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Napoleon Bonaparte’s Background • From Corsica and of Italian descent • Family was minor nobility but not wealthy • Won a scholarship to a famous military school • Was unpopular with his fellow officers early in his military career Napoleon Bonaparte’s Background Napoleon's background: Born in Corsica in 1769, Napoleon attended a French military school. After graduating and receiving a commission as a lieutenant in the army, he continued to study Enlightenment ideas and noted military campaigns of the past. Military successes: During the French Revolution, the army needed able officers, and Napoleon rose to become a successful commander of the French armies in Italy. He then led an invasion of Egypt that while successful on land was foiled by British sea power. From consul to emperor: When Napoleon returned from Egypt, he participated in a coup that overthrew the Directory and established a consulate in which he wielded absolute power as "first consul." In 1804, he crowned himself as Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon’s Rise to Power What were major milestones in Napoleon’s rise to power? • Rose quickly through the ranks—from captain in 1792 to commander in 1796 • Won battles early on in southern France, defeating royalist forces supported by the British • Took control of France’s army in Italy and defeated Austrian troops repeatedly • Overthrew the French government in a coup d’état in 1799 • Gained absolute power; made himself emperor in 1804 Understanding Napoleon’s Success What personality traits enabled Napoleon to be successful? • Was dedicated and acted decisively • Was intelligent: studied famous military campaigns to learn from others • Was ambitious and worked hard • Inspired loyalty amongst his troops • Spoke well and with confidence What difficulties might Napoleon's background have presented to a man as ambitious as he was? Perhaps being of Italian descent and not being of noble birth would not have given him the same advantages as others in the French army. Napoleonic Wars, 1799–1812 What were highlights of the Napoleonic Wars? • During the first phase, France defeated Austria several times and made peace with Britain in 1802. • France and Britain began fighting again in 1803, with victories by the British navy making a French invasion of Britain impossible. • Napoleon then fought a coalition of countries on the European continent and won brilliant victories at Ulm, Austerlitz, Jena, and Friedland from 1805 to 1807. From 1808 to 1812, Napoleon was less successful. His efforts to defeat Portugal and Spain were thwarted by British support for his opponents. • • After invading Russia in 1812, Napoleon and his troops were forced to retreat in brutally cold conditions. Napoleon lost 500,000 soldiers in Russia. CHANGES IN FRANCE UNDER NAPOLEON Napoleon's Domestic Policies •Peace with the Church: Napoleon sought to improve relations with the Catholic Church. He recognized Catholicism as the religion of the majority of French people, and the pope relinquished claims on Church lands seized during the French Revolution. •Codification of laws: The complicated French legal system was reduced to seven law codes. The most important was the Civil Code, which, although preserving many rights that had been established during the revolution, rolled back the rights that women and children had gained. •Creation of bureaucracy: Napoleon created a centralized bureaucracy—based on ability rather than nobility—to carry on the work of government. A new group of nobles, drawn from all classes of society, was created from the bureaucracy's ranks. •Censorship: Napoleon betrayed the revolutionary ideal of freedom of expression, shutting down many newspapers, banning books, and subjecting prospective publications and even the mail to government scrutiny. What members of French society might have disagreed with Napoleon's domestic policies? Members of the aristocracy and nobility would not have liked how Napoleon decreased their power; some supporters of the revolution might have disapproved of Napoleon's recognition of the Church. What other domestic problems might Napoleon's policies have affected, either positively or negatively? Problem—Poverty and hunger among peasants; Solution—Feudal system ended, and improvements in public education and the Civil Code made it possible for more people to pursue their chosen occupations; Result—Peasants had more economic opportunities. Napoleon’s Major Victories, 1805-1806 In 1805, Napoleon gave up on an invasion of England because of France's naval inferiority. He turned his attention to the European mainland and attempted to expand France's control eastward. During this campaign he won some of his most brilliant victories, and by the time Russia and Prussia signed peace treaties with France in 1807, Napoleon was near the height of his power. Why was Napoleon's Grand Army successful? Napoleon's army was successful because Napoleon outsmarted his opponents militarily, often surprising or tricking them. He also succeeded as a leader, since he believed soldiers must be treated well in order for them to fight better. Napoleon’s Empire Wars in Europe: Napoleon tried to make peace with France's enemies to give his country a respite from warfare, but war broke out again with Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. Napoleon managed to defeat all his foes except Britain. Continental Europe became a Grand Empire under his control. Grand Empire: Napoleon's Grand Empire consisted of three main parts: the French Empire; dependent states, in which Napoleon had installed his relatives as monarchs; and allied states, which Napoleon had defeated and forced to join his war against Britain. Spread of revolutionary ideas: One effect of Napoleon's conquests was the spread of French revolutionary ideas, such as equality under the law, religious toleration, and economic freedom. Continental System and spread of nationalism: Intent on defeating Great Britain, Napoleon pinned his hopes on his Continental System, designed to weaken Britain by trying to prevent British goods from being traded in continental Europe. Napoleon also aroused the spirit of nationalism throughout Europe, as the people he had conquered united in hatred of the French occupiers. Judging by the lands that Napoleon acquired for France, what do you think was his number one goal for his empire? It appears that Napoleon was trying to control all of Europe and access to all the major waterways—Atlantic Ocean, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. How did Napoleon create a revolutionary government? How did he re-create a monarchy? Napoleon's code of laws as being revolutionary and his crowning himself emperor as being a re-creation of the monarchy. Napoleon’s Continental System What did Napoleon try to do with his Continental System? • Prevent the British from trading with other European countries o To weaken the British economy o To hinder Britain’s ability to wage war Napoleon’s Continental System Why did the Continental System fail? • Britain dominated the seas. • Some of Napoleon’s allies traded clandestinely in British goods. o • Other countries resisted participating in Napoleon’s plan. o • Smuggled goods entered many North sea ports. Portugal and Sweden refused to join. Britain found trade markets outside Europe. o The Middle East and Latin America were new outlets for British goods. Napoleon’s Fall The End of Napoleon’s Empire Napoleon's defeat in Russia: Russia's refusal to adhere to the Continental System led Napoleon to invade that country. The Russians retreated, burning their own fields and villages to deny the French a source of supplies. Napoleon was eventually forced to withdraw, and the harsh Russian winter severely depleted the French Grand Army as it retreated. Attack on France and restoration of monarchy: Napoleon's defeat in Russia emboldened other European powers to make war on the French. Their forces captured Paris in 1814. Napoleon was sent into exile on the island of Elba, and the monarchy was restored in France. Return from exile and final defeat: Napoleon managed to return to France and raise an army, but in 1815 he was decisively defeated at Waterloo by British and Prussian forces. He was exiled again—this time for good—to the island of St. Helena. Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? He wanted to punish Russia because Russian leaders refused to remain in the Continental System. Napoleon hoped the invasion would send a message to other countries thinking of leaving the system. What are some reasons Napoleon fell from power? The force of nationalism in Europe; British sea power; the ineffectiveness of the Continental System in stopping Great Britain; major military defeats, including defeats in Russia and at Waterloo. How was each of these islands (Corsica, Great Britain, Elba, and St. Helena) important in Napoleon's life? Napoleon was born on Corsica, failed repeatedly to defeat Britain, was exiled to Elba, and was later exiled on St. Helena, where he died. Europe After Napoleon What were the conditions in Europe after the fall of Napoleon? • The Napoleonic Wars had ended. • European countries had developed strong spirits of nationalism. • Monarchies were restored in accordance with the principle of legitimacy. • There was relative peace and stability although political freedoms were reduced. • The great powers rearranged territories to create a balance of power. • The philosophy of conservatism prevailed. Post-Napoleonic Europe The Congress of Vienna: After the fall of Napoleon, representatives of the victorious powers met at the Congress of Vienna, intent on restoring the old European order. Led by Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria, they wanted to assert a principle of legitimacy by restoring the royal families who had ruled before Napoleon. Balance of power and conservatism: The representatives at the Congress of Vienna redrew territorial boundaries to create a balance of power in Europe, so that no country would again be able to dominate the others. Metternich and many other leaders believed in the philosophy of conservatism, based on a respect for tradition, social stability, obedience to authority, and organized religion. Principle of intervention: The great powers, except for Britain, adopted a "principle of intervention," asserting their right to use military force to oppose revolutions and restore what they considered to be legitimate monarchs in countries where governments had been overthrown. What was the idea behind the "balance of power" concept in European diplomacy? The great powers sought to prevent any one nation from dominating the other nations and thus ensure stability in Europe by preserving the status quo. What happened to revolutionary ideas after the French Revolution was over? Forces of Change Liberalism: Opposed to conservatism was liberalism, a philosophy that grew out of the Enlightenment and held that people should be largely free from government restraint. Liberals favored the protection of civil liberties, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and the press; religious toleration; the right of peaceful opposition to governments; and representative legislatures. Nationalism: Another powerful force at the time was nationalism— people's sense of unity with others sharing their language, institutions, and customs. The belief arose that each nationality should have its own government, and this belief was supported by liberals. What Is Liberalism? • liberalism: a political philosophy based on the ideas that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties— the basic rights of all people—should be protected • Example: In the United States, a written document—the Bill of Rights—was created to ensure people's freedoms. What Is Nationalism? • nationalism: the unique cultural identity of a people, based on a common language, religion, and culture; a belief that each nationality should have its own government • Example: The Hungarians wanted the right to establish their own government rather than be ruled by the Austrian emperor. What Is Conservatism? • conservatism: a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion • Example: The powers assembled at the Congress of Vienna advocated restoring the rule of the royal families that Napoleon had removed from power. How are the modern-day usages of conservatism, liberalism, and nationalism similar to the usages of the terms in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Europe? In what ways are they different? Modern liberalism and conservatism both support universal suffrage, a constitution, and a legislative branch; modern conservatism does not support a king; neither term is associated with class structure; modern nationalism can lead to the division of a country rather than its unification.