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Transcript
e
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control
Systems
[email protected]
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
e
“...Guidance, navigation and control (abbreviated GNC)
is a branch of engineering dealing with the design of
systems to control the movement of space vehicles...”
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Acknowledgements and Agenda
About this talk, Definition, Terms, History,
Acronyms
Guidance and Optimal Trajectories (G)
Navigation and Estimation (N)
Spacecraft Control (C)
Gez. Prof. Dr.
techn.
Klaus Janschek
Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR)
Mission Vehicle Management (MVM)
Examples of GNC Systems:
Earth Orbiting Spacecraft
Entry, Descent, and Landing
Rendezvous and Formation Flying
Dresdner
Automatisierungstechnischen
Kolloquien
Interplanetary Space Vehicles
Launchers
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
3
e
About this talk, Definition, Terms, History, Acronyms,...
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
About the speaker
Dr. Guillermo Ortega is the Head of the Guidance, Navigation and
Control Section of ESA
Space engineering activities in the GNC area in ESA
Design and implement GNC systems for space vehicles including:
interplanetary cruise, aero assistance, precision landing, ascent,
rendezvous and docking, re-entry, formation flying and drag- free
systems
Implementation of the ESA policy and requirements in the GNC area
including standardisation, and overall technology planning and
development
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
5
Definitions
GUIDANCE: establishment
of the desired path to follow
(current, i.e. in real-time and
future)
NAVIGATION:
establishment of the current
and future state
CONTROL: actions to
match the current state
(navigation) with the
foreseen path (guidance)
http://www.ecss.nl
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
6
Problem description: Position
Want to “move” a space vehicle from point “A” to point “B”
Depart
from ISS
Pd De-orbiting
Pt Touch-down
Entry and
Descent
Landing
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
7
Problem description: Attitude
Want to “slew” the axis of a space vehicle from axis “A” to axis “B”
line of sight
follow-on
maneuver
object of
interest
X
time
satellite
roll
Z
change of
objective
maneuver
yaw
Y
pitch
orbit
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
8
Simplified GNC block diagram
Mission
Data (guidance)
Noise
Positions,
Velocities,
Accelerations
SENSORS
POSITION
CONTROL
F ck
S/C
KINEMATICS
NAVIGATION
ATTITUDE
CONTROL
Tca
S/C
DYNAMICS
SENSORS
Noise
Stabilization
Data (guidance)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
Roll φ,
Yaw ψ,
Pitch ϕ
9
GNC elements
Solar panel flaps
Star tracker
Gyro
Sun sensor
Guidance,
Navigation,
and Control
Infra-red sensor
Wheels
Thrusters
Spacecraft Dynamics
and Kinematics
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
10
MVM functional diagram
Mission Vehicle Management (MVM)
Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC)
Guidance (G)
Navigation (N)
Control (C)
Failure, Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR)
Heath Monitoring (HM)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
11
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Guidance and Optimal Trajectories
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Definitions
“...GUIDANCE is the determination of the desired
path of travel (trajectory) from the vehicle's
current location to a designated target, as well as
desired changes in velocity, rotation and
acceleration for following that path..”
“...Astrodynamics is the application of celestial
mechanics to the practical problems concerning
the motion of planetary bodies and spacecraft...”
“...Celestial mechanics is the branch of
astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial
objects...”
“...TRAJECTORY is the path of a vehicle in
space...”
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
13
Guidance Engineer Work Profile
Disciplines
Interplanetary
Mission Arcs
Loitering
Propulsion
Rendezvous
Structures
Entry
Ascent
Aerodynamics
Systems
Optimization
Software design and
development
Informatics skills
Mathematical
modeling
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
Technologies
14
Johannes Kepler “3 laws” -> Year 1609
“...The orbit of every
planet is an ellipse with
the sun at a focus...”
“...A line joining a planet
and the Sun sweeps out
equal areas during equal
intervals of time...”
“...The square of the
orbital period of a planet
is directly proportional to
the cube of the semimajor axis of its orbit...”
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
15
Isaac Newton “3 laws” -> Year 1687
“...An object at rest tends to
stay at rest and that an object
in uniform motion tends to stay
in uniform motion unless acted
upon by a net external force...”
“...An applied force on an
object equals the rate of
change of its momentum with
time...”
“...For every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction...”
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
16
Albert Einstein “3 principles” -> Year 1905
“...The speed of light in
the vacuum is always
the same...”
“...Energy is equivalent
to matter...”
“...The continuos
space-time is curved
by matter and
energy...”
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
17
Orbital Geometry and Classic Elements
Semimajor axis (a): distance between the geometric center of the orbital ellipse
with the periapsis (point of closest approach to the central body), passing
through the focal
Eccentricity (e): shape of the ellipse, describing how flattened it is
Inclination (i): tilt of the ellipse with respect to the reference plane, measured at
the ascending node
Longitude of the ascending node (Ω): horizontally orients the ascending
node of the ellipse with respect to the reference frame
Argument of periapsis (ω): defines the orientation of the ellipse in the
orbital plane, as an angle measured from the ascending node to the
semimajor axis
True anomaly at epoch (ν): defines the position of the orbiting body
along the ellipse at a specific time
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
18
Orbital Elements
Apoaxis
Orbital plane
ν
Ω
ω
i
Vernal Equinox
Equatorial plane
Ascending node
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
19
Foundations of Trajectory Optimization
Is the process of designing a trajectory
that minimizes or maximizes some
measure of performance within prescribed
constraint boundaries
Boundary conditions: initial conditions
(launch pad), target orbit, return of rocket
stages, staging conditions, visibility of
ground stations, ....
Path constraints: max. dynamic pressure,
max. heat load, bending moment, max.
acceleration, constraints on flight path...
Performance Indices/Cost Functions:
maximize payload, minimize fuel
consumption, minimize cost ...
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
20
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Navigation and Estimation
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Definition
NAVIGATION is the process to find the present and future position and orbit of a
spacecraft using a series of measurements
Step 1: MEASURING
Obtaining state vectors (x, y, z, Vx, Vy, Vz,...) at timely intervals
Step 2: DETERMINING
Reconstructing the orbit based on a set of state vectors
Step 3: PREDICTING
Forecasting the imminent future state vector
Measurements taken
Orbit set computation
Orbit set prediction
Prediction
Now
Now
Now
Measures interval
Measures interval
Measures interval
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
22
Sensors: Optical
Star tracker
Provides precise 3-axis inertial attitude 10” from Lost in Space (star
pattern recognition)
Orbital position required for Earth pointing
New generation: APS (CMOS) instead of CCD
Earth sensor
Autonomous CCD-Star Tracker
Provides 2-axis attitude w.r.t. Earth
Third axis = sun sensor or gyroscoping stiffness
0.03 deg GEO (radiance sensitivity)
Scanning or static
Scanning infra-red Earth sensor
Sun sensor
Provides 2-axis attitude w.r.t. Sun
Either coarse analogue (acquisition) or fine digital
Navigation camera
Celestial body imaging and navigation algorithms
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
2-axis Digital Sun sensor
23
Sensors: Inertial, Magnetic
Magnetometer
Provides (coarse) magnetic field measurement
Light and cheap sensor for acquisition in LEO
Integrating gyros
Provides integrated angular rate
3-axis magnetometer AMR
High bandwidth and accuracy (but drift error)
Possible hybrid with optical sensor (Kalman filter)
Accelerometer
Stand-alone or within IMU
4-axis Fiber Optic Gyroscope
No space qualified European sensor
Coarse rate sensors
Provides angular rate <10 deg/h accuracy
Light and cheap sensor for de-tumble, acquisition, short term
attitude propagation
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
3-axis MEMS rate sensor
24
Estimation Techniques
Deterministic
Kalman-like estimation: Extended Kalman (EKF), Unscented Kalman (UKF),
Ensemble Kalman (EnKF)
Wiener estimator (WE)
Particle filter estimators (PF)
Method of moments (MoM)
Minimum-variance unbiased estimator (MVUE)
Stochastic
Maximum likelihood estimators (ML)
Bayes estimator (BE)
Minimum mean squared error estimator (MMSE)
Maximum a posteriori estimation (MPE)
Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
25
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Spacecraft Control
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Objectives of advanced control techniques at ESA
Ob1) Minimize the spacecraft propellant
mass or overall mass, hence reducing
mission cost
Ob2) Increase the accuracy of the control
when tracking or regulating the plant
Ob3) Increase the agility of the spacecraft
maneuvers
Ob4) Facilitate the overall design process of
the GNC subsystem, hence reducing
mission cost
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
27
Attitude control
Z
yaw: ψ
Y
LOS
α−
α+
roll: φ
Thruster 1
Pitch: θ
X
Thruster 2
α+
LOS
α−
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
28
Spacecraft Pointing Control
+X
φ
Roll
+Z
ψ
+Y
Yaw
θ
Pitch
Tdist
θref.
+
e
Control
law
Satellite
plant
θreal
Sensor
Noise
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
29
Broad Control System Categories
Disturbances
Control
Systems
Inputs
Regulators
Plant
variations
Outputs
(Constant)
Noise
Inputs
Preliminary Design Criterion:
Desired TRANSIENT RESPONSE
Tracking
Systems
Disturbances
Plant
variations
Outputs
Noise
Moving Plant
Poles to the
desired
location
Preliminary Design Criterion:
Desired RAISING TIME
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
30
Actuators:
Reaction Wheels
Momentum capacity 10-40 Nms, Torque up to 0.1Nm (momentum exchange)
Off-loading needs, microvibration issues
Control Momentum Gyroscopes
12 Nms Reaction wheel
Gyroscopic Torque: 5 to 45 Nm, provide satellite agility
Propulsion
High to low external torque capacity, used for orbit control and initial
acquisition
Efficiency Isp(s): Δm.g Isp = F.Δt = Msat.ΔV
400N main engine
Types:
Cold gas, hydrazine, bi-liquid
Electric propulsion (high Isp, low thrust)
Magnetic torquer
Magnetic torquer
Interaction with Earth magnetic field T= M x B
LEO: acquisition/safe mode and RW off-loading w/o orbit perturbation (no
force)
CMG
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
31
Disturbances
Disturbing torques strongly impact AOCS design
Minimized by Platform design trade-offs
Orbit and Platform configuration dependent:
Aerodynamic torque/force: LEO k.exp(-altitude), (typically mNm at 600km (Solar
Array) or align with velocity)
Gravity gradient torque: LEO (GEO) 1/R3 (typically mNm at 600 km or get principal
axis towards Earth)
Magnetic torque: LEO (GEO) 1/R3 (typically 10 μNm with small residual magnetic
momentum)
Solar pressure torque/force: GEO (LEO) constant (typ. 10 μNm in GEO with 2
symmetrical Solar Arrays then 50 Nms wheel can provide gyroscopic stiffness)
Generated by the Satellite:
Micro-vibrations
Propellant sloshing
Orbit control thrusters: typically 1Nm
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
32
Advanced Control Techniques classified
Multivariable Linear-Time-Invariant systems
H-infinity, Structured Singular Value (SSV),
Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT), Model-Based
Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Parameter Varying
(LPV)
Multivariable Non-Linear systems
Non-Linear Dynamics Inversion (NDI), Feedback
Linearization (FL), Sliding Mode Control (SMC),
Numerical Optimization (NO), Fuzzy Logic Control
and Neural Networks Control
Control of Distributed Parameters Systems
Human Control Systems
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
33
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Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
FDIR
Different levels of complexity:
Compromise between mission continuation and spacecraft safety
Ensure smooth automatic reconfiguration in case of H/W anomaly
Ultimately go to Sun pointing Safe Mode (mission outage but S/C
safety)
Implement or not independent sensors to monitor critical operations, in
addition to the sensors and actuators in the loop
Redundancy
Branch A and branch B or single string
Cross strapping between units to combine A and B units
At unit level, or only electronics
example: 4 Reaction Wheels in a skewed configuration
3 out of 4: 3 RW’s being sufficient for 3-axis torque generation
False alarm risks
tuning of the monitoring threshold and time constant to avoid false alarm
Reliability
Compute probability of success over the required lifetime, based on H/W
units MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
35
Caution and Warning
Performance factors to taken into
account: controllability, stability,
algorithm speed, computational
loads, etc
Predefined yellow (caution) and red
tubes (warning) around the nominal
path have been established to mean
the controllability of the system
around the pre-established optimal
trajectory.
In general, the FDIR system
strategies shall be robust to the flight
conditions at specific Mach numbers
and dynamic pressures chosen by
the control engineer along the
complete flight path
Real trajectory
Caution tube
Nominal trajectory
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
Warning tube
36
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Mission Vehicle Management
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Role of GNC analyst in a space project
Identify relevant requirements, needs, and
constraints
Trade-off alternative mission scenarios to fulfill
requirements
Analyze system budgets
Define a mission concept
Sketch a mission time-line
Share results and produce report
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
38
Space Project Phases
Production-ground
qualification testing
Mission needs
identification
Detailed
definition
Feasibility
Utilization
Preliminary
definition
0
A
B
ECSS-E-10
Disposal
C
D
E
F
http://www.ecss.nl
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
39
Spacecraft MVM Life Cycle (zoomed)
Orbit design,
Equipment design,
Modes design
Control laws generation
Modes transition
Failure recovery
Interactive
simulations &
animations for
performance
verification
MVM
Design
Mission requirements
and performances
Analysis:
Time & Frequency
domains and stability
Testing
on
ground
Computer code
generation
Real processing on
flight
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
40
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Earth Orbiting Spacecraft
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Telecommunications
~0.12° for absolute pointing (half cone, at antenna
level)
Mission Orbit type
minimization of mission outage (back up modes
before safe mode)
Large solar arrays (flexible modes 0.01 Hz), transfer
GTO to GEO
Long lifetime (typ. 15 years) and harsh environment
(radiations)
Artemis
Geostationary
SMARTOLEV
Geostationary
EDRS
Geostationary
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
42
Scientific satellites
from 0.1° to <1 milliarcsec for
absolute pointing
Cutting edge missions with very
specific requirements
70.000 Km
1.000 Km
instrument as AOCS sensor
Variety of orbits: LEO, GEO,
Lagrange point L2
Mission
Orbit type
XMM
Highly elliptical
INTEGRAL
Highly elliptical
Earth limb sensor
Fine Sun sensor
16 Thrusters
Star tracker
AOCS
Quadrant star sensor
3-axis rate gyros
2 Sun acquisition sensors
4 Control wheels
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
43
Observing the Earth
from 0.1° to 0.01° for absolute pointing
Angular rate stability for image acquisition: typical
0.001 °/s, agility
on-ground post-processing (image rectification and
localization)
LEO: eclipse and intermittent link with Control Centre
Mission
Orbit type
Cryosat
Highly
elliptical
Aeolus
Circular, Sun
Synchornous
Goce
Circular
Sentinel
Circular
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
44
Navigation
~0.2° for absolute pointing
Yaw steering due to non sun synchronous orbit
MEO: high level of radiations
Mission
Orbit type
Galileo
Constellation,
circular
EGNOS
Geostationary
EDRS
Geostationary
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
45
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Entry, Descent, and Landing
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
EDL Missions and GNC
Type of entry:
Ballistic:
Normally spin stabilized to
keep desired attitude
ARD (ESA)
No active control (no thrusters)
Controlled
Using thrusters and/or aerodynamics surfaces
Huygens (ESA)
GNC design based on mission
features, constraints, and
requirements
IXV (ESA)
X-38 (ESA and NASA)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
47
EDL Mission Sequence and Problem Description
Vehicle features
De-orbit
Initial boundary constraints
Entry gate
Path constraints
Path constraints
Entry
TAEM
Descent
Mars
environment
conditions
Landing point
Landing
Final boundary constraints
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
48
Definitions
Trajectory optimization of entry
trajectories
Ballistic or controlled
Foot prints and landing ellipses
Equilibrium glide
Path constraints and boundary
constraints
maximum dynamic pressure
maximum heat-flux
maximum acceleration
angle of attack (Mach-dependent)
control reserve (equilibrium glide)
Performance indices:
minimum heat-load
maximum safety
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
49
Crew Rescue Vehicle
Development of the
control laws for
automatic re-entry
vehicle type CRV
trajectory control
Alt.
120 Km
Roll maneuver
90 Km
End of RCS; start
rudder
attitude control
30 Km
Control target
Easy control in all
possible regions of
the flight
Cut-down cost for
GNC adjustment to
new lading sites
10 Km
Parachute
deployment
3 Km
400 s
800 s
GPS SPS or PPS
Thruster
activation
FADS
3-axis
accelerometer
1600 s Time
GNC
3-axis rate gyro
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
Flaps, rudder
deflections
Parachute
controls
50
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Rendezvous and Formation
Flying
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Rendezvous Missions and GNC
Designed to approach two
spacecraft and mate them
Circular or elliptical rendezvous
Circular rendezvous governed
by the Clohessy-Wiltshire
equations. Elliptical much
difficult
HTV (JAXA)
Uses a special coordinate
system: Local Vertical Local
Horizontal
Progress (Rosscosmos)
Need a high accurate sensing
suite
Need spacial propulsion systems
to accurate position and slew the
vehicle
ATV (ESA)
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
52
Automatic Transfer Vehicle
Development of the control
laws for automatic
rendezvous and docking of
servicing vehicles:
ISS docking port target
Flight Direction
trajectory control
V-bar
7000 m
attitude control
Control target
Soft docking and
structural latching
operations
R-bar
2000 m
More performance in the
follow-up of the target
docking port of the station
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
S1
S0
Local Vertical Local
Horizontal coordinate
system
53
Comparisons: ATV, Progress, Apollo
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
54
ATV rendezvous with ISS
ISS docking port target
S5 S3
S4
500 m
Flight Direction
S2
2500 m
6000 m
V-bar
Local
Vertical
Local
Horizontal
coordinate
system
ATV
2000 m
S1
S0
[-20000 m, 0 m, 10000 m]
R-bar
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
55
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Interplanetary Space Vehicles
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
Interplanetary Vehicles and GNC
Fly-by between planets
Mid-course correction maneuvers
Optimal pointing of antennae to ground
stations
Venus Express
Station keeping in Lagrangian points
Rosetta
Mars Express
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
57
Missions Examples
High pointing accuracy on attitude stabilization
Agility on attitude slew
Mission
Orbit type
ExoMars
Ascent, loitering,
interplanetary, entry
Mars Sample
Return
Ascent, loitering,
interplanetary, entry,
rendezvous
Moon
Lander
Ascent, loitering,
interplanetary, entry,
rendezvous
Human
Mission
to Mars
Ascent, loitering,
interplanetary, entry,
rendezvous
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
58
Missions Examples
Very high accuracy in terms of attitude stabilization
and control (case of LISA)
Hard survival environment for vehicles very closed
to the Sun (case of SOLO)
Very long periods of trip and quick and frequent
maneuvers coupling attitude and trajectory
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
59
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Launchers
ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Section
GNC for launchers
Trajectory optimization of nominal ascent trajectories
Performance maps of rockets
Optimization of non-nominal trajectories: missionization
Mission
Nominal Splash down of stages
Stages fragmentation analysis and splash down locations
Ariane-5
Soyuz
Impact Z9
Vega
Heavy Lift
Launcher
Impact Z23
Impact P80
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
61
ESA rocket family
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
62
GNC of a Small Rocket
KeyNote: Dresdner Automatisierungstechnischen Kolloquien. Monday 27th January 2014 - ESA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Systems
63
Thank you for your attention
esa.int
Problems in Space Engineering
ESA UNCLASSIFIED – For Official Use
64