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An Empire Unifies China Ch. 4 Section 4 Philosophy and the Social Order In Chapter 2, you learned that China’s _____ Dynasty collapsed into “the time of the warring states.” _______ became a land of troubles. Long-held Chinese values-social order, harmony among people, and respect for leaders-were forgotten. Some ________, however, tried to find ways to restore these values. Confucius Urges __________ One of the most important of these thinkers was ____________. Born in 551 BC, he became a well-educated _______ who thought deeply about the ___________ of China. He believes that a time of ________ could return if the people would work at five basic relationships: ruler and subject, father and son, _________ and wife, older and younger brothers, and friend and friend. The family relationships, he thought, were the most _____________. Confucian Ideas About _____________ He also tried to ________ government for the better. Using his ideas, the Chinese built a system in which people could work in the government only if they had a good _________. Over time, the ideas of Confucius spread to other ___________ of East Asia. ____________ Seek Harmony Another thinker of this period was __________, who was more interested in putting people in touch with the powerful forces of __________. Nature follows a universal force called the _____, or “the Way,” said Laozi. People do not follow this force, but they can learn to do so. Legalists Urge _________ Rule A third set of ideas came from a group of people called the __________. They said that the way to restore order in China was to have a ________ government. A ruler should reward those who do what they are supposed to do, the Legalists said, and ________ harshly those who do wrong. I Ching and ______ and Yang These three ways to restore values were just ________________ debates. So, for practical advice in solving problems, people in China could consult a book called ___________. It was based on the idea of Yin and Yang, two powers that ____________ together to make harmony in the universe. Yang represented __________, males, light, and action. Yin stood for the ________, females, darkness, and being passive. By having these two forces in ___________, a person could reach harmony. The ______ Dynasty While these _________ moved through China, a new ________ arose to put an end to the troubles of the ___________ states period. A New ____________ Takes Control At ____, he became king of a part of China called Qin (chihn), and he used the ideas of the Legalists to bring the different _______ of China together. In 221 BC, he took a new name______________, which means “First Emperor.” Shi Huangdi defeated many _________ of different states and doubled the size of China. He also acted to extend his power within this ______. He forced wealthy ________ to give up their land in the _________ and move to his capital city. There he kept a _____________ eye on them, while he gave their land to members of his government. The emperor wanted to control ________, too. He ordered his government to ban many ________-those that held ideas that he ______________ with. A Program of ___________________ Shi Huangdi also took _______ to bring all parts of his empire together. He ordered the ___________ to build a network of roads that linked one ____________ to another. The roads made __________ grow, but the peasants _________ the emperor for the forced work. He set ______________ for writing, law, money, and weights and measures that were to be followed throughout the ____________. __________ Wall of China Finally, he moved to ___________ his empire from foreign invaders. In the past, some Chinese _________ had built sections of wall to try to block attacks from northern ___________. Emperor Shi Huangdi had hundreds of thousands of ________ people work to connect these ___________ of wall and make a huge _________. When finished, the Great Wall of China stretched ____________ miles. The _______ of the Qin These steps won the emperor little __________. When he died, his ______ took the throne. Just three years into his reign, peasants ____________ and managed to overthrow the emperor. By 202 BC, the Qin Dynasty had given way to the ______ Dynasty.