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Transcript
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Topics:
1. Introduction
2. Input Protection
3. Input and Output Circuits
4. Input and Output Circuits
5. Input and Output Circuits
6. Input and Output Circuits
7. Input and Output Circuits
8. Input and Output Circuits
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
1
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input Protection (Martin p.274-280)
Why does one need protection on inputs pads?
HBM ESD
If an oxide has a resistance of 1x109 ohms, what current exists at 1kV?
I = 1e3 / 1e9 = 1e-6 C/s
Q = 1e-6 C/s / 1.602e-19C/e- ~ 6e12 e-/s
-does not take very much charge to be placed on a gate to charge to 1kV
When charge is present, the desire is to shunt it to ground or power
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
2
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
Simple input protection circuit
What is this preventing?
Why are the diodes in the direction they are?
•Voltage clamped to ~GND or ~ VDD
•Resistance is referred to as an ESD resistor. What is its function?
•Do you want R to be large or small? How is it formed?
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
3
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
Alternative protection circuit using field transistor
E-fields : 1.8V / 30A = 1.8V/30e-10m = 0.06e10 V/m = 6e8 V/m
Field threshold on the order of 20V
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
4
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
Driving capacitive loads:
•Capacitive loads at the chip I/O much larger than internal cap
•1-30pF load translates into 500um to 1000um xtor widths
•To get this equivalent width, a chain of inverters is used
•Ideal situation, subsequent size increases by e (2.72)
•What are the p and n widths shown above?
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
5
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
Tri-State Outputs: 0, 1, Z
Simple example:
Enable
“0”
“1”
Output
Z
Data
Why is this configuration not desirable?
Output driven through what?
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
6
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
Another approach:
Enable Data
0
X
1
0
1
1
in-a
0
0
1
in-b
1
0
1
Q1(p)
off
off
on
Q2(n)
off
on
off
Result
Z
GND
VDD
Inverters add more drive current
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
7
Class 15: Input / Output Circuits
Input and Output Circuits (Martin p.274-7)
More efficient approach:
Enable Q5(n) Q6(p) Q4(p) Q8(n) Result
1
on
on
off
off
N1-N2 shorted
(thus Q3 connected to Q7 and Q4 connected to Q8, which looks like an inverter)
0
off
off
on
on
N1->VDD, N2->GND
Q1, Q2 off: High-Z
Joseph A. Elias, PhD
8