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Food Allergies
Food Intolerances
and
Disabilities
8 Foods included in
food allergy labeling required
by FDA
 Milk
 Eggs
 Peanuts
 Tree
Nuts
 Fish
 Shellfish
 Soy
 Wheat
Food Allergy
 Sensitivity
to chemical compounds
(proteins) naturally found in food
 Develop after exposure to a food protein
that body thinks is harmful
 It’s an abnormal response of the immune
system to a particular food or food
component
Food allergies Involve 2 features of
the human immune response
1) Production of immunoglobulin E ()IgE)
A type of protein called an antibody that
circulates through the blood
2) Mast cell releases histamine, a specific cell
that occurs in all body tissues but is especially
common in areas of body that are typical sites
of allergic reactions (including nose & throat,
lungs, skin & gastrointestinal tract
Forming IgE
 Inherited
predisposition
 First has to be exposed to the food
 As food is digested, it triggers certain cells
to produce IgE in large amounts
 IgE released and hooks to Mast Cells
 Next
time person eats the food it interacts
with specific IgE & triggers the mast cells
to release chemicals such as histamine
The Allergic Reaction
An allergic reaction to food can take place within a few minutes to hours.
Symptoms of Food Allergy






Rash or hives or eczema
Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting
Tingling or itching in the mouth or skin
Wheezing, nasal congestion or trouble
breathing
Dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting
Swelling of the lips, face, tongue, and throat,
or other parts of the body Anaphylaxis
No cure for food allergies
Avoid the Offending Food
is the only way to prevent
a reaction
Exercise-induced food allergy
 Some
people have an allergic reaction to
a food triggered by exercise
 Eating certain foods may cause person to
feel itchy and lightheaded soon after they
start exercising
 Not eating a couple of hours before
exercising & avoiding certain foods may
help prevent this problem
Anaphylaxis
 Most
severe allergic reaction
 Involves multiple systems at the same time
 Potentially fatal if medication not given
promptly
 Can occur within minutes of exposure
 Peanut/tree nut allergies in combo with
asthma is the highest risk
 If child has life-threatening allergies it is
considered a disability in Child Nutrition
Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
 Skin
reactions, including hives along with itching,
flushed or pale skin (almost always present with
anaphylaxis)
 A feeling of warmth
 Constriction and tightening of airways
 A swollen throat or the sensation of a lump in the
throat that makes it difficult to breathe
 Weak and rapid pulse
 Dizziness, lightheadedness or loss of consciousness
Brochure
 What
is a food Allergy?
 What are some common Food Allergies?
 Identify the Symptoms related to Food
Allergies
 What do I do in case of an Allergic
Reaction?
 At least 4 Pictures
Tell the difference?
ALLERGY
 Allergies can be triggered by even small
amounts – occur every time food consumed
 Advised to avoid offending foods completely
INTOLERANCE
 Intolerance is dose related
 Found through trial and error (food diary)
 Elimination diet and reintroduce foods one at
a time
Food Intolerances




Lacks the chemicals called enzymes,
necessary to properly digest certain proteins
found in food
Intolerances to some chemical ingredients
added to food to provide color, taste, or
protect against growth or bacteria
Sulfites can be a source of intolerance
(naturally or added to prevent growth of
mold)
Salicylates are group of plant chemicals
found in many fruits, veg, juices
Symptoms of Food Intolerance
 Nausea
 Stomach
Pain
 Gas, cramps, bloating
 Vomiting
 Heartburn
 Diarrhea
 Headaches
 Irritability or Nervousness
Disability
 Anyone
who has a physical or mental
impairment, which substantially limits one
or more of he major life activities, has a
record of such impairment, or is regarded
as having such an impairment
 Determination can only be made by a
licensed physician
Common Food Related
Disabilities
Diabetes
Celiac
PKU
Disease
Diabetes
 The
body cannot produce or use
insulin
 Insulin = a hormone that helps the
body to use glucose as energy
 Type 1
 Type 2 (typically in adults)
Type 1 Diabetes
 Normally,
the hormone insulin helps
glucose enter the child's cells to provide
energy to the muscles and tissues.
 When working properly, once a child eats,
the pancreas secretes more insulin into
the bloodstream and it circulates & opens
doors so sugar can enter the body’s cells.
 Type I -Pancreas produces little or no
insulin
Diabetes
 Blood
sugar monitoring – many
times a day
 Glucose monitoring (CGM) –
newest way to monitor blood sugar
levels (used as an additional tool to
blood sugar monitoring)
 Insulin treatment
Diabetes Lifestyle
Considerations
Healthy
Eating - high in nutrition
and low in fats and calories
Fruits & vegetables, Whole
Grains, Low fat/low sugar
Physical Activity – can affect
blood sugar levels up to 12 hrs.
after exercise
Type 2 Diabetes
 Most
common in adults but on the rise
in children – fueled by obesity
 Pancreas stops producing enough
insulin
 Treated with diet/exercise and oral
meds
 Prevention:
 Eat healthy foods
 Get more physical activity
 Manage weight
Celiac Disease
Genetically-based
autoimmune disease
characterized by sensitivity to
the protein gluten
Celiac Disease
 Dietary
treatment
 Only treatment is gluten-free diet
 Cannot eat the protein from the following
grains:

Wheat, barley, rye, and hybrids of these
grains
 These

grains may be eaten:
Corn, rice, sorghum, teff, wild rice, millet,
amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat
Celiac Disease

Where is Gluten found?



Flour, bread, bread products (e.g. pizza crust), pasta,
and breakfast cereals
May be an ingredient in many other foods including
soups, hotdogs, gravies, and French fries
Read food labels

Wheat, barley, rye, malt, oats (due to gluten
contamination), brewer’s yeast, modified food starch,
Dextrin, Semolina, farina, durum flour, enriched flour,
and graham flour
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
 Cannot
process the amino acid
phenylalanine
 Dietary treatment:


Low protein diet (to prevent increase in
phenylalanine)
Special formula to provide protein