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Transcript
Introduction to World
Geography
© CSCOPE
2009
What is Geography????
• Geography is the study of place and space:
Geographers look at where things are and why
they are there.
• Study of human activity, the natural
environment, and the relationship between the
two (human-environment interactions).
© CSCOPE
2009
Physical v. Cultural Geography
Physical Geography
Cultural Geography
Rocks/Minerals
Population/Settlements/Urbanizati
on
Landforms
Economic and Political Systems
Animal and Plant Life
Transportation
Soils
Human Migration
Atmosphere/Climate/Weather
Social Systems
Environment
Recreation
Rivers/Oceans/Other bodies of
Water
Religion/Belief System
Physical Geography is the study of the Natural Landscape of the Earth
while Cultural Geography is the study of the Human Landscape of the
Earth.
© CSCOPE
2008
What types of jobs do
geographers have (in the U.S.)?
Location Analysts, for:
franchises (like “Burger King”)
stores (like big department stores)
public facilities (like new schools)
Environmental Scientists and Consultants
GIS (computer mapping) Urban and Regional Planners
Real Estate and Residential Development Analysts
Transportation and Tourism Planners and Analysts
University and public school teachers
© CSCOPE
2009
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
Geologists
Taxonomy: kingdom, phylum,
Class, order, family, genus,
species
Geological time
Historians
Eras, ages, periods
Biologists
Geographers
© CSCOPE
2009
Geographic Regions
GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
What defines a region?
Regions are based on Spatial Criteria
►physical
(natural) characteristics
 landforms, climate, vegetation
►human
(cultural) characteristics
 language, religion, ethnicity, population
© CSCOPE
2009
MORE ON GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS:
►Regions
change over time.
►Regions do not have definite borders,
but rather are separated from other
regions by transition zones.
© CSCOPE
2009
TRANSITION ZONES
►An
area of change where borders of two
adjacent regions join
►Marked by a gradual shift (rather than a
sharp break) in the characteristics that
distinguish neighboring realms
© CSCOPE
2009
Sub-classification of Regions
Dominated by one
political power:
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
North America: U.S.
Middle America: Mexico
South America: Brazil
Russian Realm: Russia
East Asia: China
South Asia: India
Southeast Asia: Indonesia
Australian Realm: Australia
© CSCOPE
2008
No dominant State
►
►
►
►
Europe
Sub-Saharan Africa
North Africa / Southwest Asia
Oceania (Pacific Realm)
SUB-REGIONS
► Further
classification of Regions based upon physical
features and human characteristics.
Examples: The United States is in the North American
Region. However, the U.S. has several sub-regions:
Northeast, Midwest, South, etc.
► Region
& Sub-region boundaries are based on criteria
we establish.
► Criteria
can be:
 Human
(cultural) properties
 Physical
 or
© CSCOPE
2009
Both
(natural) characteristics
Properties of Regions
 Area
 Boundaries
 Location
© CSCOPE
2009
FORMAL REGION
► Marked
by a certain degree of
homogeneity in one or more phenomena.
Limited number of characteristics.
► Example:
© CSCOPE
2009
Latin America, Europe
FUNCTIONAL REGION
►A
region marked less by its functional
structure. Organized around a set of
interactions and connections between
places.
Example: Metropolitan Area
© CSCOPE
2009
Perceptual Region
► Region
in which people perceive the
characteristics of the region in the same
way.
► Example: American Midwest
© CSCOPE
2009
Maps and More Maps
►
►
Types of maps and projections
 Physical maps
 Cultural maps
 Political maps
 Population maps
 And more..
Why do geographers use each type map?
© CSCOPE
2009
The Grid System
►
►
Latitude: Lines of latitude run horizontal around the globe or a
map. They are designated as either North or South of the
Equator.
Longitude: Lines of longitude run vertically around the globe or
map. They are designated as either West or East of the Prime
Meridian.
© CSCOPE
2009
SUMMARY
• Geography means “description of the earth” and is also known as “the
study of the earth as the home of humankind.” Four main goals for this
class:
(1) to understand important geographic problems and their potential
solutions,
(2) to become better able to make connections between different kinds of
information as a means of understanding the world,
(3) to understand current events, and
(4) to develop skills in interpreting places and reading landscapes.
© CSCOPE
2009
SUMMARY
• Maps are the geographers’ most basic tools. To be
able to use maps effectively, one must understand
their basic language, especially the concepts and
terms of scale, coordinate systems, projection, and
symbolization. There are a variety of ways in which
maps can depict spatial data.
© CSCOPE
2009