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Learning, Literature, and the
• In the period of the Middle Ages people in the Latin West worshiped
the Roman language, and traveled upon the roads of the Roman
Empire. (Bulliet, 364)
• The Renaissance (which means rebirth) started up in northern Italy
and spread through the northern part of Europe. (Bulliet, 364)
• The court of Charlemagne was associated with a small revival of
classical learning. (Bulliet, 364)
• The Italian Renaissance is viewed in many different ways and can be
seen either as an age of darkness or as a bright and shining day.
• Much of the learning of Greco-Roman antiquity was by the time of
the early medieval Europeans. (Bulliet, 364)
Universities and learning
Jewish scholars has contributed a significant amount .They
significantly contributed to the translation and explication of Arabic
and other manuscripts (Bulliet, 364)
The Iranian Philosopher Ibn Sina was born in Afshaneh which is
near Bukhara, the translations were from them. (www.
He was known in the West as Avicenna (Bulliet, 364)
There were two new religious orders which were the Dominicans
and the Franciscans (Bulliet, 364)
They contributed as many talented professors to the new
independent collages (Bulliet, 364)
Scholasticism was the daring efforts to synthesize faith and reason.
(Bulliet 364)
Universities and Learning cont.
The Latin west was part to establish the modern universities
(Bulliet, 364)
The universities were degree-granting corporations that specialized
in multidiciplenary research and advanced teaching (Bulliet, 364)
Sixty new universities joined the institutions of higher leveled
learning between 1300 and 1500 (Bulliet, 364)
Students had together and and found some of them; guild of
professors founded others (Bulliet, 364)
The students that trained longer earned the "masters" or "doctors"
degrees (Bulliet, 364)
Universities such as Cambridge and Oxford stayed independent
organizations while the colleges of Paris were absorbed into the
city’s universities. (Bulliet 364)
Universities and Learning cont.
All university courses were taught in Latin(Bulliet, 364)
Theology was known as the "queen of the sciences"-the cantral
discipline which encompassed all knowledge (Bulliet, 364)
The daring efforts to synthesize reason and faith was known as
scholasticism Lupinskie-Huvane, Lorraine, and Kate Coughlin. AP
World History Flash Cards. Danbury: Barron's Educational Series,
2006. Print.
Summa Theologica was the most notable scholastic work(Bulliet,
Some church authorities tried to ban aristotal from the
curriculum. (Bulliet, 365)
Universities offered many different programs of study but were
usually known for a certain specialty. (Bulliet 364)
Humanists and printers
During 1265 to 1321 a man by the name of Dante Alighieri wrote
and completed the Divine Comedy which was a long poem about his
journey through hell, purgatory, and Paradise. (Bulliet, 365)
In the Divine Comedy it also includes the seven terraces of
purgatory which is where the souls that did not deserve
punishment for eternity were send and purged of their sinfulness.
(Bulliet, 365)
He had a guide for hell and purgatory and another for Paradise. For
hell and purgatory his guide was the Roman poet Virgil. For
Paradise his guide was a woman who he had interest in since he
was a child, and he wrote a poem which was inspired by her death.
The name of the woman Beatrice. (Bulliet, 365)
Dante himself chose to write in the vernacular languages spoken in
their regions, like Tuscany. Many Italian writers preferred the
vernacular languages than Latin. (Bulliet, 365)
An English poet by the name of Geoffrey Chaucer was most
famous for his lengthy poem entitled Canterbury Tales. (Bulliet, 365)
Humanism and Printers cont.
Humanism is the focus on things of this world, a departure from
medieval thought and designed to work in conjunction with an urbanbased society. (Bulliet, 365)
The literary movement of the humanists began in Florence, Italy
around the mid-fourteenth century. (Bulliet, 365)
Humanist writers said that their admiration and dedication to
classical values practically revived the Greco-Roman traditions. Two
examples are the poet Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) and the
storyteller and poet Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375). (Bulliet, 365)
The greatest influence of humanists was probably in reforming
secondary education. (Bulliet, 365)
Humanists believed that the curriculum they introduced provided
intellectual discipline, refined tastes, and even moral lessons. The
curriculum was centered around the languages and literatures of
Greco – Roman antiquity. (Bulliet, 365)
Humanism and printers cont.
Secondary education was based upon this curriculum, in the
Americas and Europe up to the twentieth century. (Bulliet, 365)
Many humanists tried to duplicate or clone the elegance of classical
Latin or Greek because they believed that the pinnacle of learning,
beauty, and wisdom had been reached in antiquity. (Bulliet, 365)
Boccaccio also wrote in the vernacular languages and was explicitly
famous for Decameron. (Bulliet, 366)
Another work from Boccaccio is De muleribus claris which means
Famous Women. It is a chronicle of 106 famous women from Eve.
(Bulliet, 366)
The new printing technology, around 1450, increased the availability
of ancient texts, so the influence of the humanists was enhanced.
(Bulliet, 366)
Renaissance Artists
Even though artists still depicted biblical subjects, their works were
influenced by the spread of Greco–Roman learning.
One of the things portrayed in the paintings are visuals of daily life.
The paintings also portray mythical tales. (Bulliet, 367)
Giotto di Bondone who lived from 1267 to 1337, was a Florentine
architect, and painter who had a huge impact and influence on the
Italian painters of the fifteenth century. (
He dealt in the traditional religious subjects which he gave an
amazing and extraordinary force and life. (
His painting of saints were more human and natural and showed
emotions of grief and love. (
Renaissance Artists cont.
The earliest known work of Giotto is a series of frescoes, which are
painting on still wet plaster, on St. Francis in the church at Assisi.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1472 – 1564) was an
Italian sculptor, architect, poet, and painter. (
A Flemish painter by the name of Jan van Eyck mixed his pigments
with oil which started the use of oil paints.
Leonardo de Vinci (1452-1519) created one of his most famous, the
Mona Lisa, using oil paints which Jan van Eyck had started. He
(Leonardo de Vinci) was an Italian draftsman, sculptor, architect,
painter, and engineer. (
Donatello, whose full name is Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi, was a
master in sculpture in bronze and marble, as well as one of the best
Italian Renaissance artists of his time.
Renaissance Artists cont.
Cosimo de’ Medici (1389-1464) was a Florentine banker who
apparently had a true love for the arts since he spent huge sums on
paintings, public buildings, and sculptures.
The grandson of Cosimo de’ Medici was Lorenzo (1449-1492) who
was known as “the Magnificent”, was even more lavish than his
grandfather. (
An important source of artistic commissions was the church.
(Bulliet, 367)
The papacy, who sought to restore Rome as the capital of the Latin
church, launched a building program towards the construction of
the new Saint Peter’s Basilica. (Bulliet, 368)
The variety of artistic styles and literary themes during this period
influenced the Western culture. (Bulliet, 368)
1) Who was the guide for hell and the seven terraces of purgatory in
Dante Alighieri's the Divine Comedy?
2)What was the focus of humanism?
a-the concentration on morals
b-the focus on things of this world
c-deep commitment to Christianity
d-reflection of the spirit of individualism
e-concentration of literature and history
3)What reflected the spirit of individualism and encouraged a split from
religious-based thinking and a focus on things of this world?
c-The Renaissance
4) What is the name of the chronicle of 106 women from Eve?
a-Divine Comedy
b-De mulieribus claris
c-Canterbury Tales
e-Enchridion militis christiani
5)Which one of the following specialized in sculpting marble and bronze?
a- Giotto
b- Cosimo de’ Medici
c- Donatello
d- Leonardo de Vinci
e- Jan van Eyck
6) When was Lorenzo born, and when did he die?
a- 1449-1492
b- 1389-1464
c- 1388 – 1464
d- 1449 – 1492
e- 1445-1489
1 d.Virgil
2 b-the focus on things of this world
3 e-Secularism
4 b-De mulieribus claris
5 c- Donatello
6 a- 1449-1492
Bulliet, Richard W., Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L.
Johnson, and David Northrup. The Earth And Its Peoples A Global History. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company, 2004. Print.
"Giotto di Bondone." WebMuseum. 27 Jul 2002. BMW Foundation,Web. 20 Oct 2009.
"Michelangelo." WebMuseum. 27 Jul 2002. BMW Foundation,Web. 20 Oct 2009.
"Leonardo da Vinci." WebMuseum. 27 Jul 2002. BMW Foundation, Web. 20 Oct 2009.
Kren, Emil. "Donatello." Web Gallery. Web. 20 Oct 2009.
"Cosimo de’ Medici." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 20 Oct. 2009
Philosophers : Ibn Sina (Avicenna)." Trinity College. Web. 09 Nov. 2009.
Lupinskie-Huvane, Lorraine, and Kate Coughlin. AP World History Flash Cards. Danbury:
Barron's Educational Series, 2006. Print.