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Transcript
CHRISTIANITY
Founding of Christianity
 FOUNDER: JESUS CHRIST (A JEW)
ZERO A.D. PALESTINE/ISRAEL
 SPREAD BY APOSTLES (FOLLOWERS OF
JESUS)
 PAUL: MOST IMP. IN SPREADING &
STARTING CHURCHES (NOT AN
APOSTLE)
 EMP. CONSTANTINE: MAKES
CHRISTIANITY OFFICIAL RELIGION
Basic Beliefs
 1 GOD (SAME AS JEWS, MUSLIMS)
 JESUS: SON OF GOD, DIED FOR
“OUR” SINS, ROSE FROM DEAD
 BELIEF IN JESUS = SALVATION
FROM SINS, REWARD IN HEAVEN
 HEAVEN/HELL: IS FOR ETERNITY
 1 CHANCE TO “GET IT RIGHT”
Sacred Text
 BIBLE : TWO PARTS
 OLD TESTAMENT:
 JEWISH “BIBLE”, INCL. TORAH)
NEW TESTAMENT:
 LIFE AND TEACHINGS OF JESUS
 REVELATION:
 END OF WORLD AND CREATION OF NEW KINGDOM
ON EARTH

God of Christianity
 ONE GOD IS DIVIDED INTO 3 PARTS:
 HOLY TRINITY: GOD, JESUS, HOLY
GHOST (SPIRIT)
 PROPHETS PLAY IMPORTANT PART:

MOSES, ISAIAH, EZEKIEL
Leadership
 PRIESTS:
 SERVICES LOCALLY
 BISHOPS:
 CONTROL LARGER AREAS
 POPE:
 HEAD OF CATHOLIC CHURCH
 #1 RELIGIOUS GROUP IN WORLD
Rituals
Baptism: ENTRY INTO
CHURCH
Communion: SHARING
BREAD/WINE =
BLOOD/BODY OF CHRIST
SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY
 Pax Romana, which made travel and the exchange
of ideas fairly safe, provided the ideal conditions
for Christianity to spread
 Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This
refusal was seen as opposition to Roman rule
 By the second century, as the Pax Romana began
to crumble, persecution of the Christians
intensified. Thousands were crucified, burned, or
killed by wild animals in the circus arenas.
“BREAD AND CIRCUS”
Constantine tolerates Christianity
Why was Christianity Appealing?
 ANYONE COULD CONVERT: JEW, GREEK
ROMAN
 WEALTH & CLASS NOT AN ISSUE:
APPEALED TO POOR AND POWERLESS:
 “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit
the Earth”
 PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD
 ETERNAL LIFE FOR BELIEVERS
SECTS: 2.2 BILLION
 ROMAN CATHOLIC: LED BY POPE, LARGEST
SECT AT 1.1 BILLION
 PROTESTANT: BROKE FROM CHURCH ~ 1500
A.D. (LUTHERANS, BAPTISTS, METHODISTS,
ETC.) (800,000+ followers)
 EVANGELICAL, JEHOVAH WITNESS, MORMON,
ETC
ISLAM
Key Terms
Islam
Submission
to the will of Allah
Muslim
One
who has submitted
Founding of the Religion
 MOHAMMAD: FOUNDER, 600 A.D,
MECCA (SAUDI ARABIA)
 HEARS VOICE OF ANGEL GABRIEL,
TELLS HIM TO ‘SPREAD WORD OF
ALLAH’
 UPSETS POWERFUL/RICH: FORCED TO
FLEE (HIJRAH)
 RETURNS TO MECCA W/ 10,000 MAN
ARMY, CONQUERS, & BEGINS ISLAM
Basic Beliefs
 1 GOD = ALLAH
 MOHAMMAD IS PROPHET OF
ALLAH
 SALVATION COMES BY FOLLOWING
“FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM”
 HEAVEN & HELL = ETERNAL
 1 CHANCE TO “GET IT RIGHT”
The Five Pillars of Islam
 WHAT ALL MUSLIMS MUST DO:
 STATEMENT OF FAITH: “There is no God
but Allah” & Mohammad is His Messenger
 PRAY 5 X DAY FACING MECCA
 CHARITY: GIVE TO POOR (2.5%)
 FAST DURING MONTH OF RAMADAN:
NO FOOD/WATER SUNRISE TO SUNSET
 HAJJ: PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA ONCE IN
LIFE (HEALTH AND WEALTH
PERMITTING)
THE HAJJ
Pilgrimage to the Holy
City of Mecca
Sacred Text
KORAN = QUR’AN
 ONLY HOLY IF IN ARABIC
 WORD OF ALLAH TO MOHAMMAD
THROUGH GABRIEL
Leadership
 NO “CHURCH”, CENTRAL
AUTHORITY, “PRIESTS”
 ULAMA: RELIGIOUS TEACHERS
WHO APPLY QUR’AN TO EVERYDAY
LIFE
 MANY COUNTRIES OPERATE
UNDER ISLAM = THEOCRACY
Rituals/Practices
HALAH:
DIET WHICH IS OK FOR
MUSLIMS TO EAT & DRINK
NO PORK/ NO ALCOHOL!
5 PILLARS
FRIDAY = DAY OF WORSHIP (PRAY
DIRECTLY TO ALLAH)
WASH
FEET/HANDS
The Spread of Islam
Islam
spreads
through:
Trade
The Spread of Islam
Islam
spreads
through:
Conquest
Muslims and Conquered Peoples
 EARLY MUSLIM STATES USUALLY:
 LET CONQUERED PEOPLES KEEP THEIR
PROPERTY AND RELIGION (HAD TO PAY A TAX)
 WERE SUBJECT TO SOME RESTRICTIONS
 BUT COULD MARRY WHO THEY WANTED,
WORK JOBS THEY WANTED (EVEN AS
OFFICIALS, SCHOLARS, ADMINISTRATORS)
 JEWS OFTEN ROSE TO HIGH POSITIONS
Links to Judaism and Christianity
 Allah is the same God of Judaism and
Christianity.
 Qur’an is Word of Allah, just as Torah
and Gospels is to Jews and Christians.
 Qur’an is the final book, Muhammad the
final prophet.
 Muslims will have a ‘Day of Judgment”
Muslim View of Christians and Jews
 Muslim ancestry traced to
Abraham’s Son
 Share holy places w/ Jews,
Christians
 Christians & Jews =“People of the
Book” (religious tolerance for
them)