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Chapter 2 Study Guide Energy, Life, and the Biosphere Organisms and Energy p. 52-56 Vocabulary: Chemical Energy: * Free Energy: Nutrients: * Heterotrophs: * Autotrophs: Photosynthesis: Chemosynthesis: Cell Respiration: Producers: Consumers: * Decomposers: * Food Web: Abiotic: Biotic: Ecosystem: Habitats: Biosphere: Concepts to Know: 1. What are the nine characteristics of a Living Organism? 2. What is the relationship between energy and nutrients in an organism? 3. What is the difference between heterotrophs and autotrophs and give examples of each? 4. Describe two processes by which autotrophs get energy from the environment. Energy Flow p. 58-60 Vocabulary: First law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy): Second Law of thermodynamics (Entropy): Concepts to know: 1. How do organisms remain highly organized despite the universal tendency toward entropy (disorder)? 2. What happens to a system as entropy increases? Give an example 3. How are free energy and entropy related? 4. What would happen to an ecosystem if the decomposers were eliminated? Metabolism and Energy Transfer p. 61-66 Vocabulary: * Enzymes: Catalysts: Active Site: Substrate: Metabolism: Synthesis: Decomposition: Oxidation: ATP: ADP: Concepts to know: 1. How do enzymes help to accelerate reactions? How does temperature affect enzymes? 2. Compare and contrast synthesis and decomposition? 3. Describe ATP’s role in the cell. 4. Describe several specific ways in which cells use the energy supplied by ATP 5. Draw, label, and give a written explanation for how gylcogen is built. Digestion p. 67-73 Vocabulary: Digestion: * Physical Digestion: Chemical Digestion: Extracellular Digestion: Intracellular Digestion: Ingestion: Saliva: Epiglottis: Peristalsis: Feces: Salivary Amylase: Gastrin: Pepsin: Pepsinogen: Trypsin: Bile: Lipase: Villi: Capillaries: Concepts to Know: 1. Trace the movement of food you at for breakfast through the human digestive tract. 2. Where does the digestion of carbohydrates occur? What enzyme is involved? 3. Describe how proteins and fats are digested in the small intestine. 4. How and Why does pH shift from acid to basic as food leaves the stomach and enters the small intestine? 5. Explain the role of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas in digestion. 6. Where is water removed from food and absorbed back into the body? 7. Describe the relationship between pepsin and pepsinogen.