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An Empire Unifies China
Ch. 4 Section 4
Philosophy and the Social Order
In Chapter 2, you learned that China’s _____ Dynasty collapsed into “the time of the warring
states.” _______ became a land of troubles. Long-held Chinese values-social order,
harmony among people, and respect for leaders-were forgotten. Some ________, however,
tried to find ways to restore these values.
 Confucius Urges __________
One of the most important of these thinkers was ____________. Born in 551 BC, he became a
well-educated _______ who thought deeply about the ___________ of China.
He believes that a time of ________ could return if the people would work at five basic
relationships: ruler and subject, father and son, _________ and wife, older and younger
brothers, and friend and friend. The family relationships, he thought, were the most
_____________.
 Confucian Ideas About _____________
He also tried to ________ government for the better. Using his ideas, the Chinese built a
system in which people could work in the government only if they had a good _________.
Over time, the ideas of Confucius spread to other ___________ of East Asia.
 ____________ Seek Harmony
Another thinker of this period was __________, who was more interested in putting people in
touch with the powerful forces of __________. Nature follows a universal force called the
_____, or “the Way,” said Laozi. People do not follow this force, but they can learn to do so.
 Legalists Urge _________ Rule
A third set of ideas came from a group of people called the __________. They said that the
way to restore order in China was to have a ________ government. A ruler should reward
those who do what they are supposed to do, the Legalists said, and ________ harshly those
who do wrong.
 I Ching and ______ and Yang
These three ways to restore values were just ________________ debates. So, for practical
advice in solving problems, people in China could consult a book called ___________. It
was based on the idea of Yin and Yang, two powers that ____________ together to make
harmony in the universe.
Yang represented __________, males, light, and action. Yin stood for the ________, females,
darkness, and being passive. By having these two forces in ___________, a person could
reach harmony.
The ______ Dynasty
While these _________ moved through China, a new ________ arose to put an end to the
troubles of the ___________ states period.
 A New ____________ Takes Control
At ____, he became king of a part of China called Qin (chihn), and he used the ideas of the
Legalists to bring the different _______ of China together. In 221 BC, he took a new name______________, which means “First Emperor.”
Shi Huangdi defeated many _________ of different states and doubled the size of China. He
also acted to extend his power within this ______. He forced wealthy ________ to give up
their land in the _________ and move to his capital city.
There he kept a _____________ eye on them, while he gave their land to members of his
government. The emperor wanted to control ________, too. He ordered his government to
ban many ________-those that held ideas that he ______________ with.
 A Program of ___________________
Shi Huangdi also took _______ to bring all parts of his empire together. He ordered the
___________ to build a network of roads that linked one ____________ to another.
The roads made __________ grow, but the peasants _________ the emperor for the forced
work. He set ______________ for writing, law, money, and weights and measures that were
to be followed throughout the ____________.
 __________ Wall of China
Finally, he moved to ___________ his empire from foreign invaders. In the past, some Chinese
_________ had built sections of wall to try to block attacks from northern ___________.
Emperor Shi Huangdi had hundreds of thousands of ________ people work to connect these
___________ of wall and make a huge _________. When finished, the Great Wall of China
stretched ____________ miles.
 The _______ of the Qin
These steps won the emperor little __________. When he died, his ______ took the throne.
Just three years into his reign, peasants ____________ and managed to overthrow the
emperor. By 202 BC, the Qin Dynasty had given way to the ______ Dynasty.