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MANAGEMENT OF NONCONSUMPTIVE USE OF MARINE
SPECIES & MARINE PROTECTED
AREAS
Oceans and Coasts
BACKGROUND
• Non-consumptive use of marine resources is a
responsible use of natural resources for recreation;
• This includes activities such as boat-based whale and
dolphin watching, white shark cage diving/viewing,
SCUBA Diving and (filming for commercial purposes);
• These activities not only provide an adventurous
experience for the but also an educational experience to
encourage conservation of species.
• These activities also contribute to wildlife (eco) tourism,
local economic development & job creation;
• Thus, existence of MPAs create an enabling environment
to advance these activities.
PURPOSE OF NON-CONSUMPTIVE USE
OF MARINE SPECIES
• To encourage sustainable utilization of natural resources that contributes to
socio and economic aspects in specific areas;
• Promotes the biodiversity of South African marine resources for education
and possibly tourism purposes
• To minimize biodiversity degradation to maintain the protection of
species/ecosystems;
• To encourage expedition/ operations to be done according to the relevant
best practices, legislation and policies.
Marine Protected Area Management
Strategic Focus: “ To protect marine coastal and system, habitat and
species.”
)
LEGISLATIVE SUPPORT TO NONCONSUMPTIVE USE OF MARINE SPECIES
• Marine Living Resources Act, 1998 (Act No 18 of 1998):
– Regulations on White Shark Cage Diving (GN R724 OF 4 July 2008).
– Regulations on Boat-Based Whale and Dolphin Watching and the Protection of
Turtles (GN R725 in GG 31212 of 4 July 2008).
• Seabirds and Seal Protection Act, 1973 (Act No. 46 of 1973)
• National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (2004): TOPS
Regulations 2007;
• National Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act (2003)
applicable to specific Marine Protected Areas.
SCUBA Diving
• SCUBA diving has become a very popular form of marine
tourism in many areas of South Africa.
• The geography of SCUBA diving extends further than the
coastal margins to underwater canyons and cold water reefs
far offshore.
• Recognized as a multimillion dollar sector, this is an activity
that may offer an economic value to the South African local
communities, as dive tourists are known for high spending.
• Potential to be maximized while encouraging job creation and
scares skills transfer.
• Popular diving MPAs: Sodwana Bay, Aliwal Shoal, Pondoland,
Table Mountain National Park; Hluleka, De Hoop MPAs
Boat-based whale watching
BOAT BASED WHALE WATCHING
• Benefits from the high diversity and accessibility of
cetaceans (i.e. Southern Right, Humpback and Bryde’s
whales and dolphins) and other marine attractions.
• Popular BBWW: Sodwana Bay, Table Mountain National
Park, Walkerbay Whale Sanctuary, Tsitsikamma & De Hoop
MPAs;
• Also occurs outside Marine Protected Areas;
• Managed by limiting number of boats approaching a
cetacean or pod of cetaceans, limiting the duration and
number of encounters per group of cetaceans per day,
approach distances & speeds.
WHITE SHARK CAGE DIVING
occurs in areas where the species naturally aggregates
focused around seal colonies.
FILMING FOR COMMERCIAL
PURPOSE
• Provides an opportunity to showcase the successful
implementation of the diverse models and legislation of
environmental conservation;
• Contributes to the effective communication of the value and
importance of our ecosystem, the threats to their
sustainability, and the actions needed to protect them;
• Contributes to data collection for decision makings as well as
for raising awareness;
• Mainly by international companies collaborating with local
productions;
• Videos:
FILMING FOR COMMERCIAL
PURPOSE
WAY FORWARD
• Need to educate the public about permitted uses as MPAs are
a common mechanism to accomplish conservation objectives
while still allowing economic benefits;
• Continue to prioritize natural resource protection & support
Government priority initiatives;
• Encourage sustainable use in areas previously identified by
scientific methods;
• Promote inclusive participation in the activities involving nonconsumptive use of marine resources to advance the B-BBEE
Act.
• Tiger Shark MAIN
• Great White Shark
DIVE SPECIES
• Ragged Tooth Shark
• Reefs
MAIN VIEWING SPECIES
• Dolphins
• Whales
• Seals
• Penguins
VESSELS BASED ACTIVITIES