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Transcript
November 2010
AMF-IND-T1119
Introductory Class on EMC/EFT with a
Focus on Susceptibility
Michael Steffen
Senior Field Applications Engineer – EMC Expert
TM
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
How good is your susceptibility?
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
1
GOFSL
G – Ground and Power Planes
► O – Oscillator layout
► F – Filtering
► S – Software Techniques
► L – LUCKY!!!!!!!
►
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
2
Who am I?
Freescale Field Apps Engineer 8-bit / Sensor Specialist
EMC/EFT Specialist
Appliance EMC Expert 12+ years
Design Engineer 10+ Years in Applicance and Customer
MCU applications
► EMC Global Swat Team Member
► Published
► Authored Several Application Notes
► Consulted / Troubleshoot EMC designs for many MAJOR
appliance companies
►
►
►
►
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
3
Agenda
►EMC
Overview
►Standards and Test Methods
►System Design Best Practices
•
•
•
•
•
•
Review theory
Guidelines
Hardware design methodology
Customer examples
Software best practices
References
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
4
EMC/EFT Overview
TM
Freescale Semiconductor Confidential and Proprietary Information. Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks
of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2007.
What is EMC?
►
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Definition
“ Ability of an electronic system/device to function satisfactorily in an
electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable
electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that environment ”
• Every system that generates, consumes, modifies, or processes
electrical power/signals generates electromagnetic emissions and is
susceptible to electromagnetic disturbance.
•
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
6
Basic EMC Categories
►
Four basic EMC categories, combinations of:
•
•
Radiated (air)/Conducted (physical medium)
Emissions (out)/Susceptibility (in)
►
Components of an EMC issue
•
•
•
Source (a perpetrator)
Medium
Receiver (a victim)
Noisy
component
Noisy
component
Conducted Emissions
Radiated Emissions
Potentially
susceptible
component
Potentially
susceptible
component
Conducted Susceptibility
Radiated Susceptibility
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
7
What does FSL do to enable customers to meet EMC
standards?
►
Incorporate design methods
•
►
To minimize emissions, strengthen immunity in MCU’s we supply
Test EMC on MCU’s
Capture data for customer communications
• Insure certain minimum criteria achieved
•
Respond to EMC questions/issues from applications using FSL
MCU’s
► Participate in EMC standards committees
►
Improve existing standards
• Extend standards to Integrated Circuits
•
►
Communicate EMC basics and best practices
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
8
Specifications and Testing
TM
Freescale Semiconductor Confidential and Proprietary Information. Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks
of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2007.
IEC IC Conducted Transient Immunity EMC Measurement Methods
►IEC
61000-4-4 Fast Transient Conducted
Immunity
• True 61000-4-4 System Level Testing
• EFT, Langer Probe
• EFT, FSL Probe
EFT, Mains Injection
EFT, Langer Probe
EFT, FSL Probe
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
10
Fast Transient Testing – IEC 61000-4-4 EFT
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
11
Electrical Fast Transient (EFT) Testing – IEC 61000-4-5 Surge Test
•
•
•
•
•
Power System Switching transients (e.g., capacitor banks switching)
Load Changes
Resonating circuits associated with switching devices such as thyristors
System Faults (e.g., shorts, arcing faults to ground)
Lightning strikes (direct, indirect, or direct to earth)
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
12
Fast Transient Testing – IEC 61000-4-12 Ringwave
Trise = 0.5uS
Oscillation Frequency = 100kHz
Generator Voltage to 4kV
1-60 Transients / Minute
The ring wave is a typical oscillatory transient, induced in low-voltage
cables due to the switching of electrical networks and reactive loads,
faults and insulation breakdown of power supply circuits or lightning.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
13
Langer Diagnostic Probe
IMPROPER
USE
|
B
-
B=
µo |
4ΩR2
∫
wL
-
-
-
- ++++++++ - -
-
-
-
|
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
14
Langer Diagnostic Probe
Induced Voltage as Function of Area - Circular Loops
70
60
Induced Voltage
50
10% Output
30% Output
40
40% Output
30
50% Output
90% Output
20
10
6.
86
70
4.
16
31
1.
06
.0
3
20
95
.5
4
78
.6
2
63
.2
7
50
.2
7
.6
3
.4
8
38
28
19
.5
7
12
7.
07
0
Test Loop Area (m m ^2)
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
15
Creative
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
16
Next Generation Fast Transient Test?
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
17
System Design and Best Practices
TM
Freescale Semiconductor Confidential and Proprietary Information. Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks
of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2007.
GOFSL
G – Ground and Power Planes
► O – Oscillator layout
► F – Filtering
► S – Software Techniques
► L – LUCKY!!!!!!!
►
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
19
Theory
Electromagnetic theory is well understood
► The problem is that not everyone understands it
► So, a quick review of Maxwell’s equations…
►
wikipedia.org
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
20
Guidelines
Todd Hubing, Clemson U
•
•
•
•
•
Use common sense
Visualize signal current paths
Locate antennas and crosstalk paths
Be aware of potential EMI sources
Ask other engineers to review your designs
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
21
Hardware Techniques – Design Methodology
► Goals
• Attenuate transients to prevent performance
degradation or reliability issues.
• Maximize use of hardware techniques before using
software techniques.
► Design for EMC should be considered from
the beginning of a project.
► Design for EMC is a complex task
•
•
•
System Power & Signal Entry
System Connectors
& Cable Routing
System & PCB
Power Supply
PCB Floorplan
Use a methodical strategy
Be prepared for many iterations
Employ experts, if necessary
PCB Power Distribution
PCB Decoupling & Filtering
► Design for EMC compliance
• Do not limit design to maintain a cost target
• The design can be cost-reduced later
► Success requires attention to detail and
MCU Oscillator
Input Filtering & Protection
close coordination with other disciplines.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
Iteration Start
Iteration Complete
TM
22
Hardware Techniques – Design Methodology
►Tools
•
for application transient immunity
Block transient currents
The goal is to limit transient currents.
Series impedance
Physical isolation
•
Resistors
Inductors
Ferrites
CM chokes
Shunt transient currents
The goal is to limit transient voltages.
Parallel conductance
Physical shielding
Capacitors
Varistors
Zener Diodes
TVS Devices
•
Make IC insensitive to transients
The goal is to minimize voltage differences between any pins of the IC and
the reference (typically VSS) during and shortly after a transient event.
Ideally, keep ∆(VDD-VSS) and ∆(VI/O-VSS) less than 8V. Using external
Zener or TVS clamp might help. Keep ∆|VSS-VSSA| less than 0.3V
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
23
Hardware Techniques – System Design
►Power Entry Filtering
• First opportunity to eliminate conducted
transients.
• Unfiltered power
•
Radiated
Conducted
Allows unimpeded access to the system.
Requires complex solutions for PCB and cables.
PCB1
Power entry filtering at point of entry .
PCB2
No Filter – Conducted immunity signal
propagates to PCB1 and radiates to
couple to PCB2 and interior cables.
Reduces complexity of system design.
PCB design and layout are less critical.
Cable routing is less critical.
Improves radiated and conducted emissions
performance.
PCB2
Conducted
Filter
PCB1
Filtered – Conducted immunity signal
suppressed. Clean power supplied to
PCB1 and no internal radiation.
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
24
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►PCB Power Distribution
• The basis for effective EMC design.
• Layout guidance
Ground (reference)
–
–
–
–
–
Power
–
–
Route parallel to ground on same or adjacent layers.
Use wide traces (or planes).
Data
–
–
•
Prioritize ground routes over all other routes.
Do not use wire jumpers and minimize layer transitions.
Where layer transitions occur, use multiple vias.
Use planes (or wide traces).
Minimize impedance between VSS pin and clock source, decoupling, bypassing
and filtering components. Use a plane where possible.
Lowest priority for routing.
Use wire jumpers and vias for connectivity.
Decouple regulated and filtered power routed off the PCB (to sensors,
displays, etc).
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
25
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Bypassing
• Definition
•
Bypassing is the reduction of HF current flow in a
high impedance path by shunting that path with a
bypass component, typically a capacitor.
Purpose
Bypassing prevents unwanted communications
between different components (or different power
domains) that share the same power rail. This
effect is called common-impedance coupling.
Bypassing provides a local source of charge to limit
voltage variations on the power and ground rails.
Bypassing improves noise margins and stability.
•
VDD
0.1uF
Minimal
Loop
MCU
VSS
Criteria
The capacitance must be sufficient to provide the
needed
transient current to the load.
The impedance between the bypass and the load
must be very low.
The loop area of the layout must be as small as
possible.
Caps need to be located close to micro to be
effective
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
Bypass capacitor is
between supply and load
– effective HF shunt
TM
26
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Decoupling
•
Definition
•
Decoupling is the isolation of two circuits on a common power supply to
prevent the transmission of noise between the two circuits using a
combination of blocks, and optionally shunts, typically in the form of a low
pass filter.
Purpose
Decoupling prevents unwanted communications between different
components (or different power domains) that share the same power rail.
This effect is called common-impedance coupling.
Decoupling provides increased isolation over bypassing.
Decoupling improves noise margins and stability.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
27
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Decoupling
•
Implementation
Place the decoupling circuit at the entry point of the power domain to be
filtered.
Decoupling is not always used.
–
There is always some decoupling built into any circuit.
–
•
Decoupling is typically used as a last resort if bypassing fails
to give the wanted power-supply isolation.
Conductors act as decoupling inductors. Although short trace lengths are
desirable, the power lead being long can sometimes help improve decoupling.
Examples:
VDD
Note: Bulk cap
needed on each
side of decoupling
element.
VDD_ISO
Unfiltered
DC Input
VDD
7805
VDD_ISO
Filtered
DC Output
VSS
VSS_ISO
Generic decoupling filter
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VSS
VSS
Voltage regulator
TM
28
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Inputs
See recommendations in AN2764
• Place filter cap as close to MCU as possible, referenced to a solid MCU
ground.
•
10kΩ
VDD
VDD
1kΩ
Input
RESET/IRQ
100nF
100nF
VSS
MCU
VSS
MCU
►High
Speed/Programming Pins – 10k pullup if suspected noise on
this line, no caps.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
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29
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
•
•
•
•
Relay
MCU
Relay
Power
Supply
Outputs
Inputs
Outputs
EMI
Filter
Relay
Floorplan example
Inputs
►
Analog
Sensors
Identify element function and power domain.
Group PCB elements by power domain.
Decouple and bypass power domains.
Filter inputs and outputs.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
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30
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Route
Power connections
EMI
Filter
Power
Supply
Domain
Digital DC Power
Domain
DF
Outputs
BP
Analog
BP
Relay
Relay
Relay
AC Power Domain
DF Analog DC Power
BP
MCU
Sensors
LPF
LPF
Outputs
Inputs
Inputs Inputs
•
Ground and Power first
DF : Decoupling filter [Typically L = 100uH-100mH, C = 1uF-100uF.]
BP : Bypass capacitor [Typically 0.1uF connected between power/ground pins.]
LPF : Low-pass filter [Typically R = 1kΩ
Ω , C = 100nF (10nF for fast signals).]
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
31
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
Then route I/O
•
I/O connections
EMI
Filter
Power
Supply
Domain
Digital DC Power
Domain
DF
Outputs
BP
Analog
BP
Relay
Relay
Relay
AC Power Domain
DF Analog DC Power
BP
MCU
Sensors
LPF
LPF
Outputs
Inputs
Inputs Inputs
►
DF : Decoupling filter [Typically L = 100uH-100mH, C = 1uF-100uF.]
BP : Bypass capacitor [Typically 0.1uF connected between power/ground pins.]
LPF : Low-pass filter [Typically R = 1kΩ
Ω , C = 100nF (10nF for fast signals).]
Freescale™ and the Freescale logo are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are
the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
32
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►
Floorplan example
Analog
inputs
Isolation – series
impedance
Power supply
& EMI filter
Filter
components
close to MCU
MCU &
Digital I/O
Relays
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
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33
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Oscillator
•
EMC characteristics of clock sources
Clock Source
Advantages
Disadvantages
Ceramic Resonator
Lower cost
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Drive circuit matching.
Crystal
Low cost
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Drive circuit matching.
Crystal Oscillator Module
Insensitive to EMI and humidity. No
additional components or matching
issues.
High cost. High power consumption.
Large size. Sensitive to vibration.
RC Oscillator
Lowest cost.
Sensitive to EMI, humidity and vibration.
Poor temperature and supply voltage
rejection. Poor freq control & accuracy.
Silicon Oscillator
(INTERNAL OSCILLATOR)
Insensitive to EMI, humidity, and
vibration. Fast startup. Small size. No
additional components or matching
issues.
Temperature sensitivity generally worse
than crystal and ceramic resonator.
Some have high power consumption.
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
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34
Hardware Techniques - PCB Design
►Oscillator
•
Configuration
Use higher frequency signal source (4MHz vs. 32kHz crystal) for immunity
Use high-gain oscillator option for immunity
Use low power oscillator option for emissions
Use internal oscillator, if possible.
•
Layout
Highest layout priority after power distribution system and MCU decoupling.
Implementation must be controlled to prevent susceptibility.
–
–
–
–
–
Group components tightly
Locate next to oscillator pins
Use short traces
Surround with guard trace
Isolate from other I/O
Do not route functional currents using oscillator reference GND.
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35
Hardware Techniques – GOOD PCB Design
VDD is on bottom
layer to show
multiple via layer
transition.
Parallel
VDD and
GND Traces
BEST LAYOUT – 2 LAYER, TOP AND BOTTOM
MOUNT COMPONENTS
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
TM
Hardware Techniques – BEST PCB Design
VDD is on bottom
layer to show
multiple via layer
transition.
LAYERS:
Red – Top
Green – Bottom
Orange – TOP/Bottom
GND
(PLANE)
VCC
BEST LAYOUT – 2 LAYER, TOP AND BOTTOM
MOUNT COMPONENTS
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Ground Planes
Find the ground plane
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38
Software Techniques
►Overview
The structure and functionality of microcontroller software can have a
profound impact of transient immunity performance.
• Failure modes
•
False Signal Detection – The MCU detects a change in an input signal that
was induced by a transient or other noise. The MCU then operates on or
responds to the signal as if it were real.
Code Runaway – The MCU software execution flow is disrupted. The MCU
begins to execute code out of sequence or from incorrect areas of memory.
The impact on software is managed through defensive software design.
Software does not eliminate the transient or noise. It can only attempt
to control the MCU response to the transient or noise.
• Long-term issues due to exposure to transients remain.
•
•
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39
Defensive Software Contents
►Digital Input Pins
►Interrupt Pins
►Unused Pins
►Critical I/O Registers
►Program Flow
►Token Passing
►Frequency of Interrupts (too few, too
►Code Runaway – Watchdogs
►CPU Clock
►Watchdog Reset Timeout Test
►CRC check on Flash Integrity
►Unused Program Memory locations
►RAM Testing
►Unused Interrupt Vectors
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many)
TM
40
Digital Input Pins
►In
the majority of all MCU’s the digital input pins are
accessed generally by a parallel read by the CPU via it’s
data bus. This access is normally captured on the edge
of the CPU system clock. Thus if a spurious glitch
occurs at exactly the time of reading the actual digital
port pin then a false state can occur.
►To overcome this spurious error condition, the user can
deploy a “polling” technique where the digital input pin is
read several times within a short time period and the
dominant average value is taken as the true level.
►In the majority of cases the CPU/System clock will be
working at a significantly higher frequency than the
expected external input signals. If this is not the case
and the external input signal can change multiple states
withing a CPU clock period, then hardware latching or
sample and hold circuits would be required to ensure a
state condition is not missed out.
Port x1
System clock
CPU Read
1!
Result (no polling)
1!
CPU Read
1!
Result (polling)
Read_portA_bit0 ()
{
Char True_read =0;
for (char count = 6; count!=0 ; count--)
{ unfiltered_read = porta
If (unfiltered_read&&0x01) true_read++; /* mask off all bits except bit 0
};
If (true_read > 2) return (1) ;
Else return(0);
}
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the property of their respective owners. © Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. 2006.
1"
0!
1!
Polling
TM
41
Interrupt Pins
►In many MCUs external pins have interrupt capability
and in most cases will interrupt the CPU on a specific
rising or falling edge. To avoid a spurious noise glitch
being seen as a rogue interrupt, users should always
read the input signal pin to confirm that the input signal
has maintained it’s assertive state (eg if the PA0 pin
interrupts the CPU on a negative edge the ISR first
instruction should read the PA0 pin and if clear then
execute the interrupts subroutine, if set then take this as
a rogue interrupt.) Note: in most cases the ISR will take
several CPU clocks cycles after the input event has
occurred providing a delay. Depending on the
environment and the system design software delays can
also be implemented to act a sort of de-bounce circuit.
►For pins that have no “read access” deploying a
redundant digital input pin can provide this read after
event mechanism.
►In some cases the interrupt function may provide the
option of “edge & level sensitive”. In most cases the
hardware will still react to a rogue edge, as the edge&
level sensitive feature really provides an additional
interrupt if the input pin is held asserted after the ISR has
completed.
Port x1
System clock
CPU access
Lower priority code(lpc)
ISR
lpc
lpc
Interrupt latency
Verify read
Identifies bogus interrupt
Back to main program
Verify pin state using BIL BIH for IRQ, READ GPIO for KBI, ETC
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42
Unused pins
►In some cases not all the input or I/O pins will be used
the MCU in the end application. Unused Input Only pins
need to be tied to either VDD or VSS. A floating high
impedance input pin will oscillate and provide an easier
coupling path into the MCU circuits for noise, and
additionally will consumer more current. ( If MCU in
STOP mode is consuming more current than expected
max. this indicates a floating input pin or pins)
►Unused I/O pins should be made outputs and drive a
logic state out. Software can regularly update the Data
and DDR to ensure the pin remains an output.
►Users of MCUs should also consider the package they
are using of the particular MCU as the multiple packages
are often served with the same silicon die, and on
smaller pinout versions some input/output pins are not
bonded out. Thus, the user must force these unused
input/output pads to output a static level.
►For non-bonded input pins, the MCU manufacturer
should have deployed a pull-up or pull-down device to
ensure these are not left floating. This might be
programmable via a special control register.
NC
PA6
PA7
Input only – pull up or pull down
Not used (NC) – output low
Not bonded – output low
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43
Critical I/O Registers
►Critical
•
•
•
•
•
I/O Registers such as
Input/Output Data Ports
Data Direction Registers
Clock/PLL Set-up registers
Peripheral Set-up registers
User defined RAM locations – key parameters of the
application code.
►All
Refresh - safely
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registers when you dig deep enough into the
design are basically flip flop latches that may be
flipped by a spurious noise passes through the
circuit.
►User software should regularly refresh the above
critical registers, within the main loop of the software,
to correct a possible flip of bit.
►For RAM locations where the variables are
dynamic, then utilizing a CRC signature of the array
of these locations can be saved and regularly
checked and verified. MCUs with hardware CRC
engines help provide a workable solutions. For
MCUs with no hardware CRC engine, executing
CRC in software will likely cost too much in execution
time.
►Avoid updating registers on peripherals that are in
mid operation (eg a transmitting SCI) or
corruption/loss of data will occur.
TM
44
Program Flow
Program flow check.
Program flow check.
CPU Access
Appl code
Appl code
Appl code
Appl code
Appl code
Periodic interrupt
Time-slot monitoring; a periodic check on program code flow
►Program flow
of the various software functions is a key requirement to ensure System Integrity.
Watchdog circuits provide hardware protection if program flow does not follow as expected, but are
generally should be deployed as the last chance mechanism.
►A
key measure to ensure correct Program flow is known as “time-slot monitoring”. Time-slot
monitoring describes the method of periodically checking the current status of where the program
counter is and is it performing as expected.
►For
example: Using a simple timer overflow interrupt set at ~100mS will interrupt the CPU and the
TOF ISR will be executed. Within this ISR the user can use a form of Token passing to 1) check
program flow and 2) check other interrupt usage.
Periodic status checks
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45
Token Passing
►A
F{11}
F{12}
F{13}
Check
flow
COUNTBYTE=0x13;
COUNTBYTE=0x12;
COUNTBYTE=0x11;
simple form of token passing is that you
deploy a variable in RAM called COUNTBYTE
and for each significant function you increment
this COUNTBYTE by 1.
►On the knowledge of how long the program
takes to execute these various functions then the
COUNTBYTE can be read within the ISR, and
compared to previous captured value and if
within certain range will deem the program flow
to running as expected. If outwith this range then
program is performing not as expected and
mechanisms to reset or place the MCU in a safe
mode can be made.
►Caution: within each software function it is not
recommended that you increment the
COUNTBYTE by a certain value, but actually set
the COUNTBYTE to a fixed value.
►On real time embedded systems interrupts can
occur at any random time and therefore are more
difficult to monitor along with the program flow as
described above. Therefore only the frequency
of interrupts can be monitored then checked
within the same periodic ISR routine.
….
If (COUNTBYTE < (previousCOUNTBYTE+2)) Error;
If (COUNTBYTE > (previousCOUNTBYTE+6)) Error;
/* prrogram flow OK */
previousCOUNTBYTE = COUNTBYTE;
…..
Only proceed if conditions are as expected
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46
Code Runaway - Watchdogs
►The
above two methods describe
methods to identify early warnings that
the application is not performing as
expected. In some cases interrupts could
be masked, and the program counter is
corrupted and gets caught in a small tight
loop that does not allow the unmasking
of the interrupts.
CPU access
Refresh
mechanism
clock
Counter
Reset on
overflow
basic watchdog
If CPU does not execute the
unique refresh mechanism before
counter times out then a reset to
the CPU and all peripherals occurs.
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►At
this point the use of a watchdog is
required to protect against this scenario.
►The
majority of MCUs have on-board
watchdogs that can be enabled to protect
against this scenario. Additionally the
user should test that the watchdog circuit
times out correctly and performs a reset
before executing the code
TM
47
Watchdog Reset Timeout Test
Detect POR (System Reset Reg.)
Enable WDOG
Write to wdog_tst_flag in RAM
reset
Read other timer value
Application code
CPU access
►Before
executing any application code the watchdog
should be tested it is functioning correctly.
►Some
MCUs have a System Reset Status Register
that allows the user to determine the cause of the reset.
On recognizing a Power on reset, the user can write a
specific word(16 or 32bits) to RAM location
(wdog_test_flag). After this the watchdog is enabled(if
not already ) another timer enabled, and then the
software sits in a small loop which reads the other
timer’s count value and stores it to another RAM
location. Eventually the watchdog will time out and
reset. The user code sees that the reset occurred due
to a WDOG timeout (from the System Reset Status
Register) so confirms if this is a test of the WDOG or a
genuine WDOG reset by reading wdog_test_flag. If it is
a WDOG test, we know the WDOG has timed out and
reset the MCU as expected, but we need to compare
with the captured other timer count value to ascertain if
the time-out period is within the expected range. If this
compares ok then the wdog has been tested and
application code can now be executed.
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Read Timer Counter value
Store in RAM
Detect WDOG reset (System Reset Reg.)
Quantify if WDOG test
Compare WDOG timeout with
expected Timer Counter value in RAM
Test the Watchdog
TM
48
CPU Clock
►
The CPU clock is generally sourced from
•
•
►
►
Internal RC oscillator, then multiplied( PLL/FLL) to higher frequency
External Crystal/Ceramic Resonator, then PLL/FLL to higher frequency
Most peripherals are clocked by the same source as CPU.
Thus if CPU clock stops for a particular reason
•
•
•
No interrupts will be requested
No peripherals will be clocked
No software will be executing.
► If
no CPU clock occurs in real time application then software cannot
overcome this issue.
► Thus a watchdog circuit using an alternative clock source will still
timeout and reset the key peripherals without CPU clock.
► User
watchdogs with independent clock source from CPU clock.
Clock Monitor
LOL, LOC
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Watchdog with separate clock
TM
49
CRC check on Flash Integrity
►Verifying the
Start_addr
If Start_addr
< End_addr
N
Y
Main
Flash
Array
Update_CRC (char)* Start_addr
Start_addr ++
End_addr
System_error()
CRC_HI
CRC_LO
Update_CRC (char) *Start_addr
N
Compare
CRC_16==CRC_HI/LO
Y
golden_signature
Flash OK
memory is functioning correctly prior to executing
application code is recommended. For non-volatile memory such as
Flash or EEPROM then a CRC signature is a good approach in
providing a high diagnostic coverage.
►There are various different CRC signatures, and a common one is
CCITT-CRC16. This well understood polynomial equation that is
easily executed in both hardware and software. A software CRC
engine will take around 700-1000 CPU cycles to calculate a
modified CRC on the addition of 1 byte of data. ( a h/w CRC engine
will take 1 CPU cycle).
►The approach: Once the application code is completed and
working reliably and no changes are anticpated, then a CRC
signature is made of the total “used” memory array.
►Once this signature is completed, it is stored in another unused
nvm space, and referred to as the “golden_signature”.
►After reset the user code will execute a new CRC calculation on
the total “used” memory array then compare the new calculated
signature with the golden_signature. If it compares ok then the
memory and arguably the addressing mechanism are working
correctly.
►Note: In IEC 61508 CRC signature of NVM memory is taken to be
a more stringent measure than Error Code Correction (parity
checking) in hardware. This is because the CRC signature is
generally carried prior to executing application code, thus
identifying a fault before running with wrong code/data.
CRC engine complying to
CRC16-CCITT specification.
(x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 polynomial)
Better than checksum
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50
Unused Program Memory
►If
there are unused memory locations in the NVM arrays it is
a good idea to fill these locations with instructions such as
SWI (software interrupt) thus on a runaway condition and the
program counter points to unused location it will force an
interrupt, which can then put the MCU and the application into
a safe state.
►If there is no Software Interrupt then by examining the
assembly code for JUMP(extended address) instruction and
the NOP instruction should be examined, and with careful
consideration you can fill the unused array with “jump to a
safe_location”.
►Eg. On the S08 CPU the JMP instruction is 0xCC, NOP is
0x9D. So if at address $9D9D we can place code that places
the MCU in a safe condition, then we can fill the array with
►CC,9D,9D,CC,9D,9D, CC,9D,9D, CC,9D,9D, CC,9D,9D,
CC,9D,9D, etc
►Thus if the Program Counter falls in any location it will either
execute a JMP instruction to $9D9D or a NOP, followed by
JMP $9D9D or NOP,NOP,JMP $9D9D.
►In most CPUs there are instruction op-codes that will do
minimal effect and allow the runaway program counter to go
to a known safe place.
►It should be noted that you should avoid filling the arrays
with NOPs, as this will provide further randomness to how the
MCU will perform.(unless the top of the unused array falls into
a usable array) If the program counter jumps to somewhere in
the unused array
►it will execute all the NOP instructions to the top then
execute possible what is in the next address location (could
be I/O register or an interrupt vector contents).
Unused Program Space
Addr
$E000
$E001
$E002
$E003
$E004
$E005
…….
Code
0x9D
0x9D
0xCC
0x9D
0x9D
0xCC
Instruction
NOP
NOP
JMP
If PC jumps into anywhere in
“unused program space” It will
execute a few NOP instructions
then jump to a safe_start
function.
$9D9D JMP Safe_start
• Block fill w/ SWI
• SWI ISR – force reset
• Jump to Safe_start
• Block fill w/ illegal opcode
• forces reset
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51
Unused Interrupt Vectors
Unused interrupt vectors
should be programmed to point
to an individual ISR that will
ensure the MCU is placed into a
safe known state, as most
interrupts will require a clearing
mechanism.
►No interrupt vector location
should be left blank.
►
Void interrupt ISR_spare()
Void interrupt ISR_spare()
{ Void interrupt ISR_spare()
{
/*{called from unused vector */
/* called from unused vector */
Safe_mode();
/* called from unused vector */
Safe_mode();
} Safe_mode();
}
}
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Each ISR clears respective flag
TM
52
Software Techniques
►Digital
•
or Analog Inputs
Boundary checking
Using the input capture function of a Timer module to measure the time
duration of the signal.
The captured value can be compared to the expected value.
The software can then react appropriately.
Example:
–
–
–
►Analog
•
Input signal specification requires a pulse width of 1ms to 10ms.
Input capture measures an input pulse width of 50ns, such as from an ESD
event. Input pulse is bad data.
Input capture measures an input pulse width of 5ms. Input pulse is good data.
Inputs
For ADC inputs, actively monitor converted values or apply averaging.
►For
other inputs, options vary by module functionality.
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53
Software Techniques
►Integrated Protection
•
•
Features
Enable all available built-in protection features.
Initialization
Enable hardware protection during software initialization.
–
–
Typically done by writing a configuration register.
These configuration bits are often “write once”.
Be sure to write these bits even if the default states are not changed. This
prevents accidentally disabling protection due to code runaway.
Disable hardware functions that are not used.
•
Low voltage detect (LVD) circuits
Resets the MCU in the event of sudden power loss.
Can be used to prevent code runaway.
May not detect very fast transients due to slow response time.
Operate at lower voltages than external voltage supervisor chips.
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54
Conclusions
►
►
►
►
►
►
Achieving transient immunity in low-cost applications can be
difficult and time-consuming, particularly if not addressed early
and often.
Employ a rigorous EMC design methodology.
Obtain the needed EMC expertise.
Leverage information from suppliers.
Understand the limits of “low cost”.
Save cost reduction for after EMC compliance is achieved.
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55
References
► Ronald
B. Standler, Protection of Electronic Circuits from Overvoltages,
John Wiley & Sons, 1989
► Ken Kundert, “Power Supply Noise Reduction”, The Designer’s Guide
(www.designers-guide.com), 2004
► Larry D. Smith, “Decoupling Capacitor Calculations for CMOS Circuits”,
Electrical Performance of Electrical Packages Conference, Monterey CA,
November 1994
► Clayton Paul, Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wiley & Sons,
1992
► Bernard Keiser, Principles of Electromagnetic Compatibility, Artech House,
1987
► Howard Johnson, Martin Graham, High-Speed Digital Design, Prentice
Hall, 1993
► Ralph Morrison, Grounding and Shielding, John Wiley & Sons, 2007
► Freescale Semiconductor application note AN2764, “Improving the
Transient Immunity Performance of Microcontroller-Based Applications”,
www.freescale.com, 2005
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High Speed Design Reading List
► Right
the First Time- A Practical Handbook on High Speed PCB and
System Design - Volumes I & II - Lee W. Ritchey (Speeding Edge)
- ISBN 0-9741936-0-7
► High Speed Digital System Design - A handbook of Interconnect
Theory and Practice - Hall, Hall and McCall (Wiley Interscience
2000) - ISBN 0-36090-2
► High Speed Digital Design- A Handbook of Black Magic - Howard
W. Johnson & Martin Graham (Prentice Hall) - ISBN 0-13-395724-1
► High Speed Signal Propagation- Advanced Black Magic - Howard W.
Johnson & Martin Graham - (Prentice Hall) - ISBN 0-13-084408-X
► Signal Integrity Simplified - Eric Bogatin (Prentice Hall) - ISBN 0-13066946-6
► Signal Integrity Issues and Printed Circuit Design - Doug Brooks
(Prentice Hall) - ISBN 0-13-141884-X
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EMI Reading List
► PCB
Design for Real-World EMI Control - Bruce R. Archambeault
(Kluwer Academic Publishers Group) - ISBN 1-4020-7130-2
► Digital Design for Interference Specifications- A Practical Handbook
for EMI Suppression - David L. Terrell & R. Kenneth Keenan
(Newnes Publishing) - ISBN 0-7506-7282-X
► Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems - Henry Ott
(2nd Edition - John Wiley and Sons) - ISBN 0-471-85068-3
► Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering – Henry Ott (John Wiley
and Sons) – ISBN 0-470-18930-6
► Introduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility - Clayton R. Paul
(John Wiley and Sons) - ISBN 0-471-54927-4
► EMC for Product Engineers - Tim Williams (Newnes Publishing) ISBN 0-7506-2466-3
► Grounding & Shielding Techniques - Ralph Morrison (5th Edition John Wiley & Sons) - ISBN 0-471-24518-6
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58
GOFSL
G – Ground and Power Planes
► O – Oscillator layout
► F – Filtering
► S – Software Techniques
► L – LUCKY!!!!!!!
►
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59
Hardware and Layout
Basic EMC/EFT Design Checklist – ONE PAGER
Power and Ground Routing done first
MCU VSS should be on ONE layer, no vias if possible, multiple vias if layer transitions
Connect VSS, VSSAD, VREFL pins together
Good Osc layout, Filter GND from VSS
Bypass caps for supply right at MCU pins, make bigger if possible. (0.1uF to 1uF if possible)
Reset and IRQ filtered with 0.1uF cap, 10k pull up at micro
BDM line needs a 10k pull up and some series resistance if brought out to a connector
Prevent over voltages on VDD (>8V) at micro; use a TVS or Zener at VDD, VSS of micro.
Prevent VSS differential (>0.3V) by connecting VSS pins together, good routing, limit vias, use continuous trace.
(See first three bullets)
► Decoupling on board edge if PS is off board for temp sensor, motor, etc.
► Keep VDD and VSS at micro as parallel as possible for mutual inductance
► Input filter caps located close to micro and tied back to micro’s VSS and VDD rails
► Interlace DC signals with fast switching signals (clocks, door lock, charge pumps, A2D, EEPROM)
► Include BDM connections for possible diagnostics during noise testing i.e., Hotsync and Programming
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
Software
►
►
►
Unused I/O – configure as outputs driving low
Unbonded I/O ports – configure as outputs driving low
Unused modules – write control registers to turn off
Clocks, order of operation
Set up system registers first: SOPT, SPMSC1, SPMSC2, SOPT2 registers (LVD, COP, low power)
Set up the oscillator: 1)read and write trim value, 2)write ICGC2 register first (multiplier, divider, LOx reset),
3) write ICGC1 (clock and mode), 4)wait for lock
►
►
•
•
►Set
Enable loss of clock reset (LOCRE=1)
Enable loss of lock interrupt (LOLRE=0); ICG interrupt should make sure it’s locked before returning.
up I/O
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60