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Environment
Of Polar Bears, Subsistence Farmers,
Florida Residents, and Scientists
 http://query.nytimes.com/search/query?srcht=s&sr
chst=m&vendor=&query=global+warming&submi
t.x=107&submit.y=10
Environment: Global Issues
 Climate change
 Ozone depletion
 Acid rain and persistent organic pollutants
– Some mercury in your tuna?
 Tropical deforestation
– Loosing biodiversity fast?
 Fisheries depletion/collapse
– No cod fish today?
 Trade in pesticides
– Raspberries sprinkled with DDT?
 Trade in hazardous waste
– Whose soil are your computer chips contaminating?
 Trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
– Like those pig genes in your tomatoes?
 Etc., etc., etc.
History of Environmental Cooperation
 Domestic environmental movements: 1960s, 1970s
 Global meetings on the environment
– Stockholm, 1972 -> UNEP
– Rio, 1992 -> Agenda 21
– Johannesburg, 2002 ->Plan of Imlementation
 International environmental treaties/law
– Over 160 Multilateral Environmental Treaties
The Tragedy of the Commons
 Garrett Hardin (1968).
 Pasture: common resource
 Each farmer increases the size of his herd
 Commons degraded and cannot sustain
livestock
 Individual rational behavior, results
in collective ruin to all
“Each man is locked into a system that
compels him to increase his herd
without limit in a world that is
limited. Ruin is the destination
toward which all men
rush…”(Hardin 1968, p. 41)
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
 Ozone layer shields Earth from UV rays
 Chemicals such as CFCs and halons release
chlorine (CI) in the upper atmosphere
 Chlorine reacts with ozone molecules
-> less ozone
 Health effects and effects on materials
Ozone Hole 2002
The Ozone Layer Regime
 Vienna Convention (1985)
 Montreal Protocol (1987)
– limits 50% reduction of CFCs, freeze on halons
 Montreal Protocol amendments
» CFCs and halons eliminated;
» Over 90 substances regulated
 Bringing developing countries in:
» Trade restrictions, 10 years grace period for compliance,
assistance
Explaining Ozone Cooperation
 Hegemonic interests
 The role of institutions
 The role of domestic politics
 The role of scientists, negotiators
The Climate Problem
 Natural greenhouse effect, augmented by human activity
 Anthropogenic emissions of CO2, NOx, methane and other
green house gases (GHGs).
 GHGs accumulate, trap heat beyond natural bounds
 Global Warming AKA Climate Change
 Effects:
Temp increase 1.4-5.8C by 2100?
Sea level rise of 0.09-0.88m by 2100?
Increase in CO2 Concentrations
Effect on Global Mean Temperature
Climate Change Impacts
Melting Glaciers
 Boulder Glacier, Glacier
National Park, Montana,
July 1932
 Boulder Glacier, Glacier
National Park, Montana,
July 1988
Climate Cooperation
 UN Convention on Climate Change 1992
– Adopted at the 1992 Rio Conference
 Kyoto Protocol to the Climate Change Convention
1997
–
–
–
–
–
Emission reduction targets for industrialized countries
Trading of emissions to reduce cost
Entered into force in 2005 after Russia’s ratification
US does not participate
Developing countries: no obligations to reduce emissions
Top Six Contributors to Global
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
USA
21%
1,890MtC
China
15%
1,349MtC
Rest of the World
35%
1,286MtC
524MtC
EU
14%
364MtC
501MtC
Japan
4%
India
5%
Russia
6%
The Future of Climate Cooperation?