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DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
Thomas N. Barnes Center for Enlisted Education (AETC)
Maxwell AFB, AL 36118
1 Aug 14
AF SENIOR NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER DISTANCE LEARNING (DL)
(COURSE 14) AND ADVANCE LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCE (ALE)
STUDENT GUIDE
0B
1B
2B
PART I
COVER SHEET
LESSON TITLE: MP03, HUMAN PERFORMANCE
3B
TIME: 28 Hours (ALE only)
METHOD: DL/Demonstration and Performance (ALE only)
REFERENCES:
Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36-2905, Fitness Program. 21 October 2013.
Agatston, A. MD. “I’m a Trainer at Heart.” PREVENTION, March, 2010.
Amiri-Khorasani M, Sahebozamani M, Tabrizi KG, Yusof AB. Acute effect of different
stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010
Oct;24(10):2698-704.
CJCS Introduction Short,” Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff website,
http://www.jcs.mil//content/files/2010- 09/091610114831_CJCS_Introduction_
Short.pdf. (accessed 15 May 2014).
Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury
(DCoE). DCoE In Action, Vol. 3/No. 10. October 2010. http://www.dcoe.health.mil/
Content/navigation/newsletters/dcoe%20in%20action/DCOE_In_Action_
Vo3No10.pdf#page=3 (accessed 15 May 14).
“Dive In,” Yoga Journal. http://www.yogajournal.com/basics/2306 (accessed 15 May 14).
Harvard Men’s Health Watch. December, 2005. “Exercise and aging: Can you walk
away from Father Time?”
Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fatty Acids,
Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington (DC): The
National Academies Press; 2002
http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf.
(accessed 15 May 14).
Kaminoff, Leslie. Yoga Anatomy, Human Kinetics. 2007.
Kistler BM, Walsh MS, Horn TS, Cox RH. The acute effects of static stretching on the
sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic
warm-up. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Sep;24(9):2280-4.
Little T, Williams AG. Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on
MP03SG - 1
high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res.
2006 Feb;20(1):203-7.
Mascarelli, A. Exercise Counteracts Aging Effects. Los Angeles Times. Sept 1, 2011.
Perrier ET, Pavol MJ, Hoffman MA. The acute effects of a warm-up including static or
dynamic stretching on countermovement jump height, reaction time, and flexibility.
J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Jul;25(7):1925-31.
The Perfect Form: Running Better, from head to toe. Runner’s World.
http://www.runnersworld.com/article/0,7120,s6-238-267-268-8210-0,00.html
(assessed 15 May 2014).
Sarah L. Butler, “Fully Fit,” Runners World, February 2011, 49-55.
Shepherd, R.J. (1998). Aging and Exercise. Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science.
Internet Society for Sport Science.
Sovik, R. PhD. Diaphragmatic Breathing:
http://www.himalayaninstitute.org/yi/Article.aspx?id=3472 (accessed 15 May 14).
“Wide-Legged Forward Bend,” Yogatic.
http://www.yogatic.com/yoga-poses/wide-legged-forward-bend-d/ (accessed 15
May 14).
Winchester JB, Nelson AG, Landin D, Young MA, Schexnayder IC. Static stretching
impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. J Strength Cond
Res. 2008 Jan;22(1):13-9.
“Your Best Body Ever,” Health 25, no. 1 (January/February 2011): 132-134.
STUDENT PREPARATION: Accomplish student reading in the student guide (approximately 16,000
words/110 minutes of reading). Hydrate continuously. Arrive with an open mind and a willingness to
give maximal effort. Bring your personal Energy Equation result to class with you.
PART IA
DL COURSE GOAL: Prepare Senior NCOs to lead the enlisted force in the employment of air, space
and cyberspace power in support of our national security objectives.
ALE COURSE GOAL: Develop adaptable Senior Enlisted Leaders to operate critically, strategically
and jointly in complex and ambiguous environments.
GENERAL LEARNING OUTCOME: Upon completion of this lesson, students are better prepared
to lead and manage units and model professional military attributes as evidenced by their
comprehension of Human Performance.
ACTIVITY STATEMENT: Actively participate and encourage others in all aspects of the Human
Performance lesson.
MP03SG - 2
TERMINAL COGNITIVE OBJECTIVE: Comprehend Human Performance and/or its impact on
subordinate, SNCO, unit, and mission effectiveness.
TERMINAL COGNITIVE SAMPLES OF BEHAVIOR:
1. Explain Human Performance and/or its impact on subordinate, SNCO, unit and mission
effectiveness.
2. Give examples of Human Performance and/or its impact on subordinate, SNCO, unit, and
mission effectiveness.
3. Predict the impact of Human Performance on subordinate, SNCO, unit, and mission
effectiveness.
PART IB
LESSON OUTLINE:
CONTENT
INTRODUCTION: Student Reading
4B
MP 1. Performance Nutrition
5B
MP 2. Physical Performance
6B
A. Functional Training
B. High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE)
C. Safety and Running Protocol
MP 3. Human Weapon System Movements
A. Comprehensive Movement Demonstration, Performance,
Correction--General Population
B. Comprehensive Movement Demonstration, Performance,
Correction--Phoenix Flight
MP 4. Human Performance Benefits and Impact
CONCLUSION: Summary
MP03SG - 3
PART II
STUDENT READING
*Entirety of this lesson was accomplished through coordination with subject matter expert Mr. Mark J.
Lehmkuhl, MS, CSCS. 1
0F
*Nutrition aspects were vetted through Dr. D.A. Higginbotham, PhD, RD, LD. 2
1F
* Exercise portions were vetted through the following Air Force Installation Exercise Physiologists:
Michele Pittman, M Ed, ACSM - HFS, CHEK Coach 3
2F
Jose A Ramos, HFS, CES, CSCS 4
3F
The Human Machine is the most important weapon system in our Air Force arsenal. For this weapon
system to operate at optimal levels it must be properly maintained using the correct fuel. Unlike other
weapon systems, we rely on nutritious foods and exercise instead of jet fuel and mechanical
maintenance. These are the attributes of Human Performance we will examine. You will learn about
the correct fuel for the Human Weapon System, the regular and scheduled maintenance required, proper
breathing, along with exercise programs and movements you will use throughout the course. Let’s
begin by discussing the appropriate fuel.
MP 1. Performance Nutrition
It has been said that you are what you eat. There may be some truth to be had in that; if one continues
to eat nothing of nutritional value, they may become one of minimal physical value, or if one consumes
excess, they may become excess. We need fit, lean, fighting machines and that comes from proper
nutrition. A nutritious diet increases our resiliency by helping us operate at peak physical performance.
It also increases our mental alertness and improves our endurance. Let us begin with the fuel that makes
the human body function.
Performance Nutrition Objectives
Proper nutrition provides fuel to accomplish life’s activities and allow the body to repair and develop
itself. As far as fuel, we all have a specific amount that we are supposed to have. We all have an
energy equation that is specific to us and we will figure out what yours is shortly.
Certain nutrients, carbohydrates, fats, and protein are broken down for energy in the body. The energy is
used for the activities and bodily processes that maintain life: breathing, heartbeat, brain function,
kidney function, etc. These nutrients are metabolized and used for energy/fuel in two ways: aerobic and
anaerobic.
Aerobic metabolism works by breaking down nutrients for energy in a process that requires oxygen. It
releases more energy than anaerobic metabolism, but it takes longer to get it released. It also supplies
most of the energy during low-intensity, endurance type activities, like long distance running and
swimming.
The second way nutrients are metabolized and used for energy is through anaerobic metabolism which
does not require oxygen. Anaerobic metabolism releases less energy than aerobic metabolism, but does
it very quickly. Most energy tends to come from anaerobic pathways during high-intensity short bouts
of activity such as sprints and weightlifting.
Nutrition not only provides fuel, but it also supplies materials and energy to repair and build the body.
MP03SG - 4
Active people need to consume adequate energy, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals during periods of
high-intensity and/or long-duration training to maintain body weight and health and maximize training
effects.
Low nutrient intakes can result in many things, to include:
1. Loss of muscle mass. This can compromise performance and negate training benefits to include
the loss of strength and endurance. Low-calorie diets are often combined with physical activity
to lose weight. Unfortunately, it is difficult to lose fat without also losing some muscle mass. A
major reduction will cause enough loss in muscle to negate training and cause decrease in gains.
A long-term deficiency in almost any nutrient will result in muscle loss.
2. Fatigue. Fatigue is a symptom of nutrients deficiency. This can compromise performance and
increase the risk of injury. Beyond loss of muscle, low energy intake will result in lower energy
stores resulting in an overall feeling of tiredness. Additionally, the point at which a person feels
like they are completely exhausted and cannot go any further comes sooner. This is commonly
known as “hitting the wall.” Fatigue often leads to improper form during training, which may
cause injuries.
3. Endocrine disruption. Inadequate nutrition can cause changes in hormones that may result in
menstrual dysfunction, loss of muscle, increased abdominal fat, or a loss in bone density.
7B
4. Suppressed immune system. There is a greater chance of illness and illness lasting longer before
recovery because immune system cells are produced in lower numbers.
8B
5. Prolonged recovery process. The length of time to repair and build muscle is greater when
nutrition is inadequate.
9B
It is very evident that we need nutrients and they must be of the right portions and the correct nutrients.
Nutrients come in a few different shapes and sizes.
Macronutrients
The makeup of food can be divided into two major categories: macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients are chemicals found in large quantities in our food that we need to live and grow. They
include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water, which are important because energy is derived from
carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Carbohydrates – Supplemental Roles in the body
Carbohydrates (carbs) are consumed in foods such as starch and sugars. Most foods have carbs with the
exception of meat, fish, poultry, and oils. Better sources of carbs are unrefined foods—foods that are
minimally processed. For example, baked products made with whole grains are more healthful than
products made with white (enriched) flour. Look for whole wheat, rye, etc. Whole grain foods and
flours include 100% whole wheat, brown rice, bulger, corn, buckwheat, oatmeal, spelt, and wild rice.
Foods that have no added sugar are better choices. Natural sugars found in fruits are good because the
fruit has many others nutrients and fiber. Vegetables have carbohydrates too. Starchy vegetables such
as potatoes, corn, carrots, peas and beans, have a higher carbs content.
Carbohydrates are a short-term, high intensity energy source. After carbohydrates are consumed, they
are converted to glucose in the intestines and liver. Blood glucose (blood sugar) is supplied from carbs
in the diet. Some carbohydrates are converted to glycogen and stored in the liver and muscle. Muscle
glycogen is used as a quick source of energy during physical activity. Carbohydrates are the primary
source of fuel for anaerobic metabolism and are stored in muscle as glycogen. Liver glycogen is used to
maintain blood sugar levels. There are only enough energy stores in the muscle to maintain high rates
MP03SG - 5
of activity for 2 to 3 minutes. Decreased muscle glycogen causes fatigue and therefore decreased
performance. Insufficient intake of carbohydrates quickly decreases performance. The USDA
recommends that approximately 50% of your calories come from carbohydrates. 5 The actual amount
depends on total energy expenditure, type of exercise, gender, and environmental conditions.
4F
Although carbohydrates are the main fuel for physical activity, excess consumption may be detrimental
and increase fat stores in the human body. Exceeding the cells capacity to store glycogen triggers
conversion and storage of excess carbohydrate calories as fat. Consuming excessive carbohydrate
calories increases body fat.
Carbohydrate availability affects the metabolic mixture catabolized (accessed) for energy. In times of
food deprivation, the lack of carbohydrates will lead to excessive protein breakdown. Due to this
concept, carbohydrates are termed to have a “protein sparing effect” on the human body. In simplest
terms, if you have carbohydrate available, then the proteins stored in the human body will remain intact
and will not be accessed for energy metabolism in times of a fast.
Carbohydrates also serve as a primer for fat metabolism. Byproducts from carbohydrate breakdown
facilitate the body’s metabolism of fat. Insufficient carbohydrate metabolism (glucose limitations or
diabetes) produces more fat mobilization than use as an energy source. This produces an incomplete fat
breakdown or the formation of ketone bodies. Excessive formation of ketones through starvation or
diabetes may increase the cells acid content leading to acidosis or ketosis.
Finally, the central nervous system or CNS requires carbohydrate for proper functioning. Under normal
conditions and short term starvation, the brain uses blood glucose almost exclusively as its fuel source.
In times of carbohydrate starvation, the brain eventually adapts after approximately 8 days by
metabolizing ketone bodies as the alternative fuel.
Fats are a more concentrated source of energy than carbs or protein. Fats are also structural
components of every cell in the body and have many other functions. The type of fats in the diet can
impact health by increasing the risk of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and
cancer. Most fats should come from vegetable sources with olive oil and canola oil being the best
choices. Animal fats, which contain high amounts of saturated fat, should be minimized.
Fatty Acids, types and your health
A saturated fat molecule is termed saturated because it holds as many hydrogen atoms as chemically
possible. These fatty acids occur primarily in animal products like beef, pork, chicken, egg yolks, and
dairy. Saturated fats from the plant kingdom occur in coconut and palm oil, as well as in hydrogenated
products such as vegetable shortening and margarine. In general terms, these types of fatty acids are
considered the most detrimental to heart health and may be restricted in some patients susceptible to
heart disease and high cholesterol.
An unsaturated fatty acid will contain double bonds between carbon and hydrogen; therefore, they are
“not saturated” with hydrogen atoms. These fats may take the form of a monounsaturated fatty acid (1
carbon=hydrogen double bond) or a polyunsaturated fatty acid (multiple carbon=hydrogen double
bond). Monounsaturated fatty acids are considered to be healthier on the heart; the purest examples
include olive oil and canola oil. Peanut oil, almonds, pecans and avocados are also examples of fats
with a higher percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids. Polyunsaturated oil examples include
safflower, sunflower, soybean, and corn oils.
Fish oil and your health
Historical studies of the Eskimo population in Greenland have linked their low incidence of heart
disease with their large consumption of fats from fish, seals, and whale. This is where the fish from
northern waters and low incidence of coronary heart disease notion began. Fatty fish such as tuna and
MP03SG - 6
salmon contain large percentages of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA).
Studies have shown that regular fish and fish oil consumption may benefit ones’ lipid profile
(cholesterol), overall heart disease risk, intravascular blood clot formation, and pulmonary disease.
Roles of fats in the body
As is the obvious, fat is the most efficient storage form of energy. This is evident through examining
the calories per gram in fat (9), carbohydrate (4), and protein (4). Fat has secondary roles that are
important to human body functions. These include serving as a precursor to steroid hormones and
vitamin D, protection of vital organs serving as a shock absorber, insulation in times of exposure to
colder climates, vitamin carrier/storage, and hunger regulator.
Fats are a long-term, low intensity energy source. They are the preferred fuel for aerobic exercise for
individuals involved in mild- to moderate-intensity exercise. Training increases the proportion of
energy derived from fat and decreases the amount of carbohydrate used. Conserving carbohydrates
allows an athlete to go further and harder without becoming fatigued.
Fat is stored in various places throughout the body. The most obvious is the fat stored immediately
under the skin, but fat is also stored around muscle cells as a readily available energy source.
Insufficient intake of fat can lead to long-term decreased performance and illness. Consuming less than
20% of energy from fat does not benefit performance. Essential fats and fat-soluble vitamins are an
important part of the diets of active people. High-fat diets will not improve performance and may
increase risk for chronic disease. The USDA recommends that approximately 30% of your calories
come from fat. 6
5F
Protein is the third macronutrient found in the food you eat. Good sources of protein include lean meat,
fish, poultry, eggs, low-fat dairy products, soy, and beans. This amount can be easily met through diet
alone, without the use of protein or amino acid supplements. The USDA recommends that
approximately 20% of your calories come from protein. 7
6F
Essential amino acids are defined as those amino acids that are not made in the human body. Therefore,
these amino acids must be consumed through an individuals’ diet plan/program. In the previous
paragraph it was noted that the most complete forms of proteins come from animal products. Because
of this, some concern must be addressed for the case of vegetarianism. Grains and legumes (beans,
lentils, etc) provide excellent protein/amino acid profiles; however, they lack the full complement of
essential amino acids that are found in animal products. The only exception to a non-animal product
containing the full complement of essential amino acids would be isolated soybean protein. Soy protein
isolates carry a protein quality that ranks equivalent to some animal proteins.
In the case of foods lacking the full balance of amino acids, we can use an example of food
combinations that may produce a mixture where all essential amino acids are present. The best and
most cited example is the rice (grains) and beans (legumes) example. Grains lack the essential amino
acid lysine, while legumes contain lysine but lack the essential amino acid methionine (found
abundantly in grains). Each food product lacks an amino acid that is present in the other.
Therefore, the combination of rice and beans provides all the essential amino acids needed for the body
to function adequately.
If protein supplements are desired, it should be from a whole-protein source (egg, soy, milk based).
Protein supplements are typically used as a convenient meal replacement, but they are expensive and
usually do not have the nutrients of a meal of whole foods. A serving size of 25-30 g of protein is the
goal. Too much more than that will not be digested and absorbed.
Protein is not a preferred energy source, but will be used. Adequate carbohydrate intake spares protein
breakdown. When carbohydrates are in short supply, proteins that normally have a function are broken
MP03SG - 7
down into amino acids and converted to glucose. Energy intake sufficient to maintain body weight is
necessary for optimal protein use and performance. If energy intake, especially carb intake, is too low,
protein will be broken down and used for energy. Almost no extra protein is stored in the body for later
use.
When more protein is eaten than is needed, the extra protein is broken down into amino acids. The
amino acids are converted to energy or converted to fat and stored in the body. This process releases
nitrogen waste products that must be processed and eliminated by the kidneys. For most people
handling some additional protein is not a problem, but for people with decreased kidney function,
excess protein intake could further damage their kidneys. Another issue is that excretion requires
production of additional urine which could lead to dehydration during physical activity. Additionally,
increased protein intake causes increased calcium excretion, which in the long term could lead to bone
loss.
Insufficient intake of protein will lead to failure to repair body tissues. During physical activity, the
body is damaged from micro tears in muscle, bone stress, breakage of red blood cells, oxidization of
cells, and other ways. During rest, this damage is repaired and in some cases made stronger. If the
protein building blocks are not present, then the repair cannot be made resulting in continuous damage
and many times repetitive-use injuries. The opposite is also true. Protein consumed in close proximity
to training can enhance maintenance or gains of muscle. Therefore, protein should be consumed within
30 minutes after a training session.
Additional roles of proteins in the body
Proteins serve as constituents for cell membranes as well as intracellular materials. Proteins in the cell
nucleus supervise cellular protein synthesis and subsequent transmission of hereditary characteristics.
Collagenous structural proteins comprise the hair, skin, nails, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage.
Globular proteins are important within the body to speed up chemical reactions (enzymes) and regulate
metabolism of fuels (fats and carbohydrates). Within this category are the specialized proteins
thrombin, fibrin, and fibrinogen which are required for blood clotting. Additionally, the protein
hemoglobin is critical because of it’s’ oxygen carrying and delivery to all of the body’s tissues. Proteins
play a role in maintaining the acid-base balance in the body. The buffering ability of proteins
neutralizes the excess acid produced during rigorous exercise.
The final macronutrient we want to address is water. Some sources say that there are only three
macronutrients and some state there are four and replace water with alcohol (remember alcohol is
actually a TOXIN, i.e. bad for the body). We are going to address water as the fourth macronutrient
because of its importance when dealing with fitness and exercise. Water is estimated to make up 65%
of the human body. That is why it is EXTREMELY important to drink water regularly throughout the
day. Adequate water intake before, during, and after activity is important for health and optimal
performance.
Water Balance in the human body
Water output subtracted from water intake is what we refer to as water balance. There are 3 methods of
water intake: liquids we drink, foods we eat, and metabolic water (the water produced through the
breakdown of substrates for energy). Water output consists of water loss in the urine, loss in the feces,
loss through the skin (sweating), and loss in the lungs as vapors through respiration. It is critical for
humans to be in water balance. If water output is greater than water input then dehydration may occur.
If water intake is greater than water output then water intoxication may occur, although intoxication is
rarely a product of water, but rather an issue with the electrolyte minerals that assist in maintaining
cellular water balance.
Functions of Body Water
MP03SG - 8
With concerns to physical activity, the most important aspect of adequate body water is the quality of
sweat production. When the body is in motion it burns energy with the byproduct being heat and water.
The water generated and water already in storage provides the medium of transport of heat out of the
body through the production of sweat. These thermoregulation properties are critical to the physically
active population.
It was mentioned that water comprises approximately 65% of the human body. In analyzing a 150
pound human against a 300 pound human speaks volumes concerning water intake. In reality, the 150
pound individuals’ body mass is comprised of slightly less than 100 pounds of water; whereas the 300
pounder will carry a water mass estimated at slightly below 200 pounds. This emphatic difference
explains the importance of greater water intake practices of larger people.
Water serves as the body’s transport and reactive medium. It is diverse in this capacity because the
water molecule contains dipole moment, a positive (2 hydrogen’s) and negative (1 oxygen) charge.
This dipole moment allows water to generate many transport and chemical reaction processes which are
vital to the human body. Working in conjunction with proteins, water lubricates joints and protects a
variety of moving organs like the heart, lungs, intestines and eyes.
Micronutrients
Food is not just made up of macronutrients such as fat, protein and carbohydrates but also consists of
micronutrients like vitamins and minerals. Micronutrients are needed by the body in much smaller
amounts than macronutrients.
Micronutrients are found in foods in different amounts. The best way to ensure adequate amounts of
vitamins and minerals is to eat a variety of foods from each food group. In general, no vitamin and
mineral supplements are required if a person is consuming adequate energy from a variety of foods to
maintain body weight. A multi-vitamin/multi-mineral supplement is safe to take in most cases, but
should not be substituted for a healthy diet.
People who restrict energy intake or use severe weight-loss practices, eliminate one or more food
groups from their diet, or consume high- or low-carbohydrate diets of low micronutrient density are at
greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Supplementation is warranted in cases of certain illnesses or
nutritional reasons such as iron deficient anemia.
Vitamins
Thirteen different vitamins have been isolated, analyzed, and classified through establishing
recommended dietary allowances (RDA/DRI (daily recommended intake)). These vitamins are
categorized as either fat soluble or water soluble. The fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E, and K.
The water soluble vitamins are vitamin C and the B complex vitamins.
Fat soluble vitamins are dissolved and stored in the body’s fat tissues; therefore, they need not be
consumed daily if adequate amounts are in storage. The liver stores vitamins A and D, whereas vitamin
E is distributed throughout the body’s fat tissues. Vitamin K is stored in relatively small amounts in the
liver.
Water soluble vitamins act as coenzymes. Coenzymes work with enzymes to further accelerate
chemical reactions in the body. Because of their solubility in water, water soluble vitamins disperse in
the body fluids without being stored to any appreciable extent.
MP03SG - 9
Roles of vitamins in the body
Vitamin
Role
A
Constituent of visual pigment, epithelial tissues
D
Absorption of Calcium; bone mineralization
E
Antioxidant to prevent cell damage
K
Important in blood clotting; Prothrombin formation
B1-Thiamin
Coenzyme; energy metabolism
B2-Riboflavin
Energy metabolism coenzyme FAD
B3-Niacin
Energy metabolism; Two coenzymes NAD and NADP
B6 - Pyridoxine
Coenzyme for amino acid and glycogen metabolism
Pantothenic Acid
Coenzyme for energy metabolism
Folic Acid
Coenzyme for nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism
B12-Cobolamin
Coenzyme for nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism
Biotin
Coenzyme for fat synthesis; amino acid metabolism, and glycogen metabolism
Vitamin C –
Ascorbic Acid
Important in collagen synthesis; maintains cartilage, bone, and dentine
Minerals
Minerals can be categorized as mostly metallic elements that are constituents of enzymes, hormones,
and vitamins. They may combine with other chemicals (calcium phosphate in bone or iron in the heme
of hemoglobin) or exist singularly (calcium in the body’s fluids). Minerals are further subcategorized
into major minerals and trace minerals. The seven major minerals are termed as such because they are
required in amounts more than 100mg daily. The 14 trace minerals are termed as such because they are
required in amounts less than 100 mg daily.
The major minerals and their role in the human body; listed in order of abundance.
Mineral
Role
Calcium
Bone and tooth formation; blood clotting; nerve transmission
Phosphorus
Bone and tooth formation; acid-base balance of bone; loss of calcium
Potassium
Fluid balance; nerve transmission; acid-base balance
Sulfur
Acid-base balance; liver function
Sodium
Acid-base balance; body water balance; nerve function
Chlorine
Important portion of extracellular fluids
Magnesium
Activates enzymes involved in protein synthesis
The main trace minerals and their role in the human body; listed in order of abundance.
MP03SG - 10
Mineral
Role
Iron
Constituent of hemoglobin/oxygen transport; and enzymes involved in energy metabolism
Fluorine
May be important in maintenance of bone structure
Zinc
Constituent of enzymes involved in digestion
Copper
Constituent of enzymes associated with iron metabolism
Selenium
Functions with Vitamin E/possible antioxidant
Iodine
Constituent of thyroid hormones/metabolism
Chromium
Glucose and energy metabolism
Enhancing Performance Through Nutrition
If we are to get the most from our Human Machine, it would behoove us to fuel up properly to get the
best performance from that machine and to take into consideration what and when we are eating and if
we are providing it with enough fluid. The goal of drinking water is to prevent dehydration during
training and to replace body fluids after training. Being more than 2% below normal body weight due
to loss of water is called dehydration and will cause decreased performance and may cause serious
injury or even death in extreme cases. This is why water should be consumed regularly throughout the
day. Adequate water intake before, during, and after activity is important for health and optimal
performance.
Along with water, we must ensure we are cognizant of our nutrient intake as well. Sufficient
carbohydrates should be consumed to maintain blood sugar and replenish muscle glycogen (stored
sugar). Sufficient protein should be taken in to repair muscle tissue and construct new muscle. Fat
should be consumed to supply energy and repair tissue.
Timing is everything when it comes to getting the energy we need. Before training, consume a meal or
snack 3-4 hours before activity. This pre-workout meal should consist of the following: sufficient fluid
to maintain hydration (drink 2 to 3 mL/lb body weight (16 oz. for 175 lb person)), low in fat and fiber,
high in carbohydrate, and moderate in protein.
During training, it is important to consume water no matter how long the workout session lasts. During
exercise sessions lasting under 45 minutes, similar to a typical Air Force PT session, it is important to
rehydrate with water. Although not as critical as with longer duration activities, carbohydrate beverages
can be consumed to replenish lost body sugar. During lower intensity/long duration training (greater
than 1 hour), the object is to replace fluid losses AND provide carbohydrates (30 to 60 g per hour) for
maintenance of blood sugar levels. These nutrition guidelines are not only important for endurance
events lasting longer than an hour, but also when an athlete has not consumed adequate food or water
before exercise, or if an athlete is exercising in an extreme environment (heat, cold, high altitude).
Intake recommendations in these situations are 600-1200ml/hour of 4-8% carbohydrate fluids
(Gatorade/PowerAde-type drinks).
Upon completion of your workout, it is important for you to provide adequate fluids, electrolytes,
energy, and carbohydrates to replace muscle sugars and ensure rapid recovery. Post-workout meals
should consist of mostly carbohydrate and protein, and a small amount fat. These meals should be
between 250-500 calories, i.e., a small turkey sandwich on rye, and be consumed during the first 30
minutes and again every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours to replace sugar stores. The protein consumed in these
meals will provide amino acids to build and repair muscle tissue.
It is recommended to consume a meal that is a 1:3 ratio of protein to carbohydrate after exercise to
MP03SG - 11
enhance sugar replacement. Adequate carbohydrates are also important to encourage muscle
development during weight training (within one hour following training). Although a sports recovery
drink can provide the necessary nutrients, a better tasting alternative is a glass of low-fat chocolate milk.
This is true because the low-fat chocolate provides the same nutrients but costs less and tastes better.
A rule of thumb for body water balance is to weigh yourself before and after physical activity, and then
after training, drink 16 to 24 oz of water for every pound lost during activity.
A diet rich in a variety of fresh vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, dairy foods, lean meats, and whole
grains is usually considered to be adequate for maintaining normal nutritional status among physically
active people. Many people find it easier to balance what they eat by imagining a small dinner divided
into sections. One quarter of the plate should be meat or a protein food, one quarter bread, cereal, rice,
or pasta, and the other half of the plate with vegetables, but only one starchy vegetable. Add 2-3 cups of
low fat or skim milk and two different fruits per day, and that is a balanced diet.
Another tip to eating for performance is to eat frequent small meals. Instead of eating 2-3 meals a day,
eat 5-6 with calories spread evenly throughout the day. This type of meal pattern helps to maximize
glycogen stores and minimize conversion of carbohydrates and protein to fat.
The crux to proper nutrition is to understand that it is a lifestyle, not a quick-fix fad. The guidelines
below provide a sound nutrition example. Combine this with the Functional Training we are about to
cover and your Human Machine will be operating as efficiently as possible.
Eat a variety of nutrient-rich foods. You need more than 40 different nutrients for good health, and no
single food supplies them all.
Enjoy plenty of whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Surveys show most Americans don't eat enough of
these foods.
Maintain a healthy weight. The weight that's right for you depends on many factors including your sex,
height, age and heredity. Excess body fat increases your chances for high blood pressure, heart disease,
stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer and other illnesses. But being too thin can increase your risk for
osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities and other health problems.
Eat moderate portions. If you keep portion sizes reasonable, it's easier to eat the foods you want and
stay healthy. Check out the nutrition label for serving sizes.
Eat regular meals. Skipping meals can lead to out-of-control hunger, often resulting in overeating.
Reduce, don't eliminate certain foods. Most people eat for pleasure as well as for nutrition. If your
favorite foods are high in fat, salt or sugar, the key is moderating how much of these foods you eat and
how often you eat them.
Balance your food choices over time. Not every food has to be "perfect." When eating a food high in
fat, salt or sugar, select other foods that are low in these ingredients. If you miss out on any food group
one day, make up for it the next. Your food choices over several days should fit together into a healthy
pattern.
Make changes gradually. Just as there are no "super foods" or easy answers to a healthy diet, don't
expect to totally revamp your eating habits overnight.
Remember, foods are not good or bad. Select foods based on your total eating patterns, not whether any
individual food is "good" or "bad." Don't feel guilty if you love foods such as apple pie, potato chips,
candy bars or ice cream. Eat them in moderation, and choose other foods to provide the balance and
variety that are vital to good health.
From general health guidelines, we move into some specifics foods to make your application of this
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material a bit easier.
Recommended/Restricted Foods List
The following list considers caloric content, energy nutrients, and nutrient combinations to guide you in
your food choices. In association with this list, the term “recommended” means choose these foods as
the premier selection from each group. The term “restricted” means eat lesser quantities of these foods.
Restrict does not mean eliminate, they just should not be as abundant.
Breads, Rice, Pasta, Starches - Recommended
Gluten Free Bread – The Best Choice Oatmeal, Total and
Winter Squash
Whole Wheat Bread Rye Bread
whole grain low sugar
Small whole grain bagel
Pumpernickel Bread
cereal
Whole wheat pasta
Sweet Potatoes
Brown Rice
Breads, Rice, Pasta, Starches – Restricted
White Starches
Croissants
Regular granola
Potatoes
Biscuits
Sugar cereals
All types of French Fries (Sweet Potato
included)
White Bread Rolls
Tortillas – fried or not fried
Fried Rice
Popcorn
White Pasta
Pretzels
Grits
Corn – White and Yellow
Fruit – Recommended
Berries
Pears
Figs
Citrus
Cherries – without sugar added
Dates
Apples
Fresh fruit off a tree
Peaches
Fruit – Restricted
Bananas
Pineapple
Mango
Glazed fruit
Coconut – only because it is high in
calories; otherwise a great source of
MCT’s (a healthy fat)
Fruit and Fruit
cocktails with
sugar added
Avocado – again a healthy food,
however high in calories because of its
high fat content
Fruits available in
cans
*Pie filling is not fruit
Grapes
Raisins
Vegetables – Recommended
All vegetables raw, steamed, broiled, baked or tossed with a very small amount of olive oil and salt and
pepper
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Vegetables – Restricted
Fried vegetables or vegetables served with cream, cheese or butter sauces
* This is as simple as saving calories through smart preparation
Meat, Poultry, and Fish – Recommended
Fish (fresh, frozen, canned in water), low-fat fish sticks or cakes and shellfish (i.e. shrimp)
*As with vegetables, fresh is always the best choice
Lean beef (round, sirloin and loin)
Lean pork (tenderloin and loin chop)
Turkey bacon
Low-fat ground chicken and ground turkey breast
Lean lunch meats such as turkey, chicken and ham (check fat content)
Fat-free hot dogs and turkey dogs
Eggs – reminder that the protein is in the white; saturated fat in the yolk
Meat, Poultry, and Fish – Restricted
Regular or breaded fish sticks or cakes, fish canned in oil, seafood prepared with butter or served in
high-fat sauce
Prime and marbled beef cuts
Pork spare ribs and bacon
Beef short ribs
Regular ground beef or ground chicken or ground turkey
Lunch meats such as pepperoni, salami, bologna and liverwurst
Regular hot dogs or sausage
Nuts, Seeds, and Beans – Recommended
Almonds
Sunflower Seeds
Pecans
Chick Peas
Walnuts
Kidney Beans
Cashews
Black Beans
Brazil Nuts
Lentils
Macadamia Nuts
Legumes
*The above are considered the top 6 nuts
for health
Nuts, Seeds, and beans – Restricted
Peanuts
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*Remember that nuts are naturally high in fat. An excessive intake may lead to weight gain.
CONTROL your intake by observing and restricting your intake based on the serving size
recommendations.
Dairy – Recommended
Non-fat or 1% milk
Evaporated non-fat milk
Buttermilk made from non-fat (or 1%) milk
Nonfat or low-fat yogurt
Low-fat cheese with less than 3 grams of fat per serving (example: natural cheese, processed cheese and
nondairy cheese such as soy cheese)
Low-fat, nonfat, and dry-curd cottage cheese with less than 2% fat
Low-fat cream cheese (no more than 3 grams of fat per ounce)
Sorbet, sherbet and nonfat or low-fat ice cream (no more than 3 grams of fat per 1/2 cup serving)
Dairy – Restricted
Whole or 2% milk
Evaporated milk
Regular cheese (examples: American, blue, Brie,
cheddar, Colby and Parmesan)
Regular buttermilk
Regular cottage cheese
Yogurt made with whole milk
Regular cream cheese
Regular ice cream
Alternative milk and milk; in order of healthy nutrient content
Almond Milk
Goat’s Milk
Coconut Milk
Hormone Free Cow’s Milk
Soy Milk
Cow’s Milk
Rice Milk
Fats, Oils, and Sweets - Recommended
Fig bars, gingersnaps and molasses cookies
Nonfat or light salad dressing
Olive, soybean and canola oils
Nonstick cooking spray
Nonfat or light mayonnaise
Fats, Oils, and Sweets – Restricted
Cookies
Regular salad dressing
Shortening, butter or margarine
Using fat (including butter) to grease pan
Regular mayonnaise
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Healthy Cooking Oils – In order of health
Olive Oil – Be careful, this oil does not
respond well to heat
Sunflower Oil
Flax Seed Oil
Peanut Oil
Canola Oil
Coconut Oil
Soybean Oil
Safflower Oil
Bad Cooking Oils
Corn Oil
Butter
Vegetable Shortening
Palm Oil
Hard Margarine
Palm Kernel Oil
Energy Equation - Determining Energy Needs
Now that we have addressed appropriate and inappropriate foods, let us see if we are getting the correct
amount of these foods; let’s see if we have “energy balance.” Balance occurs when energy intake (the
sum of energy from foods, fluids, and supplements) equals energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is
calculated by estimating basal metabolic rate (BMR), also known as metabolism, along with an
estimation of physical activity. If energy intake is greater than energy expended, weight will be gained.
If energy expended is greater than energy intake, weight will be lost.
There are many methods one can use to determine energy expenditure. For uniformity’s sake, we will
use the Harris Benedict Formula to provide a general idea of caloric expenditure and need. This is
recommended by Registered & Licensed Dietitian, Dr. D.A. Higginbotham. We will do an example for
women and men below. When calculating, remember to always do what is inside the parenthesis first.
Harris Benedict Formula for Women
STEP 1- Calculate BMR
BMR = 655 + (4.35 x weight in pounds) + (4.7 x height in inches) - (4.7 x age in years)
BMR equation example using sedentary female
Weight: 185 pounds
Height: 5 feet 4 inches tall
32 years old
BMR is 655 + (4.35 X 185 pounds) + (4.7 X 64 inches) - (4.7 X 32 years) = 1610
BMR is 655 + 804.75 + 300.8 – 150.4 = 1610
STEP 2- Multiply your BMR by the appropriate activity level factor below resulting in your total
daily calorie needs.
Sedentary
little or no exercise
BMR X 1.2
Lightly Active*
light exercise 1-3 days/week
BMR X 1.37
Moderately Active**
moderate exercise 3-5 days/week)
BMR X 1.55
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Very Active
hard exercise 6-7 days/week
BMR X 1.725
Extra Active
very hard daily exercise/physical job
or 2X day training)
BMR X 1.9
For sedentary female, multiply BMR from step 1 (1610) by 1.2 = 1932
Total daily calorie requirement = 1932 calories.
This is the total number of calories you need in order to MAINTAIN your current weight.
Harris Benedict Formula for Men
STEP 1 - Calculate BMR
BMR = 66 + (6.23 x weight in pounds) + (12.7 x height in inches) - (6.8 x age in year)
BMR equation example using lightly active male
Weight: 185 pounds
Height: 6 feet tall
25 years old
BMR=66 + (6.23 X 185) + (12.7 X 72) - (6.8 X 25) = 1963
BMR= 66 + 1152.55 + 914.4 – 170 = 1963
STEP 2- Multiply your BMR by the appropriate activity level factor below resulting in your total
daily calorie needs.
Sedentary
little or no exercise
BMR X 1.2
Lightly Active
light exercise 1-3 days/week
BMR X 1.375
Moderately Active
moderate exercise 3-5 days/week
BMR X 1.55
Very Active
hard exercise 6-7 days/week
BMR X 1.725
Extra Active
very hard daily exercise/physical job
or 2X day training)
BMR X 1.9
For lightly active male, multiply BMR from step 1 (1963) by 1.375 = 2699
Total daily calorie requirement= 2699 calories.
This is the total number of calories you need in order to MAINTAIN your current weight.
*Note that most AFSNCOA students will fall into the lightly active category while at the academy.
AFSNCOA students doing normal AFSNCOA Human Performance workouts plus personal work
outs will fall into the moderately active category while at the academy.
* Bring your personal Energy Equation result to the first MP03 auditorium hour (Performance
Nutrition).
Now that we know how many calories we need, let us look at ways to expend those calories so we can
keep that energy balance.
MP 2: Physical Performance
A. Functional Training
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Functional training is defined as any type of exercise that has a direct relationship to the
activities you perform in your daily life. The application to the United States Air Force is
pertinent because training functionally is the beginning point for physical combat
preparation - being prepared for the unknown.
If one watches a baby bend over to pick up a ball, it is obvious to see the proper “function”
of our body in the task of picking something up, bending at the knees, etc. So, one could
say to be the most efficient at “picking things up”, one’s exercise should emulate that. The
key to that is proper function. Adults often become accustomed to doing things, such as
picking something up incorrectly therefore causing other body parts to have to compensate
which increases the chance for injury. From this example we can see the importance of
“functioning” properly, but where did the connection between functionality and exercise
begin?
The concept of functional training originated from rehabilitation, where physical therapists
developed exercises for real life patient situations. The therapist develops a weight
bearing exercise regimen incorporating either weight loaded methods using patient’s body
mass or an external resistance device. The goal of developing muscle balance to
coordinate the strengthening of the weakened area with the rest of the body is the desired
result. Through training prescription, the patient is able to develop muscle balance and
joint stability. These are the cornerstone results in getting the patient back to functionality.
The functional training goals of the Airman are different from the patient. In the patient
scenario, rehabilitating injuries dominates the exercise prescription. During functional
training, the Airman promotes the concept of “pre-habilitation” or training to prevent
injuries in healthy individuals. Pre-habilitation lends to the concept of training the
body as a whole and not necessarily one target muscle group, which is often the case with
the physical therapy patient.
Functional Training and the Military
Exercise selection is critical when considering the number of people, time constraints, and
movement efficiency. The human machine is our most important piece of resistance
equipment. Bodyweight exercise, dynamic exercise, and joint mobility range of motion
are our primary considerations in implementing the program you will be participating in
here.
Additional concerns when selecting movements for our program include flexibility and
trunk/torso strength, strength endurance, incorporating multi-joint movements, and
targeting all planes of motion. These goals will be attained through the complete
programming of dynamic warm-up, flexibility stretches, the core movements (the meat of
the workout), and the cool-down/yoga. The combination of the above exercise
prescription will make for a more complete training regimen and generate the potential of
developing a more effective human combat weapon. Below you will see the movements
that will populate the above mentioned prescription to accomplish your Human
Performance workouts while at the AFSNCO Academy.
Movements (explanations begin on page 26)
Warm-up
1. Circle Run
The Core Movements
The Cool-down
1. Squat
1. 2 minute heart rate walk
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2. Arm Rotation
2. Butterfly Sit-up
2. Shoulder Stretch
3. Trunk Rotation
3. Mountain Climber
3. Triceps Stretch
4. Over and Under the
Fence
4. Squat Thrust
4. Quad Stretch
5. Burp
5. Seated Calf Stretch
5. Good Morning
6. Butterfly Stretch
6.
7. Modified Hurdler Stretch
Heel Rocker
7. Pendulum Leg
Swings
8. Soccer Kicks
8. Piriformis Stretch
9. ½ Pretzel Stretch
B. High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE)
High Intensity Exercise Endurance (HIEE) is defined as the application of maximal physical effort
systematically applied to a technically developed motor skill. The most important portion of that
definition is “applied to a technically developed motor skill.” There are many ability levels and body
types that will be engaged in this program. It is critical that both the instructor and the student
understand physical capabilities and limitations. Until the student is able to engage in the prescribed
exercises using the full range of motion with good form, the student will be instructed to not apply the
rapid pace of our workouts. THIS IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CONCEPT OF THIS PROGRAM. It
will be referred to as the FOSI Principle (Form Over Speed and Intensity). The FOSI Principle will
ensure the motor skills are technically developed before speed or intensity is added. Adhering to the
FOSI Principle increases safety and program outcomes by focusing on form. Correct form, with a tight
core and straight back, results in more comprehensive movements enhancing flexibility and strength.
Intensity (power) vs. Duration
The power produced during specific exercise can be defined by analyzing an exercise continuum with
exercise intensity at one end and exercise duration at the other end. The purest form of intensity is the
strict opposite of the purest form of duration.
Intensity
Duration
(More Power)
(Less Power)
The more intense the exercise then the more power produced during that exercise. On the other hand,
the longer duration of exercise elicits less power dependent on the duration.
Specific exercise examples can be found in the sport of track and field. Shot putters and sprinters
require more power output to perform work than distance runners. Moving our example to more of a
variety of activities, American football players and Olympic weightlifters produce more power in their
sport than soccer players and marathon runners.
Our program targets a training goal that lands somewhere in the middle of the power continuum. Our
program will aim to elicit a training response that can generate some power while providing the ability
to work for a moderate duration.
Functional Endurance Intensity (FEI)
Functional Endurance Intensity is the best phrase to define our program. FEI is Functional Training
workouts married with the High Intensity Exercise Endurance concept resulting in functional
movements completed CORRECTLY at a high intensity. Functional exercise will be performed at
higher intensities as the participant advances through the program. Most core movement workouts will
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last between 10 and 25 minutes. It is important for you to realize that high intensity exercise means that
you should not have the ability to engage in conversation or any other event while you are participating
in the workouts. The focus is the workout. The phrase ―be finished when you finish‖ is the best
explanation. You should have nothing left in your tank when you complete the workout. If you have
something left, then you didn‘t put forth your best effort OR you were not proficient enough in the
day‘s prescribed exercises to operate at a high functional intensity.
In a Prevention magazine article, Dr. Arthur Agatston, an associate professor of medicine at the
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine stated that, ―some activities may be good for your
heart but can be hard on the body, ideally we want to find what works for both. Workouts such as
interval training, total-body/ nonimpact sports, and core workouts are ideal for efficiently improving
fitness. Combine short bursts of high-intensity exercise with slightly longer periods of active recovery.
Continuously raising and lowering the heart rate improves vascular function, burns calories and makes
the body more efficient at clearing fat and sugar from the blood. The more muscles involved in an
activity, the MP03SG – 23 harder your body must work to fuel them all, resulting in the muscles getting
worked as well as your heart. Core workouts and flexibility exercises make your base stronger and the
entire body more limber and improve balance which not only helps in a sports-type arena but it also
helps one to LIVE better. A solid foundation is not just needed to exercise vigorously but also to do
every day FUNCTIONAL activities like carry the groceries up stairs or weed the garden.‖8
So, now we have seen a description of the program which was simply functional bodyweight
movements applied at a high intensity. Knowing that, we also know that this program has a purpose.
Our purpose is combat readiness using movements specific to the human machine, with the endurance
to allow you to generate power over a longer duration, and to provide movement variety to allow you to
prepare for the unknown.
The programming will be progressive. Form and experience must be attained before advancing to
increased exercise intensities. Again, remember the FOSI Principle (Form Over Speed & Intensity).
Exercise prescription will become more complex over time. Similarly, exercise intensity will increase
over time. The functional workouts will also become more difficult over time. There will always be
space for improvement in anyone regardless of ability level. With an understanding of the AFSNCOA
workouts, let us now briefly explore the best way to breathe to get the most out of these workouts. This
will be done with Tactical Breathing.
Tactical Breathing 8
7F
Tactical breathing is the ability to control your breathing in times when you most need to breathe
efficiently. For example, our high intensity workouts will provide times where breathing efficiency
mechanisms are needed. In these times it will be most critical to incorporate some concepts of
breathing efficiency through diaphragmatic breathing techniques.
Diaphragmatic Breathing is the art of breathing by contracting the diaphragm, the muscle below the
lungs. The concept involves creating enough room for the lungs to expand downward as opposed to
expanding laterally through using the rib cage muscles. This style of breathing promotes breathing
through the expansion of the abdomen instead of the chest. It is considered as the best breathing
method and a healthier, fuller way to ingest oxygen. Additional breathing guidance is addressed in the
cool-down section of this reading.
Diaphragmatic Breathing Techniques
1. Crocodile Breathing – Begin by lying prone on
your stomach, with arms folded at about a 45
degree angle above your shoulders. Your body
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will naturally begin to breathe diaphragmatically.
Use the crocodile pose to counteract the normal
abdominal tension that arises whenever you are
preparing for or recovering from intense exercise
bouts. It will automatically get you started toward
a more natural breathing style.
Figure 2
Figure 1
2. Relaxation Pose - Another version of diaphragmatic
breathing is accomplished in shavasana (relaxation pose). Lie
on your back on a flat carpeted surface. In this posture, the
navel region rises with each inhalation and falls with each
exhalation. Bring your awareness to your breath and feel the
continuous flow of exhalations and inhalations. Concentrate on
softening the rib cage to better enable the inhalations,
exhalations, and focus on the navel region.
3. Sitting Up to Breathe - Sit erect in any seated pose. Rest
your hands in your lap. Close your eyes and turn your
attention to the flow of exhalations and inhalations. Soften
the abdomen and sides of the rib cage. Let the muscles of the
back support your posture with only modest muscle tone.
Concentrate on enabling your breathing through a quiet
expansion of the sides of the rib cage. The front wall of the
abdomen also expands, but the movement is much less than it
was in the relaxation pose.
So, what are these exercise prescriptions that are going to
require me to be so focused on my breathing?
Figure 3
C. Safety and Running Protocol
Safety: Safety is our number one concern during all HP sessions, so ensure you follow these few safety
guidelines:
- Hydrate before, during and after PT (Alabama is hot)
- Wear the proper shoes (wet foot test)
- Listen to your body (don’t overdo it)
- If your group is too fast, change groups!
- Be aware of your surroundings at all time
Look out for the abundance of pine cones in the Gunter Bowl and elsewhere on base
Running Protocol
To get the most out of your running in order to reduce injuries, improve efficiency, increase your speed
and to go a longer distance, here are few proper running tips:
Head Position: How you hold your head is key to overall posture, which determines how efficiently
you run. Let your gaze guide you. Look ahead naturally, not down at your feet,
MP03SG - 21
and scan the horizon. This will straighten your neck and back, and bring them into alignment. Do not
allow your chin to jut out.
Shoulders: Shoulders play an important role in keeping your upper body relaxed while you run, which
is critical to maintaining efficient running posture. For optimum performance, your shoulders should be
low and loose, not high and tight. As you tire on a run, do not let them creep up toward your ears. If
they do, shake them out to release the tension. Your shoulders also need to remain level and should not
dip from side to side with each stride.
Arms: Even though running is primarily a lower-body activity, your arms are not just along for the
ride. Your hands control the tension in your upper body, while your arm swing works in conjunction
with your leg stride to drive you forward. Keep your hands in an unclenched fist, with your fingers
lightly touching your palms. Imagine yourself trying to carry a potato chip in each hand without
crushing it. Your arms should swing mostly forward and back, not across your body, between waist and
lower-chest level. Your elbows should be bent at about a 90-degree angle. When you feel your fists
clenching or your forearms tensing, drop your arms to your sides and shake them out for a few seconds
to release the tension.
Torso: The position of your torso while running is affected by the position of your head and shoulders.
With your head up and looking ahead and your shoulders low and loose, your torso and back naturally
straighten to allow you to run in an efficient, upright position that promotes optimal lung capacity and
stride length. Many track coaches describe this ideal torso position as "running tall" and it means you
need to stretch yourself up to your full height with your back comfortably straight. If you start to slouch
during a run take a deep breath and feel yourself naturally straighten. As you exhale simply maintain
that upright position.
Hips: Your hips are your center of gravity, so they are key to good running posture. The proper
position of your torso while running helps to ensure your hips will also be in the ideal position. With
your torso and back comfortably upright and straight, your hips naturally fall into proper alignment-pointing you straight ahead. If you allow your torso to hunch over or lean too far forward during a run,
your pelvis will tilt forward as well, which can put pressure on your lower back and throw the rest of
your lower body out of alignment. When trying to gauge the position of your hips, think of your pelvis
as a bowl filled with marbles, then try not to spill the marbles by tilting the bowl.
Legs/Stride: While sprinters need to lift their knees high to achieve maximum leg power, distance
runners do not need such an exaggerated knee lift--it is simply too hard to sustain for any length of time.
Instead, efficient endurance running requires just a slight knee lift, a quick leg turnover, and a short
stride. Together, these will facilitate fluid forward movement instead of diverting (and wasting) energy.
When running with the proper stride length, your feet should land directly underneath your body. As
your foot strikes the ground, your knee should be slightly flexed so that it can bend naturally on impact.
If your lower leg (below the knee) extends out in front of your body, your stride is too long.
Ankles/Feet: To run well, you need to push off the ground with maximum force. With each step, your
foot should hit the ground lightly--landing between your heel and midfoot--then quickly roll forward.
Keep your ankle flexed as your foot rolls forward to create more force for push-off. As you roll onto
your toes, try to spring off the ground. You should feel your calf muscles propelling you forward on
each step. Your feet should not slap loudly as they hit the ground. Good running is springy and quiet.
MP 3: Human Weapon Systems Movements
A. GENERAL POPULATION: Comprehensive Movement Demonstration, Performance, and
Correction
MP03SG - 22
The following movements are programmed for your progressive physical advancement, to include the
warm-up, core workout movements, and cool-down.
Warm-up
The warm-up is designed for progressive workout readiness; therefore, the movements must be
followed in sequence. Remember the FOSI Principle (Form Over Speed and Intensity). When you
arrive at the for the HP session, begin your personal warm-up as we wait for everyone to arrive.
1. Circle Run (x2 minutes)
2. Arm Rotations (1 arm at a time – forward and backward 5x each)
Face forward with feet shoulder width apart. Rotate the arm forward to create as
large a circle as possible for 5 counts and then backwards.
3. Trunk Rotations (5x each direction)
With feet shoulder width apart and toes facing forward, keep your body straight, extend your
arms outward with your fingers pointing towards the sky and rotate from side to side while
looking in the direction of the twist.
4. Over and Under the Fence (10x – each side)
For the Over the Fence, step laterally over an imaginary fence, one foot at a time. Step as
high as possible for maximum range of motion. For the Under the Fence, slide under another
imaginary fence. When going under the fence step as wide as possible and be sure to touch
your chest to the top of your quadriceps. Perform ten 4-count repetitions, alternating both
MP03SG - 23
legs. Your feet should never cross at any time during these drills. These stretches will help to
loosen hips and groin while also improving change of direction.
5. Good Morning (10x)
Face forward and stand with feet shoulder width apart. Cross arms over chest as if you were
doing Air Force crunches. Slightly bend the knees and keep knees bent for entire movement.
Lean forward and fold at the waist while rotating the hips to the back while the knees stay
slightly bent. In this downward phase, the weight should be concentrated in the heels (the
toes may come off the ground), with the back flat (DO NOT ROUND). Fold at the waist
until you feel the stretch in the hamstrings and gluteul muscles (posterior chain). Keep the
eyes looking forward and chin up as you complete the entire movement. When the
maximum stretch is attained, hold for 4 count and straighten out by unfolding the waist to
the upright position. Repetition one has been completed; the hands remain crossed over the
chest and the knees remain slightly bent.
6. Heel Rocker (4 count x 10)
Face forward with your legs and feet together and with your arms hanging by your side.
Begin by rocking as far as possible on your toes and then rocking on your heels as far as
possible. Keep your body straight as much as possible.
MP03SG - 24
7. Pendulum Leg Swings (10x – each side)
Face forward and place your feet together. Turn your left foot at a 45-degree angle. Keep your
arms relaxed at your sides. Also, keep your shoulders relaxed and your back straight. Bend your
right knee slightly and swing your right leg forward to about waist level. Make a downward
swing back through the middle and continue the swing behind you, like a pendulum. Focus on
the swing as one fluid movement.
8. Soccer Kicks (10x – each side)
Stand tall with your feet underneath your hips and your toes facing forward. Lift your
straight left leg out to the side of your body to a height that allows you to maintain an upright
body position. Swing your leg down, slightly bent and in front of your right leg then return it
to the side. Complete 1 set of 10 (4 count) swings on each leg.
MP03SG - 25
Core Movements
Every workout we do will consist of some order of some of the following movements. Again,
remember the FOSI Principle (Form Over Speed and Intensity) and to breathe.
Remember the FOSI Principle (Form Over Speed and Intensity) and to breathe.
Squat
1. Standing with feet just wider than shoulder width apart, pointed slightly outward
2. Squat down to an estimated depth to where a midline of the upper leg connecting the
inguinal fold (crease between the torso and the upper leg) to the patella (knee cap) is parallel
to the ground. More simply, when the top of the leg (quadricep) is parallel to the ground or
lower. When examining this midline it will appear that the squat is below parallel when
looking at the hips.
3. During the downward phase of the movement, the hands do not make contact with the body.
The weight is dispersed throughout the feet but more concentrated in the heels.
4. While transferring to the upward phase of movement, drive the feet into the ground and rise
explosively, straightening the body to a fully erect position with the chest out and the
shoulders back.
5. Throughout the movement it is critical to maintain an erect torso with the shoulders back.
There may be a tendency to slouch the shoulders, subsequently rounding the back. Should
this happen, remember FOSI, proper form is critical, slow down the repetition and
concentrate on a purposeful movement instead of a less efficient rep.
Butterfly Sit-up
The sit up that we perform in this class will be slightly different than the AF PT crunch in that it
will emphasize the abdomen and de-emphasize the hip flexors. Your hip flexors will be
addressed during the squatting movements.
1. Sit on the floor and form butterfly wings with the legs by bending the legs at 90 degrees and
completing the wings by putting the soles of the shoes together. The purpose of the leg
orientation is to emphasize the rectus abdominus (also known as the “six pack”) in the
movement while decreasing the role of the hip flexors.
2. Beginning in the up position, begin the repetition by moving the torso downward until the
shoulder blades touch the ground and the hands touch the ground above the head.
3. Initiate the upward motion by engaging the trunk and moving upward, completing the rep
when the hands touch the toes.
4. Try to avoid swinging and using momentum to do the movement by keeping feet grounded.
MP03SG - 26
5. Intentionally dig feet into ground to keep them from moving.
Mountain Climbers
1. Start in the up position of the push-up with palms on the ground and toes 6-12 inches apart.
2. Raise the hips slightly and begin the mountain climber by bringing the right leg in a flexed
motion with the knee aimed at the chest (try to bring the knee all the way up to the chest).
3. Touch the ground with the ball of the foot then return the leg to the original position by
straightening it back as far as possible.
4. When returning the right leg to the original position, engage the left leg, knee to chest and
ball of the foot touching the ground at the furthest distance possible.
5. Continue this right and left motion in the see-saw pattern until all the desired repetitions are
complete.
Squat Thrust (4-count Burpee)
1. Begin in the standing position with feet shoulder width apart, toes pointing slightly outward and
arms at the side.
2. Strictly emphasize each movement verbally counting each step.
3. Squat and put the palms of the hands flat on the ground at the most comfortable position either
inside/outside the knees or 12 inches in front of the toes.
4. Kick the feet straight behind (back) attempting to land the feet 6-12 inches apart in the push-up
stance.
5. Legs should be completely straight and hips in line with the trunk.
6. Try to land light on the toes, merely tapping the toes at full extension.
7. Core should be tight.
8. Jump forward, returning to original squatting position, landing with your feet flat on the ground
and palms on the ground at the most comfortable position either inside/outside the knees or 12
inches in front of the toes.
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9. Stand up.
Burp (4-count Thrust-Push-up)
1. Begins in the push-up position. Strictly emphasize each movement verbally counting each
step.
2. Kick both feet in towards the chest by flexing at the knees. The objective is to get the knees
as close to the chest as possible. The balls of the feet land on the ground.
3. Kick both feet out, returning to the original beginning push-up position.
A push-up repetition is initiated by lowering the body to the ground with the hips in line with
the torso, lowering at the same rate. Lower to the point to where the chest and upper torso
graze the ground.
4. Maintain tight core throughout movement.
5. Return to the upward position by pressing through the ground and fully extending the arms,
finishing in the original push-up position.
Cool Down
Intentionally focus on your breathing during all movements but especially during the cool down. This
will assist in the body cooling down and relaxing. Breathe in deep through the nose and out of the
mouth. Take deep full breaths, fully expanding the lungs and totally exhaling thus emptying the lungs.
As you perform the cool down movements, focus on “breathing and relaxing into each movement” to
further the stretch. If you find yourself shaking as you try to stretch, try to relax and breathe. Focusing
on breathing not only allows you to relax and increase your stretch, but it also forces the diaphragm to
work in unusual positions. This will work to make you a more efficient breather.
1. 2-minute walk to lower heart rate
Immediately upon completing the workout, walk at a slow pace in an attempt to decrease the accelerated
heart rate. As mentioned above, be sure to breathe. The remaining cool-down movements will continue
when all participants complete the workout and 2 minute cool-down walk in order to proceed as a unit.
2. Shoulder Stretch (4 count x 10 each arm)
Stand up straight, with knees slightly bent. Place feet hip distance apart. Make sure toes are pointing
forward. Keep shoulders even as you complete this stretch. Keep your back straight (not arched). Bend
right arm at elbow joint, extend arm across chest. Place left hand on the right elbow to gently support
MP03SG - 28
the arm during this stretch. Feel the stretch in your right arm and shoulder. Inhale through your nose,
and exhale through your mouth, as you complete this stretch.
3. Triceps Stretch (4 count x 10 each arm)
Stand up straight with knees slightly bent. Place feet hip distance apart. Make sure toes are pointing
forward. Keep shoulders even as you complete this stretch. Keep your back straight (not arched). Bend
right arm at elbow joint, lift arm next to your head. Position right fingers so they touch the shoulder
blade area. Place left arm across top of head, and place left hand on the right elbow to gently support
the arm during this stretch. Feel the stretch in your right triceps.
4. Quad Stretch (4 count x 10 each leg)
Stand up straight. You may choose to hold onto someone (with one hand) for additional support. Place
feet hip distance apart. Make sure toes are pointing forward. Keep shoulders even as you complete this
stretch. Hold abdominal muscles in tightly for additional support. Bend right leg at knee. Grasp right
foot behind you with right hand. Position both knees next to each other. Push hips forward. Feel the
stretch in right quadriceps.
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5. Seated Calf Stretch (4 count x 10)
Sitting on the ground, extend both legs in front of you. Keeping your back straight, cross your
arms over your chest and lean slightly forward. Keep your legs straight but at the same time flex
your toes back towards your body. Keep this position for the entire count.
6. Butterfly Stretch (4 count x 10)
Sit on the floor. Bend both knees and bring the soles of your feet together (so that your knees point
to the sides). Slowly slide your heels as close to your body as possible without discomfort. Sitting
evenly on your sitting bones and, keeping your back straight, take hold of your ankles, or wrap your
hands around your feet. Lean forward slowly and press your knees down to the floor, until you feel
a light stretch in your inner thighs. Do not bounce your legs, as this can damage the hips and groin.
MP03SG - 30
7. Modified Hurdler Stretch (4 Count x 10 each leg)
Sit on the ground and extend both legs in front of you. Pull one leg back toward your inner thigh as
if you were sitting cross-legged. Keep the bottom of your foot on your inner thigh and your bent
knee as close to the ground as possible. Point the toes on your extended foot upward. Lean forward
from your lower back and reach for your toes with the opposite hand while extending your other
hand behind you.
8. Piriformis Stretch (4 Count x 10 each leg)
Lie flat on your back to begin. Find a comfortable spot just like the one used in the earlier stretch
and cross your left ankle over your right knee, as if you were crossing your legs while sitting. Lace
your fingers together behind your right thigh. Make sure that your hands are not wet so that you can
have the proper grip. Gently pull this knee toward your chest. Hold this position once you feel a
burn in your left buttock.
9. ½ Pretzel (2 X 10 seconds each)
Lie on your back flat on the ground. Keep right leg straight with toe pointed upwards,
maintaining a 180 degree straight line with the right leg and the upper torso. Move your left
leg towards the right, completely across the body while creating a 90 degree angle at the knee
of the left leg. Place your right hand on the knee of the left leg for stability and turn your
neck, looking to the left, in the opposite direction of the left leg. Attempt to place the left leg
(knee) on the ground while concentrating the stretch in the left hip and spine muscles. After 2
repetitions for 10 seconds, switch the movement to the right leg repeating 2 repetitions for 10
seconds.
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B. PHOENIX FLIGHT: Comprehensive Movement Demonstration, Performance, and
Correction
Remember, the student’s profile is the authority and MUST be complied with at all times.
The Phoenix Group consists of individuals who are on a running waiver. This is important when
designing exercises that do not aggravate current injuries. Students in the Phoenix Group will meet in
the Gunter Bowl along with all other students. They will participate on “Strength Training” days with
the main group. On “Run” days, they will meet as a group and perform different walk or strength
workouts. Students that have a profile that keeps them from running/sit-ups/push-ups will work out in
the Satellite Fitness Center (SFC) using the exercise equipment or they will walk at Fisk Park. Students
MUST have a statement on their profile that states, “exercise at own pace”. An SNCOA staff member
will monitor this group at all times.
Core Movements
Tire Flip (ensure the area is clear before performing)
1. Bend at your knees, not your back.
2. Go to a deep squat position.
3. Grab the tire from underneath.
4. Drive your legs lifting the tire off the ground.
5. Flip the tire forward.
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Sledge Hammer Swings
1. Pick up the sledgehammer with your weaker hand. For instance, the left hand of a right-handed
user is the weaker hand. Hang onto it near the bottom end, or handle butt.
2. Grasp the handle a few inches below the sledgehammer head (mallet) with your dominant hand.
3. Choose whether you wish to stand directly in front of the tire for a vertical swing or slightly to
the side for a diagonal swing. According to RossTraining.com, a vertical swing proves harder to
deliver with a very heavy sledgehammer, so a diagonal stance might be your best option if you
are a beginner or if you are using a heavy sledgehammer.
4. Position your feet according to your choice of stance. For a diagonal stance, place the foot on the
side of your weaker hand closer to the tire, with your dominant foot slightly behind you. For the
vertical stance, stand with your feet shoulder width apart, centering yourself in front of the tire.
You should be only a couple feet away from the tire.
5. Bring the sledgehammer head at the same level as your own head on your dominant side. Lift it
into the air, and then drive it into the center of the tire. Your dominant hand should direct the
sledge in its path, while your non-dominant hand delivers the weight of the blow.
Hard Style Kettlebell Swing
1. Get behind the kettle bell about 1 to 2 foot length away.
2. Lean over from your hip while maintaining a neutral spine posture and grip the handle of the
kettle bell firmly with both hands.
3. Tilt the kettle bell towards you to form an extension of your arms as seen in the picture below
MP03SG - 33
and feel a good stretch on your hamstring muscles when you sit back.
4. At this point, you should get ready to contract your lat muscles to swing the kettle bell behind
your hips without changing your posture. Be ready to breathe in through your nose when you are
swinging the kettle bell back.
5. Sniff or breathe in while swinging the kettle bell back between your legs at the same time. Aim
to get the upper arms to contact your ribs and forearms to contact your groin. At this point, your
lats muscles are tight and hamstring are stretched.
6. With a braced core, snap your hips to the front using the “hip punch” to drive the kettle bell up
to the shoulder level without using your arms. Be sure to get full hip extension where your hip is
right under your shoulders. Your arms are quite relaxed although the grip is tight.
*The hip should come forward before the arms start rising with the kettle bell.
Knee Ups
1. Hang from a bar and bring your knees to your elbows in a controlled fashion and without
swinging.
2. Bend your elbows slightly before you begin raising your knees.
3. Hang from a pull-up bar with your legs and feet together and your knees slightly bent.
4. Slowly lift your knees up to one side as high as you can. Do this by curling your mid-section
from the bottom up, not simply by lifting your knees.
5. Squeeze your lower abs and oblique at the top of the movement for a one-count, then slowly
lower and repeat on the opposite side. Remember to have your abs do the work in a slow and
controlled fashion.
Reminder: The hip flexors, not the torso abdominals, are the prime movers in this exercise.
MP03SG - 34
Medicine Ball Wall Toss
1. Stand no more than 2 feet away from the wall with feet slightly beyond shoulder width. Hold the
medicine ball in front of your chin (slightly above chest level) with elbows bent at
approximately 90 degrees.
2. Perform a front squat by bending your legs at the knee and squat until your thighs are slightly
below parallel with the ground.
3. Explosively extend your legs, straightening to the standing position and throw the medicine ball
at a 10-foot target on the wall. The objective is to PRECISELY strike the target with the ball.
4. After releasing the ball, your arms should remain extended over your head as you wait for the
ball to drop back towards you.
5. Catch the ball and return it to chest level, then perform #2 (front squat) again in the initiation of
the next repetition.
MP03SG - 35
Kettle bell Press-up (lying on back)
1. Lying on your back, grab the KB by the bell portion on the back side of your wrist.
2. Raise the opposite leg of the arm you are using 12 inches off the ground.
3. Tighten your core.
4. Start with the KB beside your peck; drive it straight up extending your arm to the sky.
5. Lower the KB back to your side.
6. This is one repetition.
Planks
1. Lie face down on the ground resting on the forearms, palms flat on the ground.
MP03SG - 36
2. Push off the ground, raising up onto toes and resting on the elbows.
3. Keep your back flat, in a straight line from head to heels.
4. Tilt your pelvis and contract your abdominal muscles to prevent your rear end from sticking up
in the air or sagging in the middle.
Tire Dips
Truck or tractor tires can also double as a workout bench where several exercises can be performed.
One exercise is triceps dips.
1. Sit on the ground with your back toward the tire.
2. Bend your knees 45 degrees and place your feet flat on the ground.
3. Reach back and place your palms on the edge of the tire.
4. Straighten your arms to lift your butt off the ground, pause 1 second, then slowly lower your body
and repeat.
Seated Kettle bell Press-up
1. Sitting on the ground, grab the KB with the bell portion on the back side of your wrist.
2. Tighten your core and hold the KB inside your shoulder next to your chest.
3. Drive the KB straight up extending your arm to the sky then lower it back to your chest.
4. This is one repetition.
MP03SG - 37
Medicine Ball Squat
1. Start by placing your feet with the heels of your feet facing the outer portions of the medicine
ball. Note that placement of your feet in conjunction with the medicine ball will vary depending
on the height of the individual performing the exercise. In general, shorter people will have their
feet closer to the medicine ball; in some instances, they will have their feet aligned and touching
the medicine ball.
2. Standing with feet just wider than shoulder width apart, with toes pointed slightly outward, squat
down to the medicine ball depth until your butt touches the medicine ball.
3. During the downward phase of the movement, the hands do not make contact with the body. The
weight is dispersed throughout the feet but more concentrated in the heels.
4. While transferring to the upward phase of movement, drive the feet into the ground and rise
explosively, straightening the body to a fully erect position with the chest out and the shoulders
back. Throughout the movement, it is critical to maintain an erect torso with the shoulders back.
5. If you get fatigued, (muscular or cardiovascular), there may be a tendency to slouch the
shoulders, subsequently rounding the back. Should this happen, remember FOSI, proper form is
critical; slow down the repetition and concentrate on a purposeful movement instead of a less
efficient rep.
Kettle bell Goblet Squats
1. Get into a strong base stance with the KB on the ground between your legs.
2. Bend your knees slightly.
3. Place your feet no more than shoulder width apart.
4. Lower your body with your legs and lean forward while pinching your shoulder blades together.
5. With both hands, lift the KB on each side of the handle.
6. Bring the KB to your chest. This is the starting position.
7. Begin the squat by holding the KB away from your body (approximately 8 inches).
8. Lower your body to the medicine ball squatting position (see above).
9. Keep your weight on the ball of your feet.
10. Return to the standing position.
11. This is one repetition.
MP03SG - 38
Kettle bell Farmer’s Walk
1. Place cones approximately 20 yards apart.
2. Squat and fold at the waist, much like performing a deadlight and grip the handles.
3. After gripping the handles, lift them up by driving through your heels, keeping your back
straight and your head up.
4. Walk to the first cone and walk around it.
5. Once around the cone, lift the KBS to your chest.
6. Place your wrists together in front of your chest with the KBs resting on the back of your wrist
instead of your thumb.
7. Walk to the next cone and start the process over by lowering your arms to your side.
8. Continue to walk until it’s time to proceed to the next exercise.
DO NOT PICK UP KETTELBELLS LIKE BELOW
Kettle bell Lunge
1. Beginning in the upright position, pick up the KBs in each hand.
2. Allow KBs to hang to your sides.
3. Lunge forward with one leg while lowering the back leg to ground.
4. Return to the upright position.
5. Continuously alternate legs.
MP03SG - 39
Push Ups using a Med Ball (2 hands and 1 hand)
2 Handed:
1. Begin in a push-up stance with two hands on a medicine ball.
2. Lower yourself until your chest grazes the medicine ball in a finished lower position.
3. Return to the push-up stance.
1 Handed:
1. Begin in a push-up stance with one hand on a medicine ball and one hand flat on the ground.
2. Lower yourself until your chest grazes the medicine ball in a finished lower position.
3. Return to the push-up stance.
4. Perform equal amount of repetitions for each side.
Renegade Row
1. Start in the push-up position holding a dumbbell in each hand. Make sure that your shoulders are
lined up over your hands, your back is flat, and your feet are shoulder width apart or slightly wider.
2. Perform a push-up then hold the finished, upright position; pull the arm up doing a dumbbell row to
the rib cage. Complete this with each arm. In a real repetition, while rowing, the body stance remains
aligned, unaltered from the initial push-up stance. No bending, twisting the hips, etc is to be permitted.
3. Complete the push-up with single row on each side for 1 repetition.
Tip – When performing the row, dig in with the opposite (from the rowing arm) foot and flex/lock the
opposite hip for stability, prevent raising the hips or side to side raising of hips, and to prevent trunk
softness.
MP03SG - 40
Chest Press with Small Medicine Ball
1. Get into a balanced position by slightly bending your legs and keeping your weight on the balls of
your feet.
2. With the medicine ball to your chest, extend your arms out towards the wall releasing the ball as hard
as you can against the wall.
3. Catch the ball as it bounces back.
Side Toss with Small Medicine Ball
1. Hold the medicine ball in front of you.
2. Turn your left shoulder toward the wall.
3. Rotate your core away from the wall extending your arms to the field.
4. Rotate back towards the wall extending your arms so that the ball strikes the wall.
5. Catch the ball as it bounces back.
6. Alternate shoulders.
MP03SG - 41
Mountain Climbers
1. Start in the push-up position with palms on the ground and toes on the ground 6-12 inches apart.
2. Raise the hips slightly and begin the mountain climber by bringing the right leg in a flexed motion
with the knee aimed at the chest (try to bring the knee all the way up to the chest).
3. Touch the ground with the ball of the foot then return the leg to the original position by
straightening it back as far as possible.
4. When returning the right leg to the original position, engage the left leg/knee to chest and ball of the
foot touching the ground at the furthest distance possible.
5. Continue this right and left motion in the see-saw pattern until all the desired repetitions are
complete.
Flutter Kicks
1. Lie on you back.
2. Lift your legs 12 inches off the ground.
3. Keep your legs straight and your knees locked.
4. Alternate raising and lower your legs in a scissor-like motion.
8-Count Bodybuilder
All the movements in the 8-Count Bodybuilder should be done in a smooth, continuous manner. Keep
your back straight and your legs slightly flexed during this exercise.
1. Begin in the upright position.
MP03SG - 42
2. Squat down and put your hands shoulder width apart in front of you.
3. Extend your legs out and backward behind you.
4. Keep your body straight and in alignment as you move into a push-up position.
5. Execute a push-up.
6. Using a scissor-like motion, kick your legs apart.
7. Bring your legs back together into the push-up position.
8. Move your legs back to your chest.
9. Jump up. This returns you to the 8-count bodybuilder starting position.
Push-up with Feet on Medicine Ball
1. Place your feet on the large medicine ball.
MP03SG - 43
2. In the push-up position, lower your body until your arms reaches a 90-degree angle.
3. Return to the up position.
MP 4: Benefits of Human Performance
Exercise and Aging
Eventually, all living organisms die. Over time atherosclerosis, tissue deaths, and brain cell death
increase, and therefore, decreasing oxygen delivery to the tissues. Additionally, cell constituents change
with age: mitochondria (energy powerhouses of your cells) are not as robust, motor neurons quit firing
to some tissues, and fast twitch muscle fibers are rapidly lost. All of this equates to a decrease in human
functionality and eventual death. The question as to whether exercise can help prevent or at least delay
the onset of the aforementioned events may be asked.
Age Classification
Naturally dividing and non-dividing cells lived to be 120 years old, the age of the oldest known human.
Although no one can pin point the exact age of life expectancy, one can assume that humans may live to
be 120 years old based on that recording. The following categories depict what one can expect in each
age range:
1. 20-35 – “The Flowering of Strength” Young adulthood, peak of your performance years
2. 35-45 – young middle age; physical activity decreases; 5-10 kg (11-22 lbs.) accumulation of
body fat
3. 45-65 – reduced output of sex hormones
4. 65-75 – modest increase of physical activity; retirement
5. 75-85 – usually some physical disability sets in
6. 85+ - usually total dependence
The Positive Benefits of Physical Activity
There are many physical abilities enhanced with human movement. Included is: cardiovascular and
muscular endurance, strength, flexibility, joint range of motion, body composition (decrease), agility,
balance, coordination, power, speed, and reaction time.
In examining the more internal aspects of exercise benefits, you can confirm decreasing resting heart
rate and an increased stroke volume. Through a decreased resting heart rate the heart does not need to
work as hard, less beats per minute. Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped from the heart to
circulation and the lungs with 1 heartbeat. Increasing the stroke volume adds to a more efficient
MP03SG - 44
working heart muscle.
Some other internal health aspects include a decrease in blood pressure and decreased blood viscosity.
These benefits through exercise add to increasing the circulation and delivery capability of the blood.
Other added benefits include an increase in intestinal emptying and an increase bone mineral density
(calcium and phosphorus uptake increases).
Exercise has shown to improve blood profiles of diabetics and hypercholesterolemia patients. All forms
of exercise help regulate blood sugar; however cardiovascular exercise has shown to be most effective
in controlling physiological sugar (glucose) and insulin levels. Furthermore, the benefits of
cardiovascular (and anaerobic, without oxygen) exercise on cholesterol is equally beneficial. Research
studies have shown exercise to lower LDL or “bad” cholesterol while raising HDL “good” cholesterol.
All of these benefits assist in delaying the physiological aging process. As we age we lose
mitochondria, muscles shrink, brain ability decreases, hair falls out, and we become old and not what
we once were in our youth. If there is such as thing as a wonder drug to combat aging, it’s exercise.
Human Performance Impact
Efficient Human Performance makes one resilient. Being fit and healthy gives one the energy and
stamina to work long hours in every crevice of the globe and still be able to pay attention to the minute
details of life and of the job. Fitness recharges our physical and mental energy, therefore improving our
decision making skills. It also improves our performance and increases our endurance for the long haul.
When we are fit, our quality of sleep improves, our appearance is sharper, unit cohesion can be
enhanced, and our demeanor is positively impacted which also develops and supports a professional
military image that will give the public confidence and faith in the abilities of all Airmen.
SUMMARY
This brings us to the end of this Human Performance rollercoaster. Food, functionality, breathing,
intensity, endurance, movements and routines have all been addressed. All in an effort to create the best
Human Machines on the planet. Remember, it is about lifestyle change, not a diet or even a PT test. No
longer should we be part of a culture that promotes ‘fit to test’.
The demands placed on Airmen today are greater than ever. We face challenges that are very different
from any we have seen historically, and we must face these challenges with fewer people than we had
during the height of the Cold War. In order to meet these demands and exemplify the Military
Professional attribute, we must maximize our Human Performance.
MP03SG - 45
Attachment 1
Pace Chart
1.5 Mile
Easy Run
Tempo Run
Run Time
(min per mile)
(min per mile)
Interval Run
Long Run
(400m/1/4 mile)
(min per mile)
(min)
9-10 minutes
8-8:45
6:45-7:30
1:25-1:35
8:15-9:05
10-11 minutes
8:45-9:30
7:30-8:15
1:35-1:45
9:05-9:50
11-12 minutes
9:30-10:20
8:15-9:00
1:45-1:55
9:50-10:40
12-13 minutes
10:20-11:15
9:00-9:45
1:55-2:05
10:40-11:30
13-14 minutes
11:15-12:00
9:45-10:30
2:05-2:15
11:30-12:15
14-15 minutes
12:00-12:50
10:30-11:15
2:15-2:25
12:15-13:05
11:15-12:00
2:25-2:35
13:05-13:55
15-16 minutes
12:50-13:40
MP03SG - 46
Attachment 2
ORIENTATION RUN
Orientation
(10 min)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Review Procedures
Mass Group:
 Roll Call
 Water Coolers
 Running with
Traffic
 Use Crosswalks
 Quiet near
housing
 Do what you can,
vs. what
instructors can
 Personal
stretches, do
before and after
session
 Safety
Slow jog around ½ Gunter
Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the
fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Upper Body & Core/
Running Warm-up
(10 min)
 1 min Push-ups
 1 min Sit-ups
(feet not held)
Running Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back
Lines:
Jog Forward--Jog Backward
High Knees--Feet to Butt
Side Step up--Side Step back
Fred Astaire up--Fred Astaire back
(Instructors demo & watch
students’ performance)
MP03SG - 47
Run
(~20 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Orientation Run:
Walk:
~20-minute easy run
(See pace chart)
2-4 min to lower heart rate to
<120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 3
EASY RUN
Purpose
 Recovery
 Increase
Endurance
 Focus on Form
 3 – 6 miles
 1 easy run per
week
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½
Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the
fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Upper Body & Core/
Running Warm-up
(10 min)
 1 min Push-ups
 1 min Sit-ups
(feet not held)
Running Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back
Lines:
Jog Forward--Jog Backward
High Knees--Feet to Butt
Side Step up--Side Step back
Fred Astaire up--Fred Astaire back
MP03SG - 48
Run
(~25 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Easy Run:
Walk:
~25-minute run
(See pace chart)
5-minute core
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 4
TEMPO RUN
Purpose
 Increase Lactate
threshold (LT)
 Increase
Strength
 4 – 9 miles
 1 tempo run per
week
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Upper Body & Core/
Running Warm-up
(10 min)
Run
(~30 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½
Gunter Bowl
 1 min Push-ups
 1 min Sit-ups
(feet not held)
Running Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back
Lines:
Tempo Run:
~30-minute run
(See pace chart)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the
fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Jog Forward--Jog Backward
High Knees--Feet to Butt
Side Step up--Side Step back
Fred Astaire up--Fred Astaire back
MP03SG - 49
5 min easy pace
~20 min tempo run
5 min easy pace
Attachment 5
INTERVAL WORKOUT
Purpose
 Increase VO2
max
 Increase
strength and
speed
 4 – 8 miles
 1 interval run
per week
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½
Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the
fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Running Warm-up
(5 min)
Running Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back
Lines:
Jog Forward--Jog Backward
High Knees--Feet to Butt
Side Step up--Side Step back
Fred Astaire up--Fred Astaire back
MP03SG - 50
Run
(~35 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Interval Run:
Walk:
~35-minute run
5 min easy
~25 min tempo run
4-6 work cycles
equal distance rest cycles in
between work cycles
5 min easy
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
See pace chart for interval
work cycle times
Run at easy pace during rest
cycle
Attachment 6
LONG RUN
Purpose
 Increase
Endurance
 Focus on Form
 5 – 15 miles
 1 long run per
week
Warm-Up
(2 min)
Individual:
Prior to workout, perform
personal stretches as
required
Running Warm-up
(5 min)
Running Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back
Lines:
Jog Forward--Jog Backward
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½
Gunter Bowl
High Knees--Feet to Butt
Side Step up--Side Step back
Fred Astaire up--Fred Astaire back
MP03SG - 51
Run
(~43 min)
Long Run:
~43-minute run
(See pace Chart)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 7
LAST MAN UP SPEED RUN
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Speed-work Run
(20 min)
Calisthenics
(20 min)
Mass Group:
Speed Warm-Up
30 meter Up-and-Back Lines:
Jog Forward----Jog Backward
Side Step up----Side Step back
Fred Astaire up----Fred Astaire back
High Knees----Feet to Butt
20 min Last-Man-Up Run:
Perform fit deck cards
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Easy run pace for 1/2 mile for warm-up
Align group into single file line after warm-up
run, set easy pace, the “last man” will complete a
gradual sprint to the front of formation.
CRITICAL:
Jog = easy run pace
Interval = run slightly faster than your 1.5 mile
pace
 After Run: Cooldown-1-2 min walk, heart
rate <120bpm
MP03SG - 52
Perform 10 on a 4 count








Cool Down
(10 min)
Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 8
SPEED/STRENGTH TRAINING
Warm Up
(10 min)
Calisthenics
(20 min)
Mass Group:
Perform 10 on a 4
count:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
“Use fit deck cards”
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
** Not a formation run.
Interval/Speed Work
min)
30 meter Up-and-Back Lines:
Jog Forward----Jog Backward
High Knees----Feet to Butt
Side Step up----Side Step back
Fred Astair up-----Fred Astair back
Total Body Focus
20 Min Interval/Speed Work
Normal Jog in Formation, 2 columns
4 min easy pace warm-up
 1 min jog --- 15 sec fast
 1 min jog --- 30 sec fast
 1 min jog --- 45 sec fast
 1 min jog --- 1 min fast
 1 min jog --- 45 sec fast
 1 min jog --- 30 sec fast
 1 min jog --- 15 sec fast
5 min easy pace cool down
*Note: Variations on this plan are authorized as
long as instructor ensures sufficient time is given
to both speed and strength conditioning.
CRITICAL:
Jog = easy run pace
Fast = run slightly faster than your 1.5 mile pace
MP03SG - 53
Cool Down
(10 min)
(20
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm















Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Seated Calf
Stretch
(10x)
Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 9
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #1
Warm Up
(10 min)
Four-Corners
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Equipment Set-Up: Place 4 cones or
markers on the field; divide students into 4
groups
Walk:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
2-4 min to lower heart rate to
<120 bpm
Objective:
Consecutively
perform
indicated exercise for 30 to 60 sec on a 4 Shoulder Stretch
count then run around all cones before
(10x – each arm)
stopping at next station.
Begin next
exercise cycle when everyone is at their  Triceps Stretch
next cone/marker.
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
After 20 minutes, switch run direction.
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
A minimum of one Fit deck is needed;
(10x – each leg)
All corners perform different exercises:
 Piriformis Stretch
Follow an alternating color sequence
(10x – each leg)
after each run (Example: Red, Blue,
Green, Orange). This rotation will
 ½ Pretzel
ensure all body zones are worked.
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 54
Attachment 10
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #2
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward 5x
each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Warrior Circle
(40
min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card
Walk:
colors of 10 on a 4 count (red, orange, green,
blue) then run in a tight circle for 2-minutes.
2 min to lower heart rate to <120 bpm
The Instructors run inside the circle in
opposite direction to motivate students.
Repeat exercises and run interval for 40  Shoulder Stretch
minutes, but reverse direction of run each
(10x – each arm)
time.
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
1 Set = 1 Upper Body
 Quad Stretch
1 Set = 1 Core
(10x – each leg)
1 Set = 1 Legs
 Seated Calf Stretch
1 Set = 1 Total Body
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
“Use fit deck Card to maintain sequence
(10x)
i.e.:
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
red, blue, green and orange card”
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg))
MP03SG - 55
Attachment 11
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #3
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Warrior Challenge
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card
Walk:
colors (red, orange, green, blue) as a 2 to
4 person team. The workout will consist
2-4 min to lower heart
of five events and a prescribed number to
rate to <120 bpm
be completed depending on the group.
The events can be completed in order or
in portions, leader determines which  Shoulder Stretch
method, and is completed for time. Tailor
(10x – each arm)
numbers to ability level of the group and
 Triceps Stretch
time available.
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
Event 1: Upper Body
(10x – each leg)
Event 2: Core
 Seated Calf Stretch
Event 3: Run
(10x)
Event 4: Legs
 Butterfly Stretch
Event 5: Total Body
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
Example:
(10x – each leg)
Event 1: 100 Push-ups
 Piriformis Stretch
Event 2: 100 Sit-ups
(10x – each leg)
Event 3: 4 laps around bowl
 ½ Pretzel
Event 4: 100 Squats
(10x – each leg)
Event 5: 100 Jumping Jacks
MP03SG - 56
Attachment 12
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #4
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Warrior Relay
(40
min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card
colors (red, orange, green, blue) as a 6 to
8 person relay team. The workout will
consist of five stations and two 15 minute
workouts followed by 5 minutes of rest
after each.
Cool Down
(10 min)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Station 1: Rest
 Triceps Stretch
Station 2: Legs
(10x – each arm)
Station 3: Upper Body
 Quad Stretch
Station 4: Core
(10x – each leg)
Station 5: Total Body
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
All four work stations start and stop at the
same time with continuous work  Butterfly Stretch
throughout the 15 minute work cycles.
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
See layout chart
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 57
Attachment 13
MP03SG - 58
Attachment 14
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #5
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
THE PYRAMID
(40 min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of four events and a prescribed number to be
completed depending on the group. The events can be
completed in order or in portions, leader determines
which method, and is completed by number of
repetitions. Tailor numbers to the group’s ability level
and time available.
Place flights at each cone accordingly. Start with
pushups with 5 reps continuing with sit-ups, squats and
burpees or squat thrusts then run 1 lap. Continue the
Pyramid sequence until the Pyramid is complete.
All four work stations start and stop at the same time
with continuous work throughout the 15 minute work
cycles.
PUSH UP –
Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 – 5
SIT UP Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 – 5
SQUAT Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 – 5
Burpee/SquatThrust - (4 count)
Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5
MP03SG - 59
Cool Down
(10 min)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 15
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #6
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
TABATA CORNER (40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
Walk:
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of four events at four separate cones.
2-4 min to lower heart
Flights/teams will begin doing their prescribed exercise
rate to <120 bpm
for 20 seconds with a 10 second rest period. This will
be accomplished for 8 separate sets. For example: 8 sets
of push-ups, 20 seconds on & 10 seconds rest. Once all  Shoulder Stretch
8 sets have been accomplished flights/teams will run
(10x – each arm)
two laps around the four cones proceeding to the next
 Triceps Stretch
cone.
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
Example Exercises
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
Cone #1: Push-ups
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
Cone #2:Sit-ups
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
Cone #3: 4 Count Burpee/Squat Thrusts
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
Cone #4: Squats
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 60
Attachment 16
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #7
Warm-Up
(10 min)
TRIANGLE & ONE
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of three events. The events will be based on the
time it takes each group to reach the next station.
Walk:
Slow jog around ½ Gunter Bowl
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Over and Under the fence
(10x - each side)
 Good mornings
(10x)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Divide flights into four groups accordingly. The floater
group takes off on a run to relieve the first group. The
first group cannot stop until the last person arrives at the
station. Once the last person crosses the line, the first
group will get up and run to the next group to relieve
them and it continues throughout the exercise.
PUSH UP /PULL UP
PLANK (ALL COMBINATIONS)
SQUAT -
MP03SG - 61
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 17
MUSCULAR STRENGTH #8
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Rifle Training
(40 min)
 Arrange formation:
Extended Rectangular Formation
 Arm Rotations  Demonstration:
Explain procedures and demo proper form and
(1 arm at a time
technique for all movements
– forward &
Mass Group:






backward 5x
 Basic Rifle Drill Movements per set:
each)
1 – The Up and Forward
Trunk
2 – The Fore-up and Back
Rotations
3 – The Fore-up and Bend
(5x each
4 – The Fore-up and Squat
direction)
Over and
 Execution:
Under the
1 - The Up and Forward
Moderate cadence, four count exercise.
fence
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
(10x - each
side)
2 – The Fore-up and Back
Good
Moderate cadence, four count exercise.
mornings
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
(10x)
Heel Rockers
3 – The Fore-up and Bend
(10x)
Moderate cadence, four count exercise.
Pendulum Leg
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
Swings
(10x – each
4 – The Fore-up and Squat
Moderate cadence, four count exercise.
side)
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Depending
Depending
Depending
Depending
 Set 1:
- Four basic movements, no rest in
between each drill
- Add optional exercise after
movement 4: (push-ups, turn and
bounce, the SGM Special, etc.)
- Optional exercise should target
push-up muscles
- If needed, take a short break and
roll into follow-on sets in the same
manner
 Sets 2, 3 & 4:
- Same as above
• Group run:
- Once Sets 1-4 are completed,
collapse formation into normal
interval formation, then dismiss
them to form-up on the track in
column of 2 for a cadence-led
victory lap
- Once run is complete, form up into
a circle formation for cool down
***NOTES***
- Keep an eye on participants for
proper form!
- Proper technique is key to safety
and appropriate execution
- Break and hydrate as necessary
MP03SG - 62
Cool Down (10 min)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 18
MP03SG - 63
Attachment 19
COMBAT SKILLS TRAINING (CST)
Warm-Up and
CST Course Demonstration (10 min)







Mass Group:
Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward &
backward 5x each)
Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
Over and Under
the fence
(10x - each side)
Good mornings
(10x)
Heel Rockers
(10x)
Pendulum Leg
Swings
(10x – each side)
Soccer Kicks
(10x – each side)
Group:
CST Course Execution (40 min)
(Instructors watch students’ performance)
 Phase 1:
.25 mile Run
While waiting to perform
the CST, Instructors or
 Phase 2:
student PTL will lead
Ammo can press
calisthenics.
(1 min)
Exercise examples
 Phase 3:
Simulated maneuver
 Jumping Jacks
under fire drills
 Leg 1:
 Pushups
low crawl
high crawl
 Mountain Climbers  Leg 2:
Tire Flip
 Planks
 Leg 3:
4-person litter carry
 Crunches
 Leg 4:
 Tire Flip
 Squats
 Leg 5:
Out and Back, Rush
and Roll Rifle Drill
 Phase 4:
*Leg 6 and 7 will be
conducted while
carrying 2 x 30lbs
ammo cans*
 Leg 6:
Sprint out
 Leg 7:
Over/Under hurdles
***FINISHED***
**Wieghts, distances, and
obstacles may be tailored
to fit different ability
groups and equipment
availability
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart rate to
<120 bpm
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
**Key to success is being
(10x)
creative with what is
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
available while keeping
(10x – each leg)
safety a priority
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
*NOTES: - Students run course as 4 person team with the intent of starting and finishing as a team.
- 4 Instructors are needed to effectively monitor students on course.
MP03SG - 64
Cool Down
(10 min)
Attachment 20
MP03SG - 65
The Following Section is for
PHOENIX FLIGHT
ONLY
(ATTACHMENTS 21-36)
MP03SG - 66
Attachment 21
PHOENIX FLIGHT - ASSESSMENT WALK
Orientation
(10 min)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Assessment Walk
(20 min)
Review Procedures
Mass Group:
Walk at Fisk Park
 Roll Call
 Water Coolers
 Running with
Traffic
 Use Crosswalks
 Quiet near housing
 Do what you can,
vs. what
instructors can
 Personal stretches,
do before and after
session
 Safety
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings (10x – each
side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the
Fence (10x – each
side)
 Hand Release PushUp (10x)
Assessment Walk First
Timed 1 mile
MP03SG - 67
Push-up Sit-up
Assessment
(~20 min)
 1 min Push-ups
 1 min Sit-ups
(feet not held)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 22
Purpose
 Recovery
 Increase
Endurance
 Focus on
Form
 1-2 Miles
 1 easy walk
per week
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward
5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings (10x – each
side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the
Fence (10x – each
side)
 Hand Release PushUp (10x)
PHOENIX FLIGHT - EASY WALK
Walking Warm-up
Walk
(5 min)
(~35min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Walking warm-up
Easy Walk:
Walk:
Walk to Fisk Park
~35-minute walk
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 68
Attachment 23
Purpose
Warm-Up
(10 min)
PHOENIX FLIGHT - INTERVAL WALK
Walking Warm-up
Walk
(5 min)
(~35 min)
 Increase VO2
Mass Group:
max
 Increase
 Arm Rotations
strength and
(1 arm at a time –
speed
forward & backward
 2 miles
5x each)
 1 interval
 Pull Downs (10x)
walk per
 Trunk Rotations
week
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg
Swings (10x – each
side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the
Fence (10x – each
side)
 Hand Release PushUp (10x)
Walk to Fisk Park
Cool Down
(10 min)
Interval walk:
Walk:
~35-minute Walk
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
(Walk back from Fisk
park)
~35 min total
4-6 cycles
equal distance rest cycles in
between work cycles
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 69
Attachment 24
PHOENIX FLIGHT - LAST MAN UP SPEED WALK
Purpose
 Increase VO2
max
 Increase
strength and
speed
 2 – 2.5miles
 1 per week
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Speed-work Walk
(35 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
35 min Last-Man-Up Walk:
Static Stretches:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x
– each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence
(10x – each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
For the Last Man Up Speed Walk students will  Shoulder Stretch
begin walking in two lines at an easy pace. The
(10x – each arm)
individual in the back will speed walk to the
 Triceps Stretch
front of the line and then the next person in the
(10x – each arm)
back will continue the process. This will
continue until you have reached the 35 min of  Quad Stretch
continuous workout.
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
After walk: Cooldown-1-2 min walk, heart
(10x)
rate <120bpm
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
MP03SG - 70
Attachment 25
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (Four Corners)
Warm Up
(10 min)
Four-Corners
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Equipment Set-Up: Place 4 cones or markers on the field; divide students into 4
groups
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –
forward & backward 5x
each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings
(10x – each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the
Fence (10x – each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up
(10x)
Objective: Consecutively perform indicated exercise for 30 to 60 sec on a 4-count
then briskly walk to next station. Begin next exercise cycle when everyone is at their
next cone/marker.
A minimum of one Fit deck is needed.
All corners perform different exercises.
Follow an alternating color sequence after each cycle (Example: Red, Blue,
Green, Orange).
This rotation will ensure all body zones are worked.
MP03SG - 71
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder
Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf
Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly
Stretch
(10x)
 Modified
Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 26
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (Warrior Challenge)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Warrior Challenge
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x – each
side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence (10x –
each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
Static Stretches:
orange, green, blue) as a 2 to 4 person team. The
workout will consist of five events and a prescribed
 Shoulder Stretch
number to be completed depending on the group.
(10x – each arm)
The events can be completed in order or in portions,
leader determines which method, and is completed  Triceps Stretch
for time. Tailor numbers to ability level of the group
(10x – each arm)
and time available.
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Event 1: Upper Body
 Seated Calf Stretch
Event 2: Core
(10x)
Event 3: Run
 Butterfly Stretch
Event 4: Legs
(10x)
Event 5: Total Body
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Example:
 Piriformis Stretch
Event 1: 100 Push-ups
(10x – each leg)
Event 2: 100 Sit-ups
 ½ Pretzel
Event 3: 4 laps around bowl
(10x – each leg)
Event 4: 100 Squats
Event 5: 100 Jumping Jacks
MP03SG - 72
Attachment 27
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (Warrior Relay)
Warrior Relay
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a 6 to 8 person relay team.
The workout will consist of five stations and two 15
minute workouts followed by 5 minutes of rest after
each.
Static Stretches:
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward
5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x – each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence (10x – each
side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Station 1:
Station 2:
Station 3:
Station 4:
Station 5:
Rest
Legs
Upper Body
Core
Total Body
All four work stations start and stop at the same time
with continuous work throughout the 15 minute
work cycles.
See layout chart
MP03SG - 73
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 28
MP03SG - 74
Attachment 29
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (THE PYRAMID)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
THE PYRAMID
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 Min)
Mass Group:
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of four events and a prescribed number to be
completed depending on the group. The events can be
completed in order or in portions, leader determines which
method, and is completed by number of repetitions. Tailor
numbers to the group’s ability level and time available.
Walk:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x –
each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence (10x
– each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Place flights at each cone accordingly. Start with pushups
with 5 reps continuing with sit-ups, squats and burpees or
squat thrusts then run 1 lap. Continue the Pyramid
sequence until the Pyramid is complete
PUSH UP Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5
SIT UP Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5
SQUAT Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5
Burpee/SquatThrust - (4 count)
Rep Scheme: 5 - 10 - 15 - 20 - 15 - 10 - 5
MP03SG - 75
2-4 min to lower heart rate to < 120
BPM
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 30
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (TABATA CORNER)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
TABATA CORNER
(40 min)
Mass Group:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x –
each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence (10x
– each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Cool Down
(10 Min)
Walk:
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of four events at four separate cones. Flights/teams
will begin doing their prescribed exercise for 20 seconds
with a 10 second rest period. This will be accomplished
for 8 separate sets. For example: 8 sets of push-ups, 20
seconds on & 10 seconds rest. Once all 8 sets have been
accomplished flights/teams will briskly walk around the
cones proceeding to the third cone.
Example Exercises
Cone #1: Push-ups
Cone #2:Sit-ups
Cone #3: 4 Count Burpee/Squat Thrusts
Cone #4: Squats
MP03SG - 76
2-4 min to lower heart rate to < 120
BPM
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 31
PHOENIX FLIGHT - (Cross-Fit)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Cross-Fit
(40 min)
Cool Down
(10 min)
Mass Group
Group
Static Stretches:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward & backward 5x
each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x – each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence (10x – each
side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Varied Workouts
Based on Schedule
Work Card 1-4
MP03SG - 77
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 32
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (TRIANGLE & ONE)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
TRIANGLE & ONE (40 min)
Mass Group:
 Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time – forward &
backward 5x each)
 Pull Downs (10x)
 Trunk Rotations
(5x each direction)
 Good Morning
(10x)
 Pendulum Leg Swings (10x –
each side)
 Heel Rockers
(10x)
 Over and Under the Fence
(10x – each side)
 Hand Release Push-Up (10x)
Cool Down
(10 Min)
Walk:
Objective: Perform all four fit deck card colors (red,
orange, green, blue) as a flight/team. The workout will
consist of three events. The events will be based on the
time it takes each group to reach the next station.
Divide flights into four groups accordingly. The floater
group takes off on a fast walk to relieve the first group.
The first group cannot stop until the last person arrives at
the station. Once the last person crosses the line, the first
group will get up and run to the next group to relieve them
and it continues throughout the exercise
Example Exercises
PUSH UP /PULL UP
PLANK (ALL COMBINATIONS)
SQUAT
MP03SG - 78
2-4 min to lower heart rate to < 120
BPM
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 33
PHOENIX FLIGHT - COMBAT SKILLS TRAINING (CST)
Warm-Up and CST Course Demonstration
(15 min)
Mass Group:








Group:
Students maintain a slow run as
instructor demonstrates each phase
of the CST Course
Arm Rotations
(1 arm at a time –  Phase 1:
forward &
.50 jog
backward 5x
 Phase 2:
each)
Ammo can press
Pull Downs (10x)
(1 min)
Trunk Rotations
 Phase 3:
(5x each
direction)
Simulated maneuver under fire
Good Morning
drills
(10x)
 Leg 1:
Pendulum Leg
100yds sprint, low crawl, high
Swings (10x –
crawl, zig zag jog and sprint
each side)
 Leg 2:
Heel Rockers
100yds buddy drag, push-ups
(10x)
and sprint
Over and Under
the Fence (10x –  Leg 3:
each side)
100yds sprint, zig zag jog and
Hand Release
sprint
Push-Up (10x)
 Leg 4:
100yds under over drill, zig zag
jog, balance obstacle and sprint
NOTES:
CST Course Execution(35 min)
(Instructors watch students’ performance)
 Phase 1:
.50 jog
 Phase 2:
Ammo can press
(1 min)
 Phase 3:
Simulated maneuver
under fire drills
 Leg 1:
25yd sprint
10yd low crawl
15yd high crawl
25 yd zig zag jog
25 yd sprint
 Leg 2:
25yd buddy drag
25yd buddy drag
15 push-ups
50 yard sprint
*Leg 3 and 4 will be
conducted while carrying
2 x 30lbs ammo cans*
 Leg 3:
50yd sprint
25yd zig zag jog
25yd sprint
 Leg 4:
25yd under over drill
25yd zig zag jog
25yd balance obstacle
25yd sprint
Cool Down
(10 min)
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart
rate to <120 bpm





***FINISHED***
**Weights, distances, and

obstacles may be tailored to
fit different ability groups and
equipment availability

**Key to success is being
creative with what is
available while keeping
safety a priority
- Students jog course as 4 person team with the intent of starting and finishing as a team
- 4 Instructors are needed to effectively monitor students on course
MP03SG - 79

Static Stretches:
Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Seated Calf
Stretch
(10x)
Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
Piriformis
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 34
PHOENIX FLIGHT - MUSCULAR STRENGTH (RIFLE TRAINING)
Warm-Up
(10 min)
Mass Group:
Rifle Training Execution
(40 min)
 Arrange formation:
Extended Rectangular Formation
 Arm Rotations  Demonstration:
Explain procedures and demo proper form and
(1 arm at a time
technique for all movements
– forward &
backward 5x
each)
 Basic Rifle Drill Movements per set:
1 – The Up and Forward
 Pull Downs
2 – The Fore-up and Back
(10x)
3 – The Fore-up and Bend
 Trunk
4 – The Fore-up and Squat
Rotations
(5x each
direction)
 Execution:
 Good Morning
1 - The Up and Forward
(10x)
Moderate cadence, four count exercise. Depending
 Pendulum Leg
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
Swings (10x –
each side)
2 – The Fore-up and Back
 Heel Rockers
Moderate cadence, four count exercise. Depending
(10x)
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
 Over and Under
the Fence (10x –
3 – The Fore-up and Bend
each side)
Moderate cadence, four count exercise. Depending
 Hand Release
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
Push-Up (10x)
Cool Down
(10 min)
 Set 1:
- Four basic movements, no rest in
between each drill
- Add optional exercise after
movement 4: (push-ups, turn and
bounce, the SGM Special, etc.)
- Optional exercise should target
push-up muscles
- If needed, take a short break and
roll into follow-on sets in the
same manner
 Sets 2, 3 & 4:
- Same as above
•
Group jog:
- Once Sets 1-4 are completed,
collapse formation into normal
interval formation, then dismiss
them to form-up on the track in
column of 2 for a cadence-led
victory lap
- Once jog is complete, form up
into a circle formation for cool
down
***NOTES***
4 – The Fore-up and Squat
Moderate cadence, four count exercise. Depending
on ability of group, 10 – 15 reps
-
MP03SG - 80
Keep an eye on participants for
proper form!
Proper technique is key to safety
and appropriate execution
Break and hydrate as necessary
Walk:
2-4 min to lower heart rate
to <120 bpm
Static Stretches:
 Shoulder Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Triceps Stretch
(10x – each arm)
 Quad Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Seated Calf Stretch
(10x)
 Butterfly Stretch
(10x)
 Modified Hurdler
Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 Piriformis Stretch
(10x – each leg)
 ½ Pretzel
(10x – each leg)
Attachment 35
MP03SG - 81
Attachment 36
Heart Rate Zones
Heart Zone Training
Cardiovascular exercise relies on frequency, intensity and duration for effectiveness. How do you
know you are exercising at the correct intensity? Your heart rate is the best way to judge
intensity. Take your heart rate five minutes after the start of your exercise session and take it
again before you go into your cool down.
Figure 4 Polar FS1 Heart Rate Monitor
How to Measure Your Heart Rate via Your Pulse
You can find your pulse at your neck (carotid artery) or wrist (radial artery). Use a finger rather
than your thumb to find the artery and the pulse.
You will need a watch that displays seconds. You can take your pulse for 6 seconds and multiply
by 10 to get the beats per minute (bpm). For example, if you counted 8 beats in 6 seconds, your
bpm is 8 x 10 = 80. You could also count it for a full 60 seconds, but it usually is not easy or
convenient to do that while still exercising. Or you can increase the accuracy by counting for 12
seconds and multiplying by 5, but doing math while exercising may be a challenge. How to Take
Your Exercise Pulse1
Measuring Your Heart Rate with a Heart Monitor
Heart rate monitors typically use a chest strap to measure your heart rate. These gadgets range in price from $40 and up, and are the most
accurate method. They transmit the data to a wrist unit so you can see your heart rate throughout your workout. Models include many other
features with increasing price, such as tracking your heart rate zones, stopwatch features, calories burned and more. Other kinds of heart rate
monitors include handgrip pulse monitors on treadmills, and pulse monitors where you place one or two fingers on a sensor for a reading.
Before You Buy a Heart Rate Monitor2
Heart Zone Training
Are you training too intensely, or are you not putting enough into your workout to get the best results? If you know your maximum heart rate3
(MHR) you can use heart zone training to gear your workout to the correct intensity.
Maximum Heart Rate
Your maximum heart rate is as fast as your heart can beat. This varies for each person, but age is generally used as a guide for what your
maximum heart rate is likely to be. A more individualized number can be provided by testing by an athletic trainer, or as a function of some
of the more expensive heart rate monitors. Our heart rate calculator is age-based and you can use it to see your maximum heart rate and also
to find out bpm for target heart rates based on percentages of the maximum heart rate. Heart Rate Calculator4
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If you divide heart rate target zones by percentage of maximum heart rate, it breaks out into five zones. Each zone has different benefits.
Healthy Heart Zone
• This zone is 50 to 60% of your maximum heart rate. This is an easy and comfortable zone to exercise in.
• You will be able to carry on a full conversation in this zone, although you may be breathing a little heavier than usual.
• Walkers are often in this zone unless they press themselves to walk faster. Fitness walkers may alternate days of walking in this zone
with days of exercising in the higher heart rate zones, to give a recovery/easy day.
• Your workout in this zone is less intense and won't give the most cardiorespiratory training benefits. But studies have shown that it
works to help decrease body fat, blood pressure and cholesterol.
• In this zone, the body derives it energy by burning 10% carbohydrates, 5% protein and 85% fat.
1
• Healthy Heart Walking Workout
Fitness Zone
• This zone is from 60 to 70% of your maximum heart rate.
• You will be breathing heavier but will still be able to speak in short sentences.
• You burn more calories per minute than in the healthy heart zone because the exercise is a little more intense - you are going faster
and therefore covering more distance. The calories burned depend on the distance you cover and your weight more than any other
factors.
• In this zone, your body fuels itself with 85% fat, 5% protein, and 10% carbohydrate.
• You get the same health benefits and fat-burning benefits as the healthy heart zone.
2
• Fat-Burning Walking Workout
Aerobic Zone
• This zone is from 70-80% of your maximum heart rate.
• You will be breathing very hard and able only to speak in short phrases.
• This is the zone to aim for when training for endurance. It spurs your body to improve your circulatory system by building new blood
vessels, and increases your heart and lung capacity.
• Aiming for 20 to 60 minutes in this zone is believed to give the best fitness training benefits.
• You burn 50% of your calories from fat, 50% from carbohydrate, and less than 1% from protein.
• With the increase in intensity, you burn more calories in the same amount of time, as you are covering more distance in that same
time. Calories burned depend most on distance and your weight. If you go further in the same time, you burn more calories per
minute.
• You may not be able to achieve this heart rate by walking, you may have to use racewalking technique or switch to jogging to get into
this heart rate zone.
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•
Aerobic Walking Workout3
Anaerobic Zone - Threshold Zone
• This zone is 80 to 90% of your maximum heart rate.
• You will be unable to speak except a single, gasped word at a time.
• This intense exercise will improve the amount of oxygen you can consume - your VO2 maximum.
• This exertion level takes you to the limit where your body begins to produce lactic acid. Racewalkers use this zone to build their
ability to go even faster.
• Workouts in this heart rate zone should be in the 10 to 20 minute range, or part of an interval training workout.
• You burn more calories per minute than with the lower heart rate workouts, as you are covering more distance per minute.
• The body burns 85% carbohydrates, 15% fat and less than 1% protein in this zone.
• You may not be able to achieve this heart rate by walking, you may need to use the racewalking technique or switch to
jogging/running.
4
• Anaerobic Threshold Walking Workout
Red-Line Zone
• The top zone is from 90 to 100% of your maximum heart rate. You can't go any higher, and most people can't stay in this zone for
more than a few minutes.
• You will be unable to speak except for gasping single words.
• This zone should only be used for short bursts during interval training, where you work intensely for a minute and then drop back
down to a lower intensity for several minutes, and repeat.
• You should consult with your doctor to ensure you can work out at such a high heart rate safely.
• While you burn lots of calories per minute in this zone, 90% of them are carbohydrates, 10% fats, and less than 1% protein.
Varying Your Workout
Which zone should you work out in? It is best to vary your workouts for length and intensity, and allow a recovery day between days of
intense exercise in the aerobic, anaerobic, and red-line zone. Racewalker Dave McGovern has a suggested weekly walking workout schedule5
which varies the workouts for intensity and heart rate to improve speed, endurance and distance capacity.
Walking Workouts Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)
You will need to know your MHR to ensure you are working out at the right pace. Your maximum heart rate is determined by your genetic
make-up, gender, and age. The rule-of-thumb formulas work for many people, but the only accurate method is to have it tested by a
cardiologist or exercise physiologist by a treadmill stress test, or by an experienced coach under field conditions. If you are over the age of
35, overweight, have been sedentary for several years, or have a history of heart disease in your family, testing is recommended.
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Basic MHR
Men = 220 minus Age
Women = 226 minus Age
Approximate Maximum Heart Rate (beats per minute)
Age | Maximum Heart Rate
20 Male: 200 | Female: 208
25 Male: 195 | Female: 201
30 Male: 190 | Female: 196
35 Male: 185 | Female: 191
40 Male: 180 | Female: 186
45 Male: 175 | Female: 181
50 Male: 170 | Female: 175
55 Male: 165 | Female: 171
60 Male: 160 | Female: 166
65 Male: 155 | Female: 161
70 Male: 150 | Female: 156
Heartrate Calculator1
Enter your age and target percentage to see the desired beats per minute.
Links in this article:
1. http://walking.about.com/library/cal/blcalcheartrate.htm
2. http://walking.about.com/cs/heartratemonitor/bb/bybhrm.htm
3. http://walking.about.com/cs/fitnesswalking/a/walkworkouts_2.htm
4. http://walking.about.com/cs/fitnesswalking/a/walkworkouts.htm
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NOTES
1
MS-Master of Science degree, CSCS-Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist,
2
RD-Registered Dietitian, LD-Licensed Dietitian.
3
M Ed-Masters of Education, ACSM–HFS- American College of Sports Medicine-Health
Fitness Specialist, CHEK Coach-Corrective Holistic Exercise Kinesiology Coach.
4
HFS-Health Fitness Specialist (American College of Sports Medicine), CES-Corrective
Exercise Specialist (National Academy of Sports Medicine), CSCS-Certified Strength and
Conditioning Specialist (National Strength and Conditioning Association).
5
Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty
Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington (DC): The National Academies
Press; 2002. http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf.
(accessed 4 January 2011). 15.
6
Ibid., 15.
7
Ibid., 15.
8
Sovik, R. PhD. Diaphragmatic Breathing:
http://www.himalayaninstitute.org/yi/Article.aspx?id=3472 (accessed 4 January 2011).
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