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©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887)
Volume 1 – No. 15
Rahul J. Shimpi
Rajendra P. Desale
Kunal S. Patil
Department of Electronics Engg.
Department of Electronics Engg.
S.S.V.P.S’s College of Engg. Dhule
S.S.V.P.S’s College of Engg. Dhule
5 Forest Colony
Nagaon Bari
Deopur Dhule-05 (India)
Deopur Dhule-05 (India)
Department of Electronics Engg.
S.S.V.P.S’s College of Engg. Dhule
Shahu Nagar
Deopur Dhule-05 (India)
Jaswantsing L. Rajput
Shailesh B. Chavan
Department of Electronics Engg.
Department of Electronics Engg.
S.S.V.P.S’s College of Engg. Dhule
S.S.V.P.S’s College of Engg. Dhule
Datta Mandir Chowk
Yugondhar Colony
Deopur Dhule-05 (India)
Deopur Dhule-05 (India)
1. FACTS or "flexible AC transmission systems" is a term that
has been suggested for the use of solid state devices to control
bulk power flow in transmission systems. The Electric Power
Research Institute supported this idea, and many researchers
have invested efforts on the value and potential of FACTS. At
this time, it appears that the main value of FACTS lies in
improving transmission capability; increasing the flexibility of
power flow control (e.g., for wheeling or for economic
dispatch); for controlling voltage (and var flow); and possibly
additional advantages in lower voltage systems (e.g.,
distributional systems).
2. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) controllers
have been used in power systems since the 1970s with the
objective of improving system dynamic performance. Due to the
environmental, right-of-way, and cost problems in both bundled
and unbundled power systems, many transmission lines have
been forced to operate at almost their full capacities worldwide.
FACTS controllers enhance the static performance viz.
increased loading, congestion management, reduced system loss,
economic operation, etc., and dynamic performance viz.
increased stability limits, damping of power system oscillation,
etc. In this paper, an overview of FACTS controllers is
explained. Various FACTS controllers and several devices in
FACTS family are also discussed.
transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance
controllability and increase power the transfer capability
of the network. It is generally a power electronics-based
device. FACTS is defined by the IEEE as "a power
electronic based system and other static equipment that
provide control of one or more AC transmission system
parameters to enhance controllability and increase power
transfer capability."
FACTS technology:
FACTS could be connected:
in series with the power system (series compensation)
in shunt with the power system (shunt compensation)
both in series and in shunt with the power system
Series compensation:
In series compensation, the FACTS is connected in series
with the power system. It works as a controllable voltage
source. Series inductance occurs in long transmission
lines, and when a large current flow it causes a large
voltage drop. To compensate, series capacitors are
Flexible AC transmission system:
Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System
(FACTS) is static equipment used for the AC
©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887)
Volume 1 – No. 15
It helps in keeping steady state and dynamic voltages
within their limits, but it does not provide any control of
active power. The var output can be varied continuously
between the capacitive and inductive ratings of the
equipment. The necessary reactive power required for the
compensation is generated or absorbed by capacitor or
reactor banks. Thyristor switches are only used to control
the combined reactive impedance the banks present to the
system. An advanced static compensator has been
recently presented. This device provides control for real
and reactive power.
Fig a: series compensation
Shunt compensation:
In shunt compensation, power system is connected in
shunt with the FACTS. It works as a controllable source.
Shunt compensation is of two types
FACTS theory:
Fig b: shunt compensation
Shunt capacitive compensation:
This method is used improve the power factor. Whenever
an inductive load is connected to the transmission line,
power factor lags because of lagging load current. To
compensate, a shunt capacitor is connected which draws
current leading the source voltage. The net result is
improvement in power factor.
Shunt inductive compensation:
In the case of a no-loss line, voltage magnitude at
receiving end is the same as voltage magnitude at sending end:
Vs = Vr=V. Transmission results in a phase lag d4that depends
on line reactance X.
VS= V cos (δ/2) + jV sin (δ/2)
Vr= V cos (δ/2) - jV sin (δ/2)
L= (VS - Vr)/ jX = [2Vsin(δ/2)]/X
This is shown in fig
This method is used either when charging the
transmission line, or, when there is very low load at the
receiving end. Due to very low, or no load very low
current flows through the transmission line. Shunt
capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage
amplification (Ferranti Effect). The receiving end voltage
may become double the sending end voltage. To
compensate, shunt inductors are connected across the
transmission line.
Static VAR Compensator:
©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887)
Volume 1 – No. 15
As it is a no-loss line, active power P is the same at any
point of the
Reactive power at sending end is the opposite of reactive
power at receiving end:
As dH is very small, active power mainly depends on dH
whereas reactive power mainly depends on voltage
"contract path". This is a brand-new concept for many
system planners. As illustrated in Figure 1.3, with precise
control of the impedance of transmission lines using
FACTS devices, it is possible to maintain constant power
flow along a desired path in the presence of continuous
changes of load levels in the external ac network, and to
react in a planned way to contingencies. Just as in HVDC
applications, FACTS controls could be designed to
enhance the behavior of the uncontrolled systems.
What are FACTS devices?
FACTS stand for Flexible AC Transmission Systems. The
term “FACTS” covers several power electronics based
systems used for AC power transmission. FACTS
solutions are particularly suitable in applications, which
require one or more of the following qualities:
Rapid dynamic response
Ability for frequent variations in output
Smoothly adjustable output
Fast implementation to achieve considerable increase
in transmission capacity.
While some of the relevant technology i.e., Static VAR
Compensation is already in wide use, the FACTS concept
has brought to the table a tremendous potential for
thyristor based controllers which will surely revolutionize
the power system. The technology offers the utilities the
ability to:
1. Control power flows on their transmission routes;
2. Allow secure loading of transmission lines to their full
thermal capacity. FACTS technology, while allowing use
of transmission to its thermal capacity, does not do away
with the need for additional transmission lines or the
upgrading of existing lines where thermal limits have
been reached or when evaluation of losses added to the
cost of FACTS technology shows that new lines or
upgrading of existing lines is the most optimum answer.
Often, ac transmission systems are thought of as being
"inflexible". Power flow in ac networks simply follows
Ohm's law and ordinarily cannot be made to flow along
specific desired paths. As a result, ac networks suffer
from parallel-path, or "loop" flows. The power flows from
source to load in inverse proportion to the relative
impedances of the transmission paths. Low impedance
paths take the largest fraction of flow, but all lines in the
interconnection are a part of the flow path. Thus, utilities
not involved in an interchange power transaction can be
A fundamental notion behind FACTS is that it is possible
to continuously vary the apparent impedance of specific
transmission lines so as to force power to flow along a
The flexible system owes its tighter transmission control
to its ability to manage the interrelated parameters that
constrain today's systems, including series impedance,
shunt impedance, phase angle, and the occurrence of
oscillations at various frequencies below the rated
frequency. By adding to in this way, the controllers
enable a transmission line to function nearer its thermal
rating. For example, a 500-kV line may have a loading
limit of 1000-2000MW for safe operation, but a thermal
limit of 3000 MW.
It is often not possible both to overcome these constraints
and maintain the required system reliability by
conventional mechanical means alone, such as tap
changers, phase shifters, and switched capacitors and
reactors (inductors).Granted, mechanical controllers are
on the wholeless expensive, but they increasingly need to
be supplemented by rapidly responding power electronics
The new technology is not a single, high-power electronic
controller, but rather a collection of controllers, which can
be applied individually or collectively in a specific power
system to control the five interrelated functions already
mentioned. The thyristor is their basic element, just as the
transistor is the basic element for a whole variety of
microelectronic circuit. Because all controllers for the
flexible transmission system are applications of similar
technology, their use will eventually benefit from volume
production and further development of high-power
Electric power networks integrate generation and load
centers within each utility system and through
interconnections among neighboring systems, share
power with vast regional grids. The purpose of this is to
take advantage of the diversity of loads, changes in peak
demand due to weather and time differences, the
©2010 International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 - 8887)
Volume 1 – No. 15
availability of different generation reserves in various
geographic regions, power sharing arrangements among
utilities, shifts in fuel prices, regulatory changes, and
other discrepancies.
Applying Flexibility to the Electric Power System:
The power industry term FACTS (Flexible AC
Transmission Systems) covers a number of technologies
that enhance the security, capacity and flexibility of
power transmission systems. FACTS solutions enable
power grid owners to increase existing transmission
network capacity while maintaining or improving the
operating margins necessary for grid stability. As a result,
more power can reach consumers with a minimum impact
on the environment, after substantially shorter project
implementation times, and at lower investment costs - all
compared to the alternative of building new transmission
lines or power generation facilities.
The two main reasons for incorporating FACTS devices
in electric power systems are:
Raising dynamic stability limits
Provide better power flow control
than the process required for constructing new
transmission lines.
Increased System Capacity: FACTS provide increased
capacity on the existing electrical transmission system
infrastructure by allowing maximum operational
efficiency of existing transmission lines and other
Enhanced System Reliability: FACTS strengthen the
operational integrity of transmission networks, allowing
greater voltage stability and power flow control, which
leads to enhanced system reliability and security.
Improved System Controllability: FACTS allow
“intelligence” into the transmission network via the
ability to instantaneously respond to system disturbances
and gridlock constraints and to enable redirection of
power flows.
Seamless System Interconnections: FACTS, in the form
of BTB dc-link configurations, can establish “seamless”
interconnections within and between regional and local
networks, allowing controlled power transfer and an
increase in grid stability.
Neuro-Control Approach for Flexible AC Transmission
A neuro-control approach for flexible AC transmission
systems (FACTS) based on radial basis function neural
network (RBFNN) is presented in this paper. The
proposed scheme consists of a single neuron network
whose input is derived from the active or reactive power
or voltage derivation at the power system bus, where the
FACTS device (in this case a unified power flow
controller) is located.
The performance and usefulness of this approach is tested
and evaluated using both single machine infinite-bus and
two-machine power system subjected to various transient
disturbances. It was found that the new intelligent
controller for FACTS exhibits a superior dynamic
performance in compensation to the existing classical
control schemes. Its simple architecture reduces the
Benefits of FACTS:
When implemented on a broad-scale basis, FACTS
technologies deliver the following benefits.
A Rapidly Implemented Installations: FACTS projects
are installed at existing substations and avoid the taking
of public or private lands. They can be completed in less
than 12 to 18 months a substantially shorter timeframe
Over the past several years, FACTS applications have
increased significantly as compared to the previous
decade. There are now numerous FACTS applications,
including recent installations in California and Texas, as
well as in the New England region of the United States
and in some areas of Canada. As more electricity
stakeholders recognize the technical and public policy
advantages that these technologies confer, additional
applications will emerge. Advancements in the state of
the art of FACTS technologies will continue and will
further advance the case for breaking transmission
gridlock with these innovative and proven systems.
Narain G. Hingorani, Laszlo Gyugyi Understanding
FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC
Transmission Systems, Wiley-IEEE Press, December
An Overview of Flexible AC Transmission A Neuro-Control Approach for Flexible AC
TransmissionFlexible AC Transmission system- Wikipedia, the free