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THE EIGHTEEN NATIONAL STANDARDS and Six essential elements
The geographically informed person knows and understands...
Essential Element I. THE WORLD IN SPATIAL TERMS
Standard 1. How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and
report information from a spatial perspective.
Standard 2. How to use mental maps to organize information about people, places, and environments in a spatial
context.
Standard 3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.
Essential Element II. PLACES AND REGIONS
Standard 4. The physical and human characteristics of places.
Standard 5. That people create regions to interpret Earth's complexity.
Standard 6. How culture and experience influence people's perceptions of places and regions.
Essential Element III. PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
Standard 7. The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth's surface.
Standard 8. The characteristics and spatial distribution of ecosystems on Earth's surface.
Essential Element IV. HUMAN SYSTEMS
Standard 9. The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth's surface.
Standard 10. The characteristics, distribution, and complexity of Earth's cultural mosaics.
Standard 11. The patterns and networks of economic interdependence on Earth's surface.
Standard 12. The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement.
Standard 13. How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth's
surface.
Standard 14. How human actions modify the physical environment.
Essential Element V. ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY
Standard 15. How physical systems affect human systems.
Standard 16. The changes that occur in the meaning, use, distribution, and importance of resources.
Essential Element VI. THE USES OF GEOGRAPHY
Standard 17. How to apply geography to interpret he past.
Standard 18. How to apply geography to interpret the present and plan for the future.
Warm up Topics
• Celebrations: What kinds of celebrations are important
in your family? In the United States?
• Greetings: How do you generally greet people you don’t
know? People you do know?
• Beliefs about hospitality: How do you show hospitality in
your community? In your school? In your home?
• The role of the family: Is there a particular age at which
you celebrate an important event in your life with your
family or community?
• Attitudes about personal space and privacy: How
important do you feel it is to have personal space and
privacy?
What is Culture?
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Culture has to do with values and beliefs.
Culture involves customs and traditions.
Culture is collective, shared by a group.
Everyone has a culture.
Culture is learned.
Culture influences and shapes behavior.
Culture is transmitted from generation to generation.
Culture is often unconscious; people are
sometimes not aware of how their behaviors and
attitudes have been shaped by their culture.
• People in all cultures have common needs.
Culture
A system of beliefs, values, and
assumptions about life that guide
behavior and are shaped by a group of
people. It includes customs, language, and
material artifacts. These are transmitted
from generation to generation rarely with
explicit instructions.
WHY IS CULTURE SOMETIMES COMPARED TO AN ICEBERG?
1. Facial expressions
2. Religious beliefs
YOU CAN SEE
3. Foods
4. Eating habits
5. Paintings
YOU CAN’T SEE
6. Concept of self
7. Work ethic
8. Styles of dress
9. Literature
10. Concept of fairness
11. Childraising beliefs
Seven Elements of Culture: GRACE'S LANGUAGE
Government
Government
provides for the common needs of
protection, order, and safety
Religion
Religion
answers
the basic questions about the
meaning and purpose of life
Arts
Arts
dance,
drama, literature, music and
visual arts of a culture
Customs and Traditions
Economy
Economy
how people use limited resources
to satisfy unlimited wants
Customs &
accepted rules of behaviors and tradTraditions
itional practices of a culture
Social Organization
Social
how people and places are divided into
Organization
smaller, more manageable ones
Language
the way thoughts, feelings, and knowledge
are passed on
Language
overnment: rule or authority over a country, state, or town; provides for the
common needs of protection, order, and safety
Voting in the November 1989 election to a constituent assembly in Namibia, as the UN
trust territory moved towards independence from South African rule the following
year.
eligion: system of faith and worship
Muslims performing salah (Islamic prayer)
rts: creative and literary expressions of a culture; examples are
books, painting, architecture, dance, music
The Maori culture has big influence on sport, too. The Haka dance became part of the
ceremonial beginning of rugby matches. What is the origin of the dance?
ustoms & Traditions: accepted way of acting; a habit or practice
that is kept up over a long period of time
In the United States, single female wedding guests take part in the bouquet toss as a
wedding tradition. Capturing the bridal bouquet toss by the bride is considered to
generate good luck in getting engaged next.
conomy: how people use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants
ocial Organization: how people are divided into smaller, more manageable groups
Bridegroom Milton Mbhele,
with his four brides, left to
right, Happiness, Thobile,
Simangele, and Zanele at
their wedding in Weenen,
near Ladysmith, South Africa,
Saturday, Sept. 26, 2009.
South African law recognizes
traditional polygamous
marriages, even President
Jacob Zuma has three wives.
Yet while polygamy remains
common among several
tribes including the Zulus and
Swazis, simultaneous
weddings are rare.
anguage: the way the people of a certain culture communicate with each other
and other cultures.
Women reading text message from a cellphone! As remote as their village is and as basic
as their way of life is, the tribal people in this region of Vietnam apparently embraced the
use of modern technology.
overnment: rule or authority over a country, state, or town; provides for the
common needs of protection, order, and safety
eligion: system of faith and worship
rts: creative and literary expressions of a culture; examples are books, painting,
architecture, dance, music
ustoms & Traditions: accepted way of acting; a habit or practice that is kept up over
a long period of time
conomy: how people use limited resources to satisfy unlimited wants
ocial Organization: how people are divided into smaller, more manageable groups
anguage: the way the people of a certain culture communicate with each other and
other cultures