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Islam is the second most popular religion in the world with 1.3 billion followers. Islam began in Saudi Arabia and was revealed to humanity by the Prophet Muhammad. Those who follow Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only one God (monotheistic), called Allah, who speaks Arabic. After Muhammad’s death two main branches of Islam formed from a dispute on who should be the leader of the religion. Sunni recognize the male heirs of the first 4 elected (according to Muhammad's instruction) caliphs (or spiritual heads) after Muhammad’s death Shiite recognize the decedents of only the 4th caliphs—Ali (M’s son-in-law & cousin), the only true descendent of Muhammad In all other ways Sunni and Shiite are very similar The Muslim scripture is the Holy Qur'an. It is 'the word of God'. Muslim beliefs and practices are rooted in the Qur'an. Muslims treat the Qur'an with great respect because they believe that the Qur'an is from Allah, and every word and every letter is sacred. Muslims regard the Qur'an as the unaltered word of God. The Muslim building for communal worship is called a Mosque. The word comes from the Arabic for "place of prostration". Worshippers are called to prayer 5 times a day from minarets – towers on the mosque corners. Grand mosque in Mecca The Kaaba Dome of the Rock Followers of Islam believe that Muhammed was a prophet of God (Allah) in the same vein as Abraham, Moses, and Noah. They also believe Jesus was a prophet of God, however, they do not believe that he was the son of God. In some Muslim countries the legal system is not separate from the religion. These countries have Sharia Law, or law based on the Koran. Shahadah: declaration of faith "I bear witness that there is no god, but God; I bear witness that Muhammad is the prophet of God." By reciting this, one enters Islamic faith. Salah: Pray 5 times a day facing Mecca Muslims are required to pray five times a day, washing themselves before prayer and facing in the direction of Mecca while praying. Zakat: Give a fixed proportion to charity Muslims are required to give away a percentage of their earnings to those less fortunate, regardless of their religion. Saum: Fast during the month of Ramadan Muslims fast for one lunar month each year, a period called Ramadan. During this time, Muslims reflect on their behavior and strive to purify their thoughts. Hajj: Make a pilgrimage to Mecca If it is financially possible, Muslims are required to travel to Mecca once in their lifetime. Islam in 1500 C.E. In 1500, located in Middle East, Africa, and Southern Europe Islam Today Today, located in Middle East, Africa, and Asia 1. Founder - There is no one person who is considered the founder of Animism 2. Geographic Origin - Developed worldwide in different parts of the world. (Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Australia) 3. Currently Practiced - World-wide, but most common in traditional societies of Africa, the Americas and Australia 4. Significant Writings – None, but have an oral tradition of story-telling (oral history) 5. Significant Religious People – a. Shaman - A person who communicates with the spiritual world and conducts rituals b. Medicine Man/Woman - A healer or a person who can treat illnesses c. Griot - A professional storyteller in a traditional African Animist society. North American Shaman West African Griot Animism 6. Beliefs: a. Religion that believes that each object has its own spirit and that ancestors watch over the living. b. Polytheistic - Spirits are found in natural objects (living and nonliving objects) c. There is belief in a Supreme Being and in lesser gods. d. Obey the gods and follow tradition and you will be rewarded with good harvests and many healthy children. e. Failure to follow traditions would anger the Gods and result in hardships, crop failure, illness and death. 7. Practices: a. Prayers and ceremonies keep gods on your side b. Use of ceremonial masks as a way to receive what the people want or need.