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Species Interactions
Miller 8-3
Five basic types of interactions
• Interspecific
• Predation
• Parasitism
• Mutualism
• Commensalism
• Between members of
the same species for
resources such as food,
water and shelter.
• Often solved by
establishing territories
Grey Wolf – large territory
House Wren – small
Interspecific competition
House Wren
• Competition between
different species for one
or more resources
• Often these species are
very much alike – they
occupy similar niches
• Competitive Exclusion
Principle – niches can
not overlap completely
or for very long
Bewick’s Wren
Predator – Prey Interactions
• Members of one
species (predator) feed
directly on members of
another species (prey)
• Often beneficial to the
prey species.
How do predators increase their
chances of getting prey?
• Pursuit – adaptations
that allow the running
down of prey. Fast,
good eyesight, hunting
• Ambush – hide and
ambush. Camouflage
How do prey defend themselves?
Move fast
See or smell well
Protective shells
Thick bark
Chemical warfare
Coral snake (poisonous) and milk
Snake caterpillar
Canyon tree frog
Clown Fish is not bothered by stinging
cells of Anemone. It gets it’s food as
leftovers from the Anemone. The clown
fish protects the anemone from predators
• Long term relationship
of two species living
• Three types
– Parasitism
– Mutualism
– Commensalism
• Both species benefit
from the interaction
Lichen – Fungus provides
attachment to the rock or tree
and algae does photosynthesis
to make food for both
• Benefits one species,
but does not benefit or
harm the other species
Orchids are
• When one species
(parasite) feeds on part
of another species
• One benefits and one is