention the food! A few
did state that food could be contaminated by the customer (or food handler)
and that sneeze guards should be fitted. Many failed to mention that
temperatures could drop into the danger zone and that the control was to
check that the hot-holding temperature did not fall below 63ºC. The majority
of answers concentrated on how the public should keep away from the
counter to prevent burns.
Most candidates were aware of the nutrients present in milk although several
incorrectly stated it contained iron, Vitamin C and Vitamin D.
The answers to this question were generally very disappointing. The majority
gave a list of only three types of milk – whole, semi-skimmed and skimmed.
They failed to state how the types of milk meet the needs of the caterer or
customer. A good answer included the use of soya milk, dried milk,
condensed milk, UHT milk and goats’ milk. Few mentioned pasteurised or
homogenised milk. Discussion should have been based on the following
points: healthy eating - using skimmed or semi-skimmed milk; dried milk
being used as a stand-by for unexpected guests; UHT milk in hotel rooms for
tea/coffee making facilities; soya milk for vegans and lactose intolerants;
condensed milk used in dessert and sweet making e.g. banoffee pie. Many
candidates incorrectly stated that milk was used extensively in cake making.
Candidates should have mentioned several types of milk and discussed each
in detail in order to achieve full marks.
The standard for this question varied considerably. It was disappointing that
many candidates gave a very basic answer by writing a list with no
discussion. Some gave such vague answers that they could have been
discussing any commodity. The answers could have included the nutrients
present in cheese, the variety of cheeses available and the dishes in which
they can be used, the flavours, colours and textures achieved with different
varieties, the availability and storage of cheese, the cost in relation to meat
and cheese and its use in a vegetarian diet. Many of the answers had little
structure to them and although candidates had written a lot, the same points
were reiterated with little depth of knowledge evident.
Higher Tier (Grades D – A*)
Higher Tier candidates should be able to discuss, evaluate and justify.
The majority of candidates attempted all questions.
Most candidates were able to name three costs, other than food costs, that
need to be considered when calculating the selling price of dishes. The most
common answers were overheads, labour and profit.
Most candidates were able to suggest three reasons why portion control is
important. The most common answers were to minimise waste, to give value
for money, to give every customer the same size portion to avoid complaints,
to enable accurate ordering of food and to make a profit.
The comments made for Q.9 on the Foundation Tier are relevant to this question. It
should be noted that many of the candidates entered for the higher tier answered this
question extremely well and were able to correctly state the hazards and give the
relevant temperatures in the control section.
The comments made for Q.10 on the Foundation Tier are relevant to this question.
Many responses were extremely poor for higher tier candidates. Answers generally
were vague and unstructured and in many cases there were no named varieties of
cheese or any examples of dishes using cheese.
The responses to this question were varied. Many candidates gave good
answers about the popularity of soup. However, many candidates incorrectly
stated that soup was quick and easy to make. The most popular answers
referred to soup being a cheaper option than other starters, being filling and
warming on a cold day, the many different varieties available and the fact it is
a nutritious/ healthy option, particularly if made with fresh vegetables.
The majority of candidates answered this question correctly and knew the
quality points of a good soup. Correct answers referred to an inviting aroma,
no grease on surface, good flavour, correct temperature, correct seasoning,
correct consistency and lump free.
The majority of candidates were able to correctly state two benefits of a soup
kettle to the customer. The most common answers referred to the customer
being able to choose the amount they wanted and not having to wait to be
served. Some candidates incorrectly referred to the soup being kept ‘warm’
rather than ‘hot’. In the second part of the question, candidates tended to
refer to the benefits of offering soup rather than the benefits of having a soup
kettle. The most common answers referred to keeping the soup at the correct
temperature and not having to employ service staff.
Many candidates gave vague answers about enhancing the presentation and
serving of the soup and although many referred to ‘garnishing’ the soup, they
did not give examples. Acceptable answers were to add garnishes e.g.
chopped parsley, chives, basil, etc., cream or yoghurt, croutons, bread or
bread rolls, Parmesan cheese, chopped vegetables e.g. tomatoes. To
enhance the serving and service area attractive soup bowls (with under
plates) could be used, ladles should be washed and replaced regularly, soups
should be labelled, butter and low fat spreads could be provided and the
service area should be kept clean and tidy at all times.
There was a very good response to this question. Although heart disease and
increased risk of heart attacks were acceptable answers, several candidates
incorrectly stated that ‘heart problems’ was a health risk caused by excess fat
in the diet. Congenital heart problems are not caused by excess fat in the
diet. Diabetes Type 2 had to be specified in the answer, not just ‘diabetes’.
Many candidates failed to discuss how chefs could reduce the amount of fat
in the dishes they produce. Many answers were vague and referred to
changing butter to either margarine or low fat butter and using low fat
alternatives but did not give any named examples. Some mentioned changing
cooking methods from frying to grilling or baking but again did not give any
examples of the foods that could be cooked by these methods. Some good
responses included trimming visible fat from meat, using good quality meat
that has a lower fat content and using meat analogues like Quorn.
This question was poorly answered. Many candidates answered with general
nutrition comments and the need to have a balanced diet containing protein,
carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals. The focus of the answer should
have been the need to cut down on sugar and salt and the need to increase
fibre intake (continuing from the need to reduce fat in part (b)). Those that did
answer the question correctly often stated that chefs should reduce salt and
sugar and increase fibre but did not state why or give any suggestions as to
how this could be achieved.
Many candidates discussed the type of packaging they might use at home e.g. cling
film and foil rather than base their answer on packaging materials for sandwiches
and wraps used by food outlets. Often the answers resembled a list and candidates
failed to give a detailed explanation as to why the type of packaging they had
mentioned was ‘fit for purpose’. Good answers referred to the use of plastic sandwich
boxes which are good for keeping sandwiches fresh and hygienic and seeing
contents but are not good environmentally; cardboard sandwich boxes/ sleeves
which are easy to print, soak up excess grease, keep food fresh and are
biodegradable; paper wraps/ bags which are easy to print, easy to carry and more
environmentally friendly than plastic or polystyrene. If candidates had selected three
types of packaging and written about them in detail they would have been able to
gain full marks.
More able candidates were able to describe the qualities needed by staff
working in a cafeteria offering counter service. Acceptable answers included
good product knowledge in case of queries, awareness of portion control
when serving hot food, looking smart because of reputation of business and
dealing with customers, high standards of personal hygiene to prevent
contaminating food, sociable with pleasant personality to deal with customers,
good teamwork skills, etc. Candidates who listed the qualities were able to
gain half marks.
This question was generally well answered. Candidates were able to discuss
several benefits of changing from wait service to counter service. The most
popular answers included; less staff needed, faster for customers, can see
food before you buy, less formal so likely to prove more popular, less
customer care needed and customers pay before they eat and can just leave
when they finish without having to wait for the bill.
The prevention of accidents in relation to the kitchen environment and
legislation and staff training.
Responses varied from poor to excellent. Less able candidates tended to
concentrate on the personal hygiene of the chefs and food safety in the
kitchen rather than the prevention of accidents in their answers. There were,
however, some excellent answers covering all aspects of accident prevention
including floors, equipment (small, large and electrical), cooking, clothing,
storage areas, behaviour of staff, fire prevention, cleaning, first aid and the
use of warning notices.
Most candidates knew that staff had to be trained to use equipment but
weaker candidates tended to repeat the same point over and over again with
different pieces of equipment, notably knives and electrical equipment. Only a
few candidates mentioned any relevant legislation e.g. Health and Safety at
Work Act (HASAWA), Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) and
risk assessment. Answers could have referred to induction and safety training
before commencing employment, employers having a health and safety
policy, employers ensuring they have on-going training and supervision for
staff, regular risk assessments, warning notices, regular breaks for workers,
trained first aiders and the issue of protective clothing.
Your catering group is providing a cold buffet for a group of students from
Japan. The food will be prepared during your catering lessons and served
that evening. Discuss factors to take into consideration when planning the
menu and discuss precautions when storing and serving dishes in the
Like the previous question, responses were either poor or excellent.
Weaker candidates often misread the question and did not take account of
the fact that the students were from Japan and that the food would be
prepared during catering lessons and served that evening. Answers were too
general and vague to be awarded high marks. Good responses included an
acknowledgement of who the meal was for, the number of people attending,
what food was needed (a cold buffet), where and when the food was being
served, customer needs including special dietary needs, balance of colour,
texture and flavour, equipment available, the skill of the cooks, time available
and the cost.
The second part of the question was badly answered. Many candidates
discussed the hot holding temperatures of food and the need to freeze then
defrost food thoroughly, when the question clearly stated it was a cold buffet
and the food was being prepared during the day.
Good responses included keeping food out of the danger zone, food taken out of
fridges as near to service time as possible, food covered until service time, extra care
with high-risk foods, never topping up high risk foods, servers to handle food as little
as possible/wear gloves, storing sweet foods away from savoury foods, having
separate serving spoons for each dish, cleanliness of service area and servers,
obeying the 4 hour rule for cold food.
General Comments
This year there appear to have been more errors as a result of candidates’ misreading the
examination questions. Many candidates have confused food hygiene with personal
hygiene and safety (preventing accidents) with food safety (food hygiene).
Future candidates would be advised to read each question carefully and underline or
highlight key words before attempting an answer.
Candidates who had planned their answers before writing gained higher marks throughout
the paper.
Coursework Report
General Certificate of Secondary Education 2010
General Comments
Moderators have had positive feedback from centres who have again been pleased with the
visiting element and the support they have received. Teachers have welcomed the
opportunity this year to consult moderators about the new specification.
Thank you for the hospitality shown to moderators when they visited centres. It was very
much appreciated.
Please refer to the guidelines in the Instructions for the ‘Administration and Conduct
of Examinations in Catering, Home Economics and Hospitality and Catering' for
submission dates and selection guidelines. Some centres were late posting
coursework and did not follow the formulae in the document. This document is now
available on WJEC website.
Please ensure that candidates sign the relevant declaration sheets and that forms
CT3, 4 and 5 are signed by the subject teacher and head teacher.
Half marks should not be awarded in the final column on forms CT3, 4 and 5.
Teachers should not estimate marks if a candidate has missed an assessment. If
possible, other marked practical assessment work could be used and the moderator
Candidates should always be awarded a mark for QWC. Half marks for QWC should
not be used. Some centres gave full marks for QWC even though there were
significant spelling and grammar errors in the work.
There were addition errors this year where marks were not added up and transferred
Forms CT3, 4 and 5 should be submitted in rank order and the work sent for
moderation identified on these mark sheets.
It is important that subject teachers read the notes for guidance and detailed marking
schemes in the specification so that they can award marks accurately and in line with
the assessment criteria.
Please ensure that the moderator's report is read carefully and advice acted upon.
Planning the Task
Many of the briefs set this year were tailored to meet the needs of individual centres. Some
centres gave candidates a wide choice of tasks but this made teacher assessment more
difficult. Some centres adapted tests from the suggested list in the specification to fit their
own time frame. Where teachers had set group tasks, it was not always evident how
individual candidates had met the assessment criteria.
The planning section continues to improve where teachers have supported candidates with
pro-formas although they should be aware that this could restrict the better candidates from
achieving the higher mark range. The task analysis section produced by the more able
candidates was detailed and relevant to the brief set. The weaker candidates failed to qualify
statements; their work often lacked depth. There were some candidates who produced
identical and not individual justifications for their choices.
Orders of work were generally logical but need to be in three distinct parts – mise en place,
sequence of making activities and completion. Often candidates omitted reference to health
and safety issues and details of the final presentation and serving of dishes.
The requisition section has improved this year with most candidates giving accurate totalled
quantities of the commodities needed. However, there were centres who allowed candidates
to submit requisitions in a mixture of imperial and metric measures along with ‘cups’. This
should be discouraged.
Carrying out the Task
Centres that were visited were well prepared and organised for the practical assessment.
The standard of hygiene was pleasing with candidates showing due regard for health and
safety issues such as wearing appropriate uniform, sensible shoes and headwear. Work
areas were sanitised and food stored correctly prior to production.
Some excellent practical work was observed with a high standard of presentation in
evidence. Candidates worked methodically and demonstrated good organisational skills.
Centres should be aware that if dishes are assembled, higher marks can not be achieved.
There was an increase this year in the use of ready made ingredients such as sauces,
meringues and salad dressings. Candidates should be discouraged from using these.
Serving areas were generally attractive and the majority of candidates correctly garnished or
decorated their dishes. More centres are now including photographs of the practical work
and these were very much appreciated.
Please note that too many candidates carrying out the practical element in a room will make
teacher assessment difficult and disadvantage candidates.
The majority of candidates are now using nutritional analysis programs for this part of their
work. They need to interpret their findings in order to gain higher marks for the second
assessment. The information obtained was not always sound as whole recipes and not
portions were analysed.
The costing section continues to be a problem for some centres. There is an acceptable
formula for costing that candidates should use for assessment two and comments should be
included that relate to profit margins and overheads. Some candidates costed ‘whole bags of
flour’ and not the quantity used.
The management of time section was again disappointing. Many centres mis-interpreted the
guidelines in the specification and candidates described what they had done during the
practical session instead of making comments as to why they had or had not used their time
well. Some teachers assessed this section with reference to how their candidates had used
the time during the practical sessions.
Candidates are now more able to use a wide range of appropriate adjectives to describe
their dishes and as such showed an improvement when describing the colour, texture and
flavour of their dishes. The majority of candidates were able to comment on the acceptability
of their dishes and suggest improvements.
Work Experience
Fewer candidates submitted a work experience project this year.
Candidates who chose this option benefited greatly from the experiences gained during their
placements as it gave them a valuable insight into the catering industry as well as allowing
them to collect the information required for their project. They attended a variety of
placements and most had extremely positive comments from their supervisors. The
presentation of the work was particularly pleasing with candidates including a wide range of
There was some evidence of copied notes in the work especially of hygiene and safety
rules. Candidates should address this section with reference to their own placements and
experiences. More candidates are using ICT to produce their kitchen plans and the standard
of these has improved. The majority of candidates were able to access the assessment
criteria for the main study with many including additional relevant information to maximise
their marks. The evaluation and review section proved to be a problem for some less able
candidates but the better centres were able to provide support for them in the form of writing
frames and pro-forma. The review section was mis-interpreted by some centres. This should
be a review of the candidates work and not of the workplace.
Coursework Project
There was a wide and interesting range of topics chosen for this component although some
candidates did not relate their work to the catering industry. Some hypotheses were too
broad and candidates were unable to identify specific lines of enquiry and then reach a
realistic conclusion. Although they were able to state the aims of the project, many did not
show how they expected their work to develop. Where candidates had planned their work
carefully, the assessment criteria were usually met. Many were able to research into their
topics, some printed a lot of information from the internet but did not always analyse what
they had found and so lost marks. Candidates need to acknowledge sources of information,
many did not.
To achieve higher marks for primary research, candidates need to use a range of techniques
and give a detailed analysis of their findings. It is not necessary for all copies of a
questionnaire to be included in the work. Some candidates were unable to use a wide range
of graphics in their work which was disappointing.
Many lower ability candidates produced very limited conclusions of their projects. Centres
could provide structured questions to enable them to meet the assessment criteria. There is
some mis-interpretation of the evaluation and review section as candidates are still not
assessing the effectiveness of their planning, the methods they have used and the results
they have obtained.
The work needs to include an index and the contents should be in sequential order.
Presentation was generally pleasing but the work should be in a lightweight folder not a ring
binder. Some centres submitted loose sheets which were difficult to handle.
It has been disappointing to note that a considerable number of candidates this year did not
submit work for this component.
Please refer to the criteria for mark allocation in the specification for clarification when
assessing candidate’s achievement for both coursework components.
GCSE Examiner's Report Catering - Summer 2010 / ED
245 Western Avenue
Cardiff CF5 2YX
Tel No 029 2026 5000
Fax 029 2057 5994
E-mail: [email protected]