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Tenses Revision
Modals and regrets in the past
Should / ought to + perfect infinitive

Regret about something that should have happened in the past but didn’t
o We should have warned them
Shouldn’t / ought not to + perfect infinitive

Regret about something that happened in the past, but shouldn’t have
happened
o I shouldn’t have trusted him
Modals and Perfect Infinitive

Used to describe actions that refer to the past
o Helen is not at home. She might have gone to the library.
Would Rather

Expresses Preferences
o I’d rather (not) go away this weekend. (Present / Future)
o I’d rather have travelled by train. (Past)
Wish / If only

Wish / If only + Past Simple: expresses a wish about a present situation that we
would like to be different.
o I wish I had more free time If only I had more fee time!

Wish / If only + could + infinitive: expresses regret about something we cannot
do at present.
o I wish you could help me.
If only you could help me!

Wish / If only + Past Perfect: expresses regret about something that happened in
the past and we wish it could have been different.
o I wish you had told us the truth.
If only you had called earlier!
About time

It’s about / high time + Past Simple
o It’s about time you tidied your room
 BUT: It’s time to go.
Conditionals Revision
________________________________________________________________________
Zero Conditional
If + Present Simple, Present Simple
Fact: If you go abroad, you need to take your passport.
Fact: I always have a headache if somebody smokes.
1. If you ____________ on a yellow line, you ___________ a ticket. (park, get)
2. If you ____________ in the sun too long, you __________sunburnt. (lie, get)
________________________________________________________________________
First Conditional
If + Present Simple, will + V1
Possible: If I make a lot of money, I will have a better life.
Probable: If he comes early, we will watch TV.
1. If I _________to London this weekend, I _________ shopping in Oxf. Street. (go,
go)
2. If he ___________ time, he ___________you. (have, help)
________________________________________________________________________
Second Conditional
If + Past Simple, would + V1
Imaginary: If I were a bird, I would fly away. (I am not a bird)
Dream: I would buy a palace, if I had a lot of money. (I don’t have a lot of money now)
Advice: If I were you, I would study more. (I am not you)
1. If I _____________ the lottery, I ____________ an aeroplane. (win, buy)
2. If I _____________ you , I ______________that pullover. (be, not buy)
_______________________________________________________________________
Third Conditional
If + Past Perfect, would + have + V3
Past: If I had gone to the wedding, I would have seen him.
1. If the pilot ___________more careful, we ________________. (be, not crash)
2. If Billy _____________, he __________________ the exam. (not cheat, not pass)
_______________________________________________________________________
PASSIVE VOICE

We form the Passive Voice with the verb BE in the appropriate tense or form +
the past participle (VERB 3) of the main verb.
Active Voice:
Passive Voice:
Subject
Verb
William Shakespeare wrote
Macbeth
was written
Object
Macbeth
by William Shakespeare
Present Simple: am / is / are + V3
----- Hondas are made in Japan
Past Simple: was / were + V3 ----- The letter was made from Dover
Present Perfect: have / has been + V3
Past Perfect Simple: had been + V3
Future will: will be + V3
Present continuous: am / is / are + being + V3
Past Continuous: was / were + being + V3
Future Going to: am / is / are + going to + V3
Modal Verbs: modal + be + V3
Reported Speech

Use to report what someone said. We normally move the tense a step backwards
and adjust the pronouns or time words accordingly.
Present Simple  Past Simple
Present Continuous  Past Continuous
Past Simple  Past Perfect
Past Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous
Present Perfect  Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous  Past Perfect Continuous
Will  would
Can  could
May  might
Must  had to
This / that  that / those
Here  there
Now  then
Today / tonight  that day / that night
Yesterday  the previous day / the day before
Tomorrow  the next day / the following day
Last week  the previous week
Next week  the following week