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Transcript
Hinduism
Beginnings
•Evolved over centuries
•Polytheistic
•Deity - god
•Brahman – universal spirit
People began to ask…
•Why are some people born into a life
or ease while others are born into a
life of poverty?
•What happens to people when they
die?
•How should we live our lives before
we die?
Hinduism
•Main religion of India today
•Share certain beliefs, values, or
traditions
•Beliefs and celebrations may vary
based on region
•837 million Hindus - worldwide
Hinduism - Beliefs
•Search for truth
•Most believe gods help to achieve
goals
•Same gods as family or caste
Polytheism
•Belief in more than one god
•Gods are incarnate of Brahman
•Believe everything in the world
is part of Brahman
Atman
•Soul
•Holds person’s personality
Goal of Christians
To become “free” of sin and
be united with God
Hindu Goal
•Unite the soul with Brahman
•Soul will eventually join Brahman
because the world is viewed as an
illusion (maya)
•Must see through the illusion
•Brahman is the only reality
3 Ways to achieve goal…
•Devotion
•Wisdom
•Right Actions
Reincarnation
•Hard to see through illusion
•Takes several lifetimes
•The belief in the rebirth of the
soul into another body
•Form of body depends on ….
Karma
•The sum/effects that good and
bad actions have on a person’s
soul
•Evil/bad actions = bad karma =
reborn in lower caste or life
form
• Got up late
• Did not make bed
• Gripped about breakfast
• Sassy to mom
• Did not do history homework
• Helped student pick up books
• Tripped student walking by
• Late to class
• Offered to help pass out papers
-1
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-1
+1
-1
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+1
-5
Karma
•Good karma brings salvation
•Affects present and future lives
Dharma
•Spiritual duties/laws that each
person should fulfill
•Led to preservation of the caste
system
•It required and taught accepting
one’s place in life
Ahimsa
•Belief in nonviolence
•Many did not kill living things
Moksha
•Salvation; liberation
•Freedom from life’s worries and
cycle of rebirth
3 Main Gods
•Brahma – Creator
•Vishnu – Preserver
•Shiva – Destroyer
Brahma
• The Creator
• Vehicle: swan
• has 4 heads, 4 arms, and a
reddish complexion
• not commonly worshipped
• not to be confused with
Brahman (the ground of all
being) or the Brahmin
(priestly caste)
Vishnu
• The Preserver
• Vehicle: garuda (bird)
• has 4 arms, a blueish
complexion, and rests on a
snake
• was incarnated (born as an
animal or human) nine
times with one more still to
come
Avatar
•God who descends to earth
•Incarnation of a deity who
comes to earth in human or
animal form
Anti-clockwise from left
top corner: Matsya,
Kurma, Varaha,
Narasimha, Vamana,
Parshurama, Rama,
Krishna, Buddha, Kalki
surround Vishnu
Shiva
•
•
•
•
Shiva
The Destroyer / Transformer
Vehicle: bull
has matted hair, a third eye,
a blue throat and a trident in
his hand
Saraswati
• Goddess of knowledge,
music, and the arts
• Vehicle: swan
• wife of Brahma
• sits on a white lotus
playing a veena
Parvati
• The Divine Mother
• Vehicle: lion
• the reincarnation of Shiva's
first wife
• has many forms, such as the
popular Durga and Kali;
often shown together with
Saraswati and Lakshmi as the
tridevi ('triple goddess')
Ganesh
• God of the intellect and
the remover of obstacles
• Vehicle: mouse
• son of Shiva & Parvati
• has an elephant's head
Murugan
•
•
•
•
God of war
Vehicle: peacock
son of Shiva & Parvati
also known as Skanda
Durga
• A fiercer form of
Parvati
• Vehicle: tiger
• has ten arms holding
many weapons
Kali
• Goddess of time and
death
• Vehicle: donkey
• usually portrayed as
dark and violent
Rama
• Rama
• The 7th avatar
(incarnation) of Vishnu
• the central figure in the
epic story Ramayana
Krishna
• Krishna
• The 8th avatar
(incarnation) of Vishnu
• usually portrayed as a
child and a prankster;
often shown playing the
flute
Hanuman
• an ape-like god known
for assisting Rama
• Worshipped as a symbol
of physical strength,
perseverance and
devotion
Surya
• God of the Sun
• pulled on a chariot by
horses
Diw(v)ali
•Oct. / Nov. – lunar calendar
•Festival of lights – light the path
for Lakshmi
th
•4 day – visit friends/family;
exchange gifts
Not all followed
Hinduism…
Many looked to new
religious ideas!