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4.1 A Multitude of Perspectives By: Thuy Nguyen Ando Hiroshige, Hodogaya Station, 1832-1834. Santa Fe, New Mexico. This was named after a station in Tokyo. There are 55 station and this is the 5th station. Unknown, Pueblo. About 1000-1450 A.D. Taos, New Mexico It is made of adobe walls that are often several feet thick. It’s main purpose was for defense. • Three of the world’s great major religions evolved in Africa • Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism • Most of these religion is based on worship of nature • Taoism and Confucianism are also important religions in China Reliquary Guardian Figure, Cameroon or Gabon, c.1850. Wood, 23 inches. Peabody Museum, Harvard University. This is from Kuba tribe of Zaire. This is a portrait of a king that “performs” a specific function. Unknown, Souche Nuttar Codex. 14th century, drawing and painting, 7” x 9 ¾”. British Museum, London. • • • • One of the world’s most ancient religion Originated in India in about 2000 BC They believe in the gods Vishnu, Brahma, Siva Most Hindus believe that the spirit or soul- the “true self” of every person is called an atman. (meaning is eternal) • They are also henotheistic meaning the are devoted to one god but accepts other gods as well. Vishnu • The Preserver • It holds a discus, conch shell, mace, and lotus • Appears as a boar Siva asd • The Destroyer • Entwined with snakes and wears a headdress of skulls • He dances in a circle of fire Brahma • The Creature • Often shown with four heads • His four heads springs the Vedas, which he carries along with a scepter • He is the supreme god in Hinduism Unknown, The Descent of the River Ganges from Heaven. 10th century. Carving, Mamallapuram, India. • The river Ganga has sacred water known to play a role of a man- as a giver of life or remover of sin or curse. (a myth) • The elephants are believe to be powerful than human because of it’s size. Please turn to page 81 in your text book, thank you ^.^ Unknown, Sita in the Garden of Lanka, from the Epic of Valmaki, Ramayana. Gold and color on paper, 22 x 31”. The Cleveland Museum of Art • • • One of Hindu’s greatest writings It’s about King Rama, who was unjustly deprived of his kingdom. Ramayana was adopted by the Buddhist, and later became part of the Islamic heritage. • The movement was found by Buddha, emerge in India in 6th century BC • He was a Prince who traveled around and helped his people. He couldn’t take their sufferings anymore so he decided to leave his kingdom. He preached to all creatures. He became enlightened through years of meditation. • Mahayana Buddhism preached salvation of souls • Bodhisattvas are saints who achieved enlightenment like Buddha but chose not to enter nirvana. The most popular saints is Avaloketisvara. It has other names in other parts of the country. Unknown, Nyoirin-Kannon. 645-647 Nara period. Bronze, Oka-Der-a Temple, Nara Japan. • Goddess of mercy • The lotus that she’s sitting on symbolizes purity. Unknown, Jizo Bosatsu. 12th century, wood. 57 ½” high, Los Angeles County Museum of Art. • He is the patron saint of children • He is compassionate deity concerned with the needs of suffering humanity. • Much of Asia is dominated by Islam • The religion was found by Mohammed • His spiritual writings is in the Koran, the scared book of Moslems • Islam forbids the use of religious images of any kind • Media- non-western cultures have produced art works out of stone, clay, brick, wood, and paint. The Chinese and Japanese usually paint on screens and scrolls. • Color- over the centuries Western artists have used color differently. Roman and Renaissance artists used realistic colors, whereas the impressionist dabbed in colors as they go. The expressionist used color to symbolize feelings and emotions. In Asian paintings, color is arbitrary, and the Chinese uses monochromatic colors. • Perspective- it was approached differently in the east and west. Renaissance artists show distance by overlapping planes and lines. Chinese and Japanese recede lines so that it’ll remain parallel. Asian artist depicts great distance by showing three planes: foreground, middle distance, and far distance. Katsushika Hokusai, The Great Waves from Thirty-six views of Mt. Fuji, Tokugawa period. Woodcut, 10” x 14 ¾”, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Hokusai isn’t his real name. In his 89 years he changed his name about 30 times, and lived in about 90 homes. Shen Chou, Landscape in the Style of Ni Tsan, 1484. Ink, 54 ½” x 24 ¾”. The Nelson- Atkins Museum of Arts. He was also an accomplished scholar, poet, calligrapher, and essayist. (this was the closest one I could find) Unknown, X-ray Figure of Kangaroo, Aborigine, Australia, Collection of Larry Majewski. Some non-Western artist present the front and the side view of an object simultaneously.