Download EOC Review Questions - RS Central High School

Document related concepts

Photosynthesis wikipedia, lookup

Herbivore wikipedia, lookup

Plant defense against herbivory wikipedia, lookup

Habitat wikipedia, lookup

Plant breeding wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
EOC Review Questions
Sometimes the color of an animal closely resembles the
color of its environment. Which of the following is the most
likely reason that some animals have this type of coloring?
a)
b)
c)
d)
To attract a mate
To increase sun absorption
To decrease water loss
To protect themselves
Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which blood does not
clot as quickly as it should. If a person with hemophilia is
injured, they can quickly bleed to death. Which of the
following external factors would most endanger a person
with hemophilia?
a)
b)
c)
d)
The type of heater used in the person’s home
The area of the country where the person lives
The type of sports the person engages in
The number of hours the person attends school
everyday
Suppose a psychologist places a bowl in a room with a dog.
Whenever a bell goes off, food is deposited in the bowl.
After a few days of implementing this experiment, the
psychologist sees that the dog immediately moves to the
bowl when it hears a bell, even if food is not deposited into
that bowl. What type of behavior is the dog exhibiting
when it goes to the bowl upon hearing the bell?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Defensive behavior
Migratory behavior
Learned behavior
Innate behavior
Some of the characteristics that help classify the Euglena as
a protist are labeled in the picture. For example, the
presence of a nucleus suggests that Euglena are
a)
b)
c)
d)
unicellular
eukaryotes
autotrophic
motile
Which of these adaptations would most directly assist a
plant in reproducing?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Thick stems
Waxy leaves
Shallow roots
Bright flowers
A vaccine is a substance that is usually given to patients
before they have a disease. The vaccine causes the
patient’s body to produce antibodies for the disease so that
if antigens for that disease ever enter their body, the
immune system can fight it off easily.
What does a vaccine contain that allows the body to do
this?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Complete antigens and bacteria
Weak, dead, or partial antigens
Antibiotics and other medicines
Hazardous chemicals
A jellyfish washes up on the beach where someone finds it.
They take it home and place it in a freshwater aquarium .
In a short time the jellyfish dies. What is the most likely
reason for the jellyfish’s death?
a) Protein synthesis could no longer take place
b) Photosynthesis could no longer take place
c) Aerobic respiration released too much oxygen into the
water
d) Freshwater entered the jellyfish’s cells causing them to
burst
Cellular respiration provides energy for the cell by
converting carbon to ATP. Where does cellular respiration
occur in the cell?
a)
b)
c)
d)
In the mitochondria
In the chloroplast
In the ribosomes
In the nucleolus
Deforestation is a serious threat to our environment.
Which of the following would occur if the rainforests were
destroyed?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Animals would die because of lack of carbon dioxide
Animals would not be able to produce ribosomes
Animals would not be able to produce ATP
Animals would die due to reduced nitrogen in the air
B
C
A
D
Where would plant cells specialized for photosynthesis
most likely to be located?
a)
b)
c)
d)
A
B
C
D
The relationship of the structures shown above is best described as
a)
b)
c)
d)
having the same structure but different ancestors
having different structures but the same ancestors
having the same functions but different ancestors
having different functions but a common ancestor
Which suspect most likely committed the crime?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Suspect 1
Suspect 2
Both suspects 1 and 2 are guilty
Neither suspect 1 nor 2 is guilty
Tay-Sachs is a recessively inherited disease. If a
heterozygous man marries a heterozygous woman, what
would be the genotypic ratio for their first child?
a)
b)
c)
d)
1:1
1:2:1
1:2:2:1
9:3:3:7
Mendel worked with pea plants in which all primary
characteristics are related through simple dominance.
Short plant height and white flower color are both
recessive. If Mendel crossed a plant that was heterozygous
for both traits to another plant that was also heterozygous
for both traits, what would be the genotypic ratio of this
dyhibrid cross?
a)
b)
c)
d)
1:1
1:2:1
1:2:2:1
9:3:3:7
PLANT 1
VEINS
FLOWERS
X
X
CONES
PLANT 2
PLANT 3
X
X
Which of these plants is (are) considered nonvascular?
a) Plant 1
b) Plant 2
c) Plant 3
d) Both plants 1 and 3
Police horses are used in many cities for crowd control.
They learn to ignore all of the frightening noises of the
traffic and people. This type of learning is called
a)
b)
c)
d)
habituation
imprinting
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
If the xylem of a plant is damaged what is most likely to
occur?
a)
b)
c)
d)
the plant will become turgid
the plant will become flaccid
the plant will produce extra sugars
the plant will increase photosynthesis
A plant lives in a hot desert climate. Which of the following
is most likely to be true of the plant?
a) the plant will have small leaves and will close its
stomata at night
b) the plant will have large leaves and will open its stomata
at night
c) the plant will have small leaves and will open its
stomata at night
d) the plant will have large leaves and will close its stomata
at night
The cattle egret is a small bird that walks alongside cattle as
they graze in a field. As the cattle eat the grass, they stir up
grasshoppers that the egrets catch and eat. Which type of
symbiotic relationship does this best illustrate?
a)
b)
c)
d)
mutualism
commensalism
parasitism
predation
Global warming is caused by the accumulation of
greenhouse gases but many gases occur naturally to
maintain the Earth’s warmth. Which of the following is the
most common naturally occurring greenhouse gas?
a)
b)
c)
d)
water vapor
oxygen
nitrogen
carbon dioxide
Some lipids can be detrimental to your health. Which of
the following is true of lipids?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Saturated fats are solid at room temperature
Saturated fats are liquid at room temperature
Unsaturated fats are solid at room temperature
Unsaturated fats are usually made from animal fats
Enzymes are active in many chemical reactions in the body.
Which of the following is true of a digestive enzyme?
a)
b)
c)
d)
It assists in the breakdown of substrates into products.
It assists in the building of new substances
It raises the activation energy of the reactions
it is destroyed by synthesizes food as it is consumed.
A section of DNA with the sequence AAC AAG CCC undergoes a
mutation in which the G is deleted. How will this mutation affect
the amino acid sequence?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Only the second amino acid will change
The second and third amino acids will change
All of the amino acids will change
None of the amino acids will change
reaction rate
This graph represents the relationship between enzyme activity and
substrate concentration.
amount of substrate
What is the most likely explanation of the curve at the end?
a)
b)
c)
d)
the enzyme is used up
the substrate is used up
the products are used up
the enzyme was destroyed
Where would you expect to find the largest concentration
of mitochondria?
a)
b)
c)
d)
in skin cells
in sweat glands
in muscle cells
in brain cells
A long distance runner often eats high quantities of
carbohydrates before a race. This is called “carb loading.”
What would be the best explanation for this behavior?
a) Because carbohydrates are a source of long term energy
b) Because carbohydrates are made of sugar which gives
you quick energy
c) Because carbohydrates provide the energy needed to
survive high stress for long periods of time
d) Because carbohydrates are made of proteins that
provide energy
Which of the following describes a likely reason that
organisms would group together?
a) A pod of dolphins lives together to maintain order and
heirarchy.
b) A school of fish swims together to look like a larger fish.
c) A pack of wild dogs works together to catch enough
food.
d) All of these
How does the size of a eukaryotic organism normally
compare to the size of a prokaryotic organism?
a) Eukaryotes and prokaryotes are both usually very large
organisms.
b) Eukaryotes are usually much larger than prokaryotes.
c) Eukaryotes are usually much smaller than prokaryotes.
d) Eukaryotes and prokaryotes are the same size.
A family of white rabbits is transferred from a snow-filled
ecosystem to a prairie. Which of the following adaptations
would be most beneficial to the offspring of these white
rabbits?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Longer and sharper claws
Darkening of the fur
Increase in overall size
Ability to jump higher
There are many factors that can influence the individual
health of a person. Which of the following can be
influenced by a person’s nutritional decisions?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Cholesterol
Body fat
Blood pressure
All of these
During certain periods of the year, some species of rodents
instinctively entre a state of inactivity characterized by
lowered metabolism and body temperature. This state is
known as _______?
a)
b)
c)
d)
death
hibernation
sleep
Induced coma
Which of the following is true of prokaryotic cells?
a) They tend to be large and very complex.
b) The are only found in unicellular organisms.
c) They may be found in unicellular or multicellular
organisms.
d) They are able to compartmentalize functions and are
more efficient.
Cells are the basic unit of life. Viruses differ from cells in
many key ways. Which of the following is a feature of
viruses but not cells?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Has ribosomes
Does not have nucleic acid
Does not have organelles
Maintains homeostasis
Recently, scientists have discovered genes that predispose
individuals to heart disease. However, people with those
genes will not necessarily develop heart disease. External
factors greatly influence whether a person with the genes
will actually have heart disease later in life. Which of the
following external factors would most likely contribute to a
person developing heart disease?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Taking drugs such as aspirin
Breathing tobacco smoke
Getting regular exercise
Eating a well-balanced diet
All animals exhibit some form of social behavior. Which of
the following types of behavior is best classified as a form
of social behavior?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Foraging behavior
Courtship behavior
Migratory behavior
Predatory behavior
A frog is a type of amphibian which, after hatching from an
egg, begins life as a legless tadpole that lives in water. After
a while, the tadpole develops legs but continues to live in
water exclusively. Later, the tadpole’s tail disappears, limbs
develop, and the organism becomes an adult frog.
This is an example of _____________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Meiotic division
Metamorphosis
The cell cycle
Reproduction
Grass fires are a major threat for prairie trees. Which
adaptation is likely to help prairie trees withstand a fire?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Smooth stems
Many branches
Thick bark
Abundant leaves
Malaria is one of the most common parasitic diseases in the world. It is
caused by a protist from the genus Plasmodium and is carried by
mosquitoes. When a mosquito carrying this protist punctures a
human’s skin, it releases sporozoite into the human. The effects on the
human’s internal environment are show below.
How does malaria affect the internal environment of the human body?
a) It causes the liver to stop functioning
b) It causes the skin to undergo an inflammatory response
c) It causes the reproductive system to stop functioning
d) It destroys red blood cells
Much of the parental care behavior exhibited by animals is
innate. Why is it beneficial for an animal to instinctively know
how to care for its offspring?
a) Caring for offspring is a way the parent can show the
offspring love.
b) Caring for offspring helps ensure the offspring’s survival.
c) Caring for offspring is the only way for the offspring to
learn innate behaviors.
d) Caring for offspring is a good way to hone the parent’s
hunting skills.
In order to determine how various organisms are related,
scientists have organized them into classification groups or
taxa.
Which choice below lists the correct order of organism
classification hierarchy, from most broad to most specific?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom
Kingdom, class, phylum, order, genus, family, and species
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species
Species, family, genus, order, phylum, class, and kingdom
The abundant moisture in tropical rainforests promotes
bacterial and fungal growth. If bacteria or fungi grow on the
surfaces of plants, it can be destructive to the plant tissues.
As a result, many rainforest plants have developed structures
that promote the runoff of water.
Which of the following are examples of these structures?
a)
a)
b)
c)
Waxy coatings on leaves
Smooth stems and trunks
Leaves with pointed tips
All of these
How might an individual acquire immunity against a disease?
I. Receive a vaccine, which causes development of
antibodies
II. Receive antibodies from their mother during or shortly
after birth
III. Be exposed to the disease and develop antibodies
naturally
a)
b)
c)
d)
I and III only
III only
I, II, and III
II and III only
An Australian frilled lizard flares the folds of its skin around its
head in response to a threat. The folds make its head seem
about four times larger than it actually is. How is this
behavior most likely a beneficial adaptation?
a) Appearing larger may make the lizard seem more
threatening and warn potential predators away.
b) Appearing larger may help the lizard’s blood flow and give
him the energy he needs to escape from a predator.
c) Appearing larger may attract female lizards to the male,
and they can protect him from a predator.
d) Appearing larger may make the lizard seem like a bigger
meal and divert predators away from the lizard’s nest.
When dry environmental conditions exist, guard cells reduce
water loss from plants by closing the openings in their leaves.
This process is an example of a feedback mechanism that
plants use in order to
a)
b)
c)
d)
Absorb more solar energy
Expend their resources
Produce more chlorophyll
Maintain homeostasis
How would a covering of hair-like fibers most likely help
plants in a tundra environment with severe winters?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Helps plants absorb sunlight for photosynthesis
Helps plants prevent water loss
Helps plants retain heat
Helps plants maximize oxygen intake and minimize carbon
dioxide intake
Lead is a metal that is usually found in ore with other metals,
such as copper and zinc. When lead is ingested in large
amounts, lead poisoning can occur.
Lead poisoning can be caused by many things, such as mining
or ingesting lead contaminated soil.
Lead poisoning is an example of how
a)
b)
c)
d)
Only manmade things can cause lead poisoning
Materials from the environment are always deadly
Only manmade things can be harmful to humans
Materials from the environment can be toxic
Ants release chemical pheromones that are detected by other
ants. Which of the following best describes the purpose of
this?
a)
b)
c)
d)
It is a way to influence genes
It is a method of excretion
It is a means of communication
It is toxic and kills predators
An organism that is being studied has prokaryotic cells,
reproduces by binary fission, and does not have a nucleus.
What type of organism is it?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Virus
Plant
Protist
Bacterium
A sage plant has multiple types of roots adapted to meet the
water gathering needs of its environment. Which of the
following root types is an adaptation to help obtain water
after a quick, violent rainstorm in the desert?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Deep taproots
Shallow, fibrous roots
Exposed prop roots
Supportive buttress roots
When any cells in your body are damaged, your immune system initiates an
inflammatory response. First, the injured cells release histamine which
increases the permeability of nearby blood vessels. Second, the vessels
swell, and immune system cells known as phagocytes pass through the
capillary walls. Finally, the phagocytes ingest any foreign matter that has
entered the body.
How does the immune system’s inflammatory response stop external
factors from damaging the body’s internal environment?
a) The inflammatory response destroys any bacteria or viruses entering
the body before they can infect cells.
b) Inflammation causes blood flow to the affected are to decrease,
thereby eliminating the possibility of invading organisms infecting the
blood cells.
c) Inflammation causes a great deal of pain, and heightening pain levels
make blood and tissue cells less susceptible to invasion by
microorganisms.
d) The inflammatory response causes the body’s temperature to cools by
several degrees, preventing microorganisms fro being able to multiply.
A cuckoo bird is raised in a zoo and has no contact with other
members of its species. When the adult bird is released into
the wild, it is immediately able to perform a cuckoo mating
song that is exactly the same as the mating song other
cuckoos sing. What dos this suggest about the cuckoo’s
singing behavior?
a)
b)
c)
d)
It is determined by the environment
It is an instinctive behavior
It is learned by trial and error
It is a conditioned response
The picture below shows a diagram of a single-celled organism known as
a euglena.
Which structure acts in a manner most similar to skin tissue in
multicellular organisms?
a)
b)
c)
d)
Nucleus
Cell membrane
Flagellum
chloroplast
Streptococcus is a pathogenic bacteria that tends to grow in
chains or pairs. These bacteria cause meningitis, pneumonia,
and _____________.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Type I diabetes
Diptheria
Strep throat
Cancer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
D
C
C
B
D
B
D
A
C
B
D
B
B
D
B
A
B
C
B
A
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
A
A
B
B
C
B
D
B
C
D
B
B
C
B
B
B
C
D
B
C
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
D
C
A
D
C
D
C
D
B
A
B
B
C