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Developmental
Aspects of
Muscular System
Development

Embryo

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
Muscular system laid down in
segments
Each segment is invaded by
nerves
First movements of fetus

Occur by 16th week of
pregnancy
Muscle Development

Once born, a baby’s movements are all
gross reflex types of movements



Nervous system must mature
Control proceeds in cephalic/caudal
direction
Gross muscular movements precede fine
ones
Ex: babies can raise head before they sit up;
Wave ‘bye’ before grasping blocks
Healthy Muscles


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Rich blood supply
Resistant to infection
Good nutrition
Regular exercise

If not, then atrophy
Aging


As we age, amount of connective tissue
increases
Amount of muscle tissue decreases
So what?


Body weight declines
Decrease in muscle strength
Muscle Problem Examples

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Muscular dystrophy
Myasthenia gravis
Torticollus
Muscular dystrophy



A group of genetic
muscle diseases that
cause progressive
muscle weakness
Muscles enlarge due
to fat and connective
tissue deposit
Muscle fibers
degenerate
Duchenne MD

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Mostly in boys (X-linked
recessive)
Diagnosed between 2-7
years old
Active, normal children
appear clumsy
Disease progresses from
extremities upward
Usually results in death
due to respiratory
distress
Myasthenia gravis

Symptoms include:






Drooping of upper eyelids
Difficulty swallowing and
talking
Muscle fatigue and
weakness
Shortage of Acetylcholine
receptors at
neuromuscular junctions
Muscles not stimulated
properly
Death usually occurs due
to respiratory failure
Torticollis




‘Wry neck’
In difficult births,
one of
sternocleidomastoid
muscles may be
injured
Muscles contract
involuntarily
Cause head to turn
Topics in Muscles




You and a partner will be assigned a muscle
disease or disorder.
Research the topic.
Outline 5 major/interesting findings (including
cause, symptoms & treatment) as they pertain
to our study of the muscular system. Try to
include any recent breakthroughs.
Present information (informally as roundtable)
to the class about your topic.
Topics in Muscles
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Dermatomyositis
Compartment Syndrome
Rhabdomyolysis
Myopathy
Diastasis Recti
Zenker’s Degeneration
Pelvic Floor Muscle Disorder
Fibromyalgia
Tetanus
Botulism
Orofacial Myology Disorders