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Chapter 14 Drugs: Use, Misuse, and Abuse Lecture Outline Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. written by Bridget Melton, Georgia Southern University Objectives • Discuss the six categories of drugs and their routes of administration. • Discuss the use of illicit drugs among college students. • Discuss the use and abuse of controlled substances, including cocaine, amphetamines, marijuana, opioids, hallucinogens, designer drugs, inhalants, and steroids. • Profile illicit drug use in the United States, including who uses illicit drugs, their financial impact, and their impact on college campuses and the workplace. • Review problems relating to the misuse and abuse of prescription drugs. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Drug Dynamics • Drugs work because they physically resemble chemicals produced naturally in the body. • In the receptor site theory, drugs bind to specific receptor sites in the body. • Psychoactive drugs can alter mood or behavior, acting on neurotransmitters in the brain. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. How the Body Metabolizes Drugs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Action of Cocaine at Dopamine Receptors in the Brain Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Types of Drugs • Prescription • Over the counter • Recreational • Herbal • Illicit • Commercial Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Routes of Administration of Drugs • Oral ingestion • Injection • Intravenous • Intramuscular • Subcutaneous • Inhalation • Inunction • Suppositories Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Using, Misusing, and Abusing Drugs • A drug is a chemical substance that affects the way you feel and function. • Drug misuse is the use of a drug for a purpose for which it was not intended. • Drug abuse is the excessive use of drugs. • Addiction is the habitual reliance on a substance or behavior to produce a desired mood. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Illicit Drugs • Illicit drugs are those drugs that are illegal to possess, produce, or sell. • Factors putting college students at risk for using drugs • Genetics and family history • Parental attitudes and behavior • Substance use in high school • Positive expectations • Mental health problems • Sorority and fraternity membership Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: Campus Drug Dealers | Campus Drug Dealers Discussion Questions 1. Do you believe the statistics about heavy drug use and binge drinking on campus? 2. Why do you think fraternities play a large role in the drug trade? Would this type of drug ring be successful in a different format on campus? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Avoidance of Illegal Drugs • Factors influencing a student to avoid drug use • Religion and spirituality • Student engagement (involvement in learning) • College athletics • Preventing drug use and abuse on campus • Changing student expectations of college partying • Engaging parents about substance use • Identifying high-risk students • Providing treatment programs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Reasons Why College Students Use Illicit Drugs or Controlled Prescription Drugs Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Controlled Substances • The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-513) created categories for both prescription and illegal substances. • Schedule I drugs have the highest potential for abuse and no medicinal purpose. • Schedule II, III, IV, and V drugs have known and accepted medical purposes, but many present a serious threat to health when misused or abused. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Activity Break: Drug Classifications • Stimulants • Marijuana • Opiates • Hallucinogens • Designer drugs or club drugs • Inhalants • Steroids Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulants • A stimulant is a drug that increases activity of the central nervous system. • Effects • Increased activity • Anxiety • Agitation • Commonly used stimulants • Cocaine • Amphetamines • Methamphetamine Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulants: Cocaine • Cocaine is a white powder made from coca shrub leaves. • Methods of cocaine use • Snorting • Smoking (freebasing) • Injection • Physical effects • Euphoria • Increased heart rate and blood pressure • Loss of appetite • Convulsions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Cocaine Addiction • Cocaine addicts suffer both physiological damage and disruption in lifestyle. • Cocaine and pregnancy • Increased chance of miscarriage • Babies exposed to cocaine in utero may be physically damaged, premature, or have learning and cognitive deficits. • Treatment for addiction • Psychiatric counseling • 12-step programs • New vaccine in development Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ups and Downs of a Typical Dose of Cocaine Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Stimulants: Amphetamines • Amphetamines are also called bennies, dex, meth, speed, cross tops, uppers, ice. • Adderall and Ritalin are used for medical purposes. • Recently, these drugs have become popular on college campuses (all-nighters). • Methamphetamine is powerfully addicting and easily made using over-the-counter drugs. • Small doses increase alertness and decrease appetite. • Large doses can lead to convulsions, hallucinations, and death. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Methamphetamine Users Often Damage Their Teeth Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Methamphetamine Use and Society • Methamphetamine can be snorted, injected, smoked, or ingested orally. • Users experience tolerance immediately, making meth a highly addictive drug. • Meth abuse is a serious problem in the United States. • Many states now require retailers to place cold and allergy medications behind the counter. • Production yields toxic waste. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: Eliminating Meth | Eliminating Meth Discussion Questions 1. Do you find the anti-meth ads effective? 2. Are there better ideas to curb meth use than with shock ads? 3. Could this type of ad be effective against other drugs? What might be the drawbacks to using the same format? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Marijuana • Active ingredient • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive substance in marijuana. • Physical effects • dilation of blood vessels in the eyes, dry mouth, increased appetite, lowered blood pressure, mild muscular weakness • severe anxiety, panic, paranoia, and psychosis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Depressants: Opiates • Powerful depressant of the central nervous system • Also called narcotics • Derived from opium, the dark, resinous substance made from the juice of the opium poppy • Derivatives: morphine, codeine • Synthetic opiates: Percodan, Demerol, and Dilaudid • OxyContin is another powerful opiate. • Heroin is highly addictive. • Endorphins (opiate-like substances) are manufactured in the body and have many receptor sites. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Treatment for Heroin Addiction • Most treatment programs for heroin addiction are not very successful. • Distinct pattern of withdrawal • Crave another dose 4 to 6 hours after initial dose • Sleep disturbance, irritability, and muscle tremors occur 12 hours after initial dose. • Nausea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, and diarrhea occur 24 to 72 hours after initial dose. • Methadone is a synthetic narcotic that blocks the effects of opiate withdrawal. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates • A sedative drug promotes mental calmness and reduces anxiety, while a hypnotic drug promotes sleep or drowsiness. • Depress the central nervous system • Commonly prescribed for tension, muscular strain, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, and to treat alcohol withdrawal Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallucinogens • Psychedelics means “mind manifesting.” • Major receptor sites are in the reticular formation, located in the brain stem; when a hallucinogen reaches this site, messages become scrambled. • Synesthesia occurs when sensory messages are mixed (one smells colors or hears tastes). Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallucinogens (cont.) • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) • Mescaline is derived from peyote cactus. • Psilocybinis is also known as a “magic mushroom”. • PCP (phencyclidine) is a synthetic substance originally developed as a dissociative anesthetic. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hallucinogens: LSD • LSD is the most notorious. • Physiological effects include increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure and temperature, muscle tremors, gooseflesh, headaches, and mild nausea. • Psychological effects include euphoria, dysphoria (sense of foreboding), shortened attention span, introspection, and distortions of perceptions. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Designer Drugs • Collectively known as “club drugs” • Ecstasy • GHB • Special K • Rohypnol • Effects: hallucinations, paranoia, amnesia, death Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Inhalants • Chemicals that produce vapors capable of causing hallucinations and creating intoxicating and euphoric effects • Some agents are organic solvent by-products of the distillation of petroleum products • Rubber cement, model glue, paint thinner, lighter fluid, varnish, wax, and gasoline Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Steroids • Anabolic steroids are artificial forms of the male hormone testosterone. • They include ergogenic drugs, which are substances that enhance athletic performance. • Two forms of anabolic steroids • Injectable solutions • Pills • Effects: mood swings, acne, liver tumors, elevated cholesterol levels, hypertension, kidney disease • Anabolic Steroids Control Act of 1990 – Schedule III drug Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. ABC News Video: The Mitchell Report | The Mitchell Report on Steroids in Baseball Discussion Questions 1. What sort of long-term effects can taking performanceenhancing drugs have on the muscles and the rest of the body? What about psychological and social consequences? 2. Should professional athletes who use performanceenhancing drugs be punished? 3. Would it be acceptable to use performance- enhancing drugs if other athletes are doing the same thing? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Prescription Drug Abuse • As many as 15.2 million Americans over 12 years old report abusing controlled prescription drugs in 1 year. • Abuse is common among teenagers. • Doctor shopping: abusers visit several doctors to obtain multiple prescriptions • On college campuses • Increase in prescription drug use, exceeding all other drugs but marijuana • Students believe they can accomplish more with help from drugs such as Adderall and Ritalin. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Illegal Drug Use in the United States • Cost of illegal drug use in the United States in 2002 was $180.9 billion. • Estimate includes costs associated with substance abuse treatment and prevention, health care, reduced job productivity and lost earnings, and social consequences such as crime and welfare. • Roughly half of the expenditures goes toward combating crime related to illegal drugs. • The highest rates of illicit drug use among workers occur in the food preparation, food service, bartending, construction, and transportation and material-moving industries. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Solutions to the Problem • Educating young people • Stricter border surveillance • Longer prison sentences • Increased government spending on prevention • Enforcing antidrug laws • More research Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.