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1st Asian Public Governance Forum on Public Innovation
11-12 June 2014
Jakarta, Indonesia
INCREASING PUBLIC
VALUE THROUGH OPEN
GOVERNMENT AND OPEN
DATA
Barbara-Chiara Ubaldi
Project Manager, E-government
Public Sector Reform
Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development
OECD
Overview
• Overall context in OECD countries
• A framework to understand Open
Government
• Open Data: a key enabler of Open
Government?
Overall context across the OECD
Fiscal space remains limited in OECD
10
9
8
Consolidation requirement to attain 60% public debt ratio
% of potential GDP
7
Consolidation plans in 2012-15
6
Remaining consolidation need
5
4
3
2
1
0
4
Source: OECD (2012), Restoring Public Finances, 2012 Update, OECD Publishing
While public expenditure levels rise
70
60
General government expenditure as % of GDP
(includes central and local governments as well as social security institutions)
2010
50
2007
40
30
20
10
0
5
Source: OECD (2011), Government at a Glance 2011, OECD Publishing
Confidence in government hit hard in a long
tail of OECD countries
6
Source: OECD Social and Welfare statistics (Gallup World Poll)
Open Government
OECD ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
OPEN GOVERNMENT
Principles
Transparency
Policy
Instruments
Catalysers
Intermediate
results
Budgetary
transparency
Social wellbeing
Innovation
Accountability
Participation
Integrity
Independent
institutions
Consultation
mechanisms
Anticorruption
Final results
Improved
democracy
ICTs use
Change
management
Implementation
Quality of public
services
Trust in
governance
Economic
growth
OECD Open Government Data Project
What values are governments expecting?
• Economic value
• Growth and competitiveness in the wider economy
• Fostering innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in government
services (internal and external)
• Social value
• Promoting citizens’ self-empowerment, social participation and
engagement
• Public governance value
• Improving accountability, transparency, responsiveness and
democratic control
Open data beyond transparency to
improve service delivery ….
•
•
Improved service delivery emerging from initiatives originally driven by a
government’s push for greater transparency around data
ICT + Open data = potential revolutionary approach to service design and
provision and to assess efficiency in the delivery and users’ satisfaction
How?
•
better use of data analysis in policy making and public services for more
integrated and innovative service delivery
•
involving innovators from inside and outside governments to crowdsource ideas and to create new ways to tackle old and new problems.
•
frontline professionals who see real time performance and impact of
public services and policies on citizens can generate and use appropriate
data and develop apps to improve service experience if given tools and
incentives to do so
•
blurring of personal and professional lives in terms of 2.0 tools use could
improve performance through two-way exchange of experience and skills
…and to strengthen citizens’ selfempowerment, participation and public
engagement.
• OGD initiatives supported by Web 2.0 and social media applications
create an architecture for participative and empowering
relationships with citizens
HOW?
• users not only passive consumers of content and services, but also
active contributors and designers of their own right
• data smart disclosure (i.e. the timely release of data in
standardised, machine-readable formats in ways that enable users
to make better decisions about finance, healthcare, energy or other
personal contexts) empowers citizens to take more informed
decisions that can enhance the quality of their lives
Where is the closest dentist to me?
How is my hospital performing?
OGD in OECD countries
Top 5 principal objectives of the
open data strategy across OECD
Create economic value for the private sector
71%
Increase openness
71%
Increase transparency
71%
67%
Facilitate creation of new businesses
Deliver public services more effectively and efficiently by
improving internal operations and collaboration
63%
Deliver public services more effectively and efficiently by
enabling delivery from private sector through data re-use
54%
Improve public sector performance by strengthening
accountability for outputs/outcomes
46%
33%
Enable citizens' engagement in decision-making processes
29%
Facilitate citizens' participation in public debate
Create economic value for the public sector
0%
0%
Source: OECD Open Data Report (forthcoming 2014)
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
Emerging approaches
• The “pioneers” (e.g. UK, USA, Spain)
• Devising a sustainable financial mechanism
(e.g. Denmark, the Netherlands)
• Establishing the governance framework first
(e.g. Germany, Switzerland)
• Quick followers (e.g. France, Canada and
Mexico)
Consulting the stakeholders
Was the central/federal OGD strategy/policy developed in consultation with stakeholders?
Percentage of respondent countries
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Source: OECD Open Data Report (forthcoming 2014)
Principal Challenges for further Development of
OGD Initiatives
90%
80%
Percentage of responding countries
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
Organisational
challenges
Institutional
challenges
Funding challenges
Source: OECD Open Data Report (forthcoming 2014)
Policy challenges
Technical challenges Context challenges
Involving the users and knowing the demand
Percentage of respondent countries
Does your government regularly consult users on their needs and preferences of the type of data released?
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
a. Yes citizens' information
needs
b. Yes, businesses' information c. Yes, other stakeholders' needs
needs
(e.g. non-profit organisations)
Source: OECD Open Data Report (forthcoming 2014)
d. None of the above applies
OECD OGD Project : What’s next ?
Data to create value: with whom and
how?
• Which ecosystem?
•
Inside the public sector: workflows to gather, integrate, validate, release, up-date
and promote re-use of data (statistical offices, archives, sector data producers,
etc.)
•
Outside the public sector: to sustain data re-use (media, private sector, civil
society, librarians, developers, community of practitioners, etc.)
• What activity?
•
Data mining, data analytics (for policy making and service delivery), crowdsourcing to support service innovation, social innovation, evidence-based
performance, improved financial decisions, data mash-up and data sharing,
licensing, standards, hackaton events, metadata.
• Which capacities?
•
Ensure sustainability and autonomy: data scientist, visualisation expert,
statistics and data analytics expert, computing and systems programming skills,
policy expert.
• How to assess it?
•
Assessment overall (Phase 1 in OECD and LAC) commitment to implementation
(short term) and impact (medium term)
THANK YOU!
For more information:
www.oecd/gov/egov
[email protected]