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Psy 120 Human Development
• Womb to tomb
• Cannot get credit for 120
and 211 at OCC
• Fast paced to the very end
•
•
•
•
Jan Thompson-Wilda
219, 847-635-1477
22nd year at OCC
Student Development
Faculty
Psy 120 Human Development
• Chapter 1—The Study of Human Development
Formal Study of Human Development
• Human Development:
– The scientific study of
how humans develop
– Main questions:
How do people change
throughout their lives?
What characteristics
remain stable?
Developmental Processes—
Change and Stability
• 2 kinds of change
– Quantitative change—
change in number or amount
– Qualitative change—change
in kind, structure, or
organization
• Despite change, there is
also underlying stability
Basic Questions about Development
• Which aspects of development
– are universal, and which vary from one individual or
group to the next?
– are continuous, and which are not?
– are more or less fixed (like marble) and difficult to
change, and which are relatively malleable and easy to
change (like clay)?
• What makes development happen?
Guiding Principles
• Development results from
constant interplay of
biology and the
environment.
• Development occurs in
multilayered context.
• Development is a
dynamic, reciprocal
process.
• Development is
cumulative.
• Development occurs
throughout the life-span.
Domains of Development
• Physical development
• Cognitive development
• Social and emotional development
Human Development Today—Goals of
This Scientific Discipline
Modification
Description
Prediction
Explanation
Periods of the Life Span
• Social construction
• 8 periods generally agreed upon
• Individual differences exist, but
there are particular needs and
tasks that must be met at
certain stages for normal
development to occur
Research Methods and Designs
• Theories
– Sets of statements that propose general principles
of development
• Predictions or Hypotheses
– An educated guess that is testable by data
collection and analysis
Theories of Development
• Classical Theories
– Psychoanalytic theory
• Freud’s theory of psychosexual development
• Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development
– Learning theory
• Behaviorism
– Classical conditioning
– Operant conditioning
• Social learning theory
– Cognitive-Developmental theory
Psychoanalytic--development shaped by
unconscious forces that motivate human behavior
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Sigmund Freud:
Psychosexual Development
Erik Erikson:
Psychosocial Development
Freud
• Development is shaped by
unconscious forces that
motivate behavior
• Id—pleasure principle
• Ego—reality principle
• Superego—conscience—
shoulds, oughts
• Psychosexual development
–
–
–
–
–
Oral
Anal
Phallic
Latency
Genital
Erikson
Psychosocial
Development
8 stages
Competing tendencies in personality
(crises)
These issues must be resolved
for healthy ego development
Must balance positive and
negative tendency at each stage
Learning—development results from
experiences in the environment
Learning Perspective
Behaviorism
Social Learning Theory
Behaviorism—Classical Conditioning
• Pavlov’s experiments
• A natural response to
a stimulus is
transferred to a
second stimulus
Behaviorism—Operant Conditioning
Individuals learn from
operating on the
environment
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
• Reinforcement—process
by which a behavior is
strengthened, increasing
the likelihood it will be
repeated
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ej
jZZNGfIOM&feature=related
• Punishment—process by
which a behavior is
weakened, decreasing the
likelihood it will be
repeated
Social Learning Theory
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?feat
ure=endscreen&v=ikTxfIDYx6Q&N
R=1
• Not exactly, but cute.
• This is more like it.
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8
ZXOp5PopIA&feature=related
• Albert Bandura
• Modeling, or observational
learning
• Model is usually someone
powerful or admired,
similar to you, when you
see the model rewarded
for the behavior you are
observing
Cognitive-Developmental Theory
•
Emphasizes changes in thinking over the
lifespan
•
Piaget—stage theory
–
–
–
–
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational
•
Organization—the tendency to create
categories
•
Schemes—people create these
increasingly complex cognitive structures
for organizing information
–
Adaptation—Adjustment to new
information from the environment
•
•
•
Assimilation
Accommodation
Equilibration—constant striving for
balance, equilibrium—shift from
assimilation to accommodation
Theories of Development
• Contemporary Theories
–
–
–
–
–
Ecological perspective
Sociocultural perspective
Behavioral genetics
Evolutionary perspective
Dynamic systems theory
Ecological perspective
Bronfenbrenner’s 5 Interlocking Contextual
Systems
• Development occurs through increasingly complex
processes of regular, active, two-way interaction between
the developing person and the immediate environment
• The context—the ecological system—either supports or
stifles growth
Sociocultural Perspective
• Emphasizes the ways
development involves
adaptation to specific
cultural demands
Behavioral Genetics
• Emphasizes the
inherited bases of
behavior
• Reciprocol influences
between genes and
environment
Evolutionary Perspective
• Emphasizes how
behavior develops as
a result of adaptation
to environment
Dynamic Systems Perspective
• Emphasizes that all
facets of development,
domains, context are
part of a dynamic,
constantly changing
system
The Scientific Study of Development
• The scientific method: A systematic, step-by-step procedure for
testing ideas.
Research methods
– Observational research
• Naturalistic observation
• Participant observation
• Structured observation
– Self-reports
– Standardized tests
• Reliability
• Validity
Basic Research Designs
• Case studies
• Correlational studies
• Experiments
– Groups and variables
– Random assignment
– Laboratory, field and
natural experiments
Figure 1.3: Positive and Negative Correlations
32
•
The Scientific Method
• Studying change over time
–Longitudinal research
–Cross-sectional studies
–Accelerated longitudinal
design
33
Figure 1.4: Research Designs for Studies of
Development
34