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Transcript
AP Biology Organism Form and Function
Unit 5: Digestive System Outline
J. Miller
Learning Objectives:
4.8 The student is able to evaluate scientific questions concerning organisms that exhibit
complex properties due to the interaction of their constituent parts.
4.9 The student is able to predict the effects of a change in a component(s) of a biological
system on the functionality of an organism(s).
4.10 The student is able to refine representations and models to illustrate biocomplexity
due to interactions of the constituent parts.
4.18 The student is able to use representations and models to analyze how cooperative
interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.
Lecture Outline:
I.
II.
Nutrition
A. Organic Compounds
1. Carbohydrates
2. Fats
3. Protein
B. Essential Minerals (inorganic elements)
1. Calcium
2. Phosphorous
3. Sulfur
4. Sodium and potassium
5. Chlorine (chloride ions)
6. Iron
7. Flourine
10. Iodine
A. Vitamins (are organic substances)
1. General
2. Vitamin A
3. Vitamin D
4. Vitamin E
5. Vitamin K
6. Vitamin B1 – Thiamine
7. Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin
8. B3 Niacin (Nicotinic acid)
9. Folic Acid (Folate)
10. Vitamin B12
11. Vitamin C –Ascorbic Acid
12. B6
General Information
A. Important definitions
1. Ingestion
2. Digestion
3. Absorption
4. Elimination
Necessity of food
Digestive tract
Muscles of the digestive tract
Function of Digestive System
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Mouth
A. Tongue and Palates
B. Teeth – cut, tear, and crush food
C. Salivary glands (3)
D. Swallowing
Pharynx
Esophagus
A. Muscular tube
B. Functions:
Stomach
A. Structure
B. Stomach wall composition
1. glandular cells- gastric pits
2. secretions
C. Functions
1. Chemicals
2. Muscular movement
3. Absorption
Duodenum
A. Location
B. Structure
Pancreas
A. Location
B. Enzymes secreted
C. Secretion control
1. nervous
2. hormonal
D. Insulin
E. Glucagon
Liver
A. Location
B. Functions
C. Gall bladder and bile duct
Jejunum and Ileum
A. Structure and Function
B. Enzymes secreted
C. Enterocrinin
Large Intestine (colon)
XII.
XIII.
A. Structure
B. Functions
Motility of the Gastro-intestinal Tract
A. Peristalsis in stomach
1. Chemical
2. Gastric emptying
B. Movements in small intestine
1. Segmentation
2. Peristalsis
3. Pendular
C. Movements in large intestine
Appetite